Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1063
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Kashikura K - - 2000
The effect hyperoxia had on the hemodynamic response to visual stimulation (black and white checkerboard alternating at a frequency of 8 Hz) of human VI was investigated using a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast with an fMRI technique. Data were acquired with a 5 on/5 off block paradigm using single-shot ...
Katayama K - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to elucidate 1) the effects of endurance exercise training during hypoxia or normoxia and of detraining on ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to progressive isocapnic hypoxia and 2) whether the change in the cardiovascular response to hypoxia is correlated to changes in the hypoxic ventilatory ...
Grünig E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This prospective single-blinded study was performed to quantitate noninvasive pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) responses to prolonged acute hypoxia and normoxic exercise. BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-induced excessive rise in pulmonary artery pressure is a key factor in high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). We hypothesized that subjects susceptible to HAPE (HAPE-S) have increased ...
Parolin M L - - 2000
The present study examined the acute effects of hypoxia on the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism at rest and during 15 min of submaximal exercise. Subjects exercised on two occasions for 15 min at 55% of their normoxic maximal oxygen uptake while breathing 11% O(2) (hypoxia) or room air (normoxia). ...
Krumschnabel G - - 2000
The oxygen-dependence of cellular energetics was investigated in hepatocytes from goldfish Carassius auratus (anoxia-tolerant) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (anoxia-intolerant). In goldfish hepatocytes, an approximately 50 % reduction in the rate of oxygen consumption was observed in response to both acute and prolonged hypoxia, the latter treatment shifting the threshold ...
Watt M - - 2000
Calcium antagonists are known to reduce the incidence of high-altitude pulmonary oedema, but the mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the calcium antagonist, amlodipine, on cardiac and respiratory responses in normoxia and hypoxia. Fourteen normal subjects aged 31+/-4 yrs who had climbed ...
Radell P J - - 2000
Diaphragm fatigue may contribute to respiratory failure. (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a useful tool to assess energetic changes within the diaphragm during fatigue, as indicated by P(i) accumulation and phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion. We hypothesized that loaded breathing during hypoxia would lead to diaphragm fatigue and inadequate aerobic metabolism. Seven ...
Iturriaga R - - 2000
It has been proposed that nitric oxide (NO) is an inhibitory modulator of carotid body (CB) chemoreception to hypoxia. However, the effects of NO gas on carotid chemoreception have not been tested yet. The role played by NO has been revealed by the use of pharmacological tools (i.e., NO donors ...
Casas M - - 2000
The physiological responses to short-term intermittent exposure to hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber were evaluated. The exposure to hypoxia was compatible with normal daily activity. The ability of the hypoxia program to induce hematological and ventilatory adaptations leading to altitude acclimation and to improve physical performance capacity was tested. Six ...
Omata N - - 2000
Dynamic changes in the regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation or ischemia/reperfusion were investigated with a positron autoradiography technique. Fresh rat brain slices were incubated with [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 degrees C, and serial two-dimensional time-resolved images of [18F]FDG uptake in the slices were ...
Maruyama R - - 2000
It has been hypothesized that respiratory "gain" to hypoxic stimulus is not depressed in hypothermic animals though ventilation and that metabolic O(2) demand (Vo(2)) decreases with reduction in body temperature. The present study addressed this hypothesis by quantitative analysis of ventilatory and carotid chemoreceptor responsiveness to hypoxia during induced hypothermia ...
Mortola J P - - 2000
Because the circadian rhythms of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and body temperature (T(b)) could be contributed to by differences in thermogenesis and because hypoxia depresses thermogenesis in its various forms, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia blunts the normal daily oscillations in VO(2) and T(b). Adult rats were instrumented for measurements ...
Moss T J - - 2000
We have examined the effects of exposure to chronic maternal anemia, throughout the final one-third of gestation, on postnatal ventilatory and arousal responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and combined hypoxia-hypercapnia in sleeping lambs. While resting quietly awake, lambs from anemic ewes had higher arterial PCO(2) levels than control animals during the ...
Ben-Haim G - - 2000
Activation of calcium sensitive (K(ca)) K channels and cAMP contribute to pial artery dilation observed during a 10-min exposure to hypoxia. Recent studies show that pial dilation during a 20- or 40-min hypoxic exposure was less than that observed during a 5- or 10-min exposure indicating that stimulus duration determines ...
Barros R C - - 2000
No reports are available about the role of central adenosine in the respiratory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxia in conscious rats. We therefore measured ventilation (VE) and body temperature (Tb) before and after intracerebroventricular injection of saline or aminophylline (adenosine antagonist), followed by a 30-min period of hypoxia exposure. Aminophylline ...
Seiler K S - - 2000
The objective of this study was to determine the interaction between duration of myocardial hypoxia and presence of exogenous glutathione (GSH) on functional recovery upon subsequent reoxygenation. Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 20, 30, 40, or 50 min hypoxia (HYP), which resulted in a progressive decline in the ...
Powell F L - - 2000
Intermittent hypoxia (IH), or periodic exposure to hypoxia interrupted by return to normoxia or less hypoxic conditions, occurs in many circumstances. In high altitude mountaineering, IH is used to optimize acclimatization although laboratory studies have not generally revealed physiologically significant benefits. IH enhances athletic performance at sea level if blood ...
Roberts D - - 2000
This study examined exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH) and plasma volume contraction as modulators of serum erythropoietin (Epo) production. Five athletes cycled for 3 min at supra-maximal power outputs, at each of two different elevations (1,000 m and 2,100 m). Five subjects were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (F(I)O(2)=0.159), seven subjects underwent plasmapheresis ...
Lahiri S - - 2000
The ventilatory response to hypoxia is complex. First contact with hypoxia causes an increase in ventilation within seconds that reaches full intensity within minutes because of an increase in carotid sinus nerve (CSN) input to the brain stem. With continued exposure, ventilation increases further over days (ventilatory acclimatization). Initially, it ...
Gargaglioni L H - - 2000
Nucleus isthmi (NI) is a mesencephalic structure of the amphibian brain that has recently been reported to participate in CO2-ventilatory response. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that NI is also involved in hypoxia-induced hyperventilation and in the breathing pattern of the toad Bufo paracnemis. Pulmonary ventilation ...
Hou P C - - 1999
Effects of hypoxia on resting oxygen consumption (MO2), lung ventilation, and heart rate at different ambient PO2 were compared between lowland and high altitude populations of the toad, Bufo bankorensis. Resting MO2 decreased significantly in mild hypoxia (PO2 = 120 mm Hg) at 10 degrees C and in moderate hypoxia ...
Oppert M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation and hypoxia are frequently associated, but their interaction is poorly understood. In vitro studies have shown that hypoxia stimulates the genes of acute phase proteins (APP) and cytokines known to induce APP. We decided to determine kinetics and potential determinants of an acute phase response after cardiac arrest ...
Richardson R S - - 1999
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in extracellular matrix changes and endothelial cell proliferation, both of which are precursors to new capillary growth. Angiogenesis is a vital adaptation to exercise training, and the exercise-induced reduction in intracellular PO2 has been proposed as a stimulus for this process. Thus we ...
Pedersen M E - - 1999
1. Under conditions of both euoxia and hypoxia, it is generally accepted that the ventilatory response to CO2 has both rapid (peripheral chemoreflex) and slow (central chemoreflex) components. However, under conditions of hyperoxia, it is unclear in humans whether the fast component is completely abolished or merely attenuated in magnitude. ...
Manukhina E B - - 1999
Adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia is known to exert multiple protective effects related with nitric oxide (NO). However the effect of adaptation to hypoxia on NO metabolism has remained unclear in many respects. In the present work we studied the interrelation between NO production and storage in the process of adaptation ...
Williams J A - - 1999
Using 1-(4-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine hydrochloride (GYKI 52466), we tested the hypothesis that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors are important controllers of cerebral O2 supply/consumption balance in newborn piglets during both normoxia and hypoxia. Twenty-seven 2- to 7-day-old piglets were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and were divided into four groups: 1) normoxia (n = ...
Zeng Y - - 1999
We show here that invertase gene expression and the invertase-sucrose (Suc) synthase ratio decrease abruptly in response to low oxygen in maize root tips. In addition to aiding in the conservation of carbon and possibly ATP, this response has the potential to directly affect sugar signaling relative to carbon flux. ...
Danielsen E H - - 1999
We measured 6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) uptake and metabolism in the brain of 4-month-old female pigs (n = 8) using a high-resolution positron emission tomograph (PET) in 3D mode. The mean net blood-brain clearance of FDOPA (K(i)(D)) to striatum was 0.011 ml g(-1) min(-1). Correcting for the elimination of decarboxylated metabolites from ...
van der Hoeven M A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) values, which reflect the residual oxygen after tissue oxygen extraction, would be similar during hypoxic and anemic hypoxia. DESIGN: SvO2 values, oxygen delivery, arterial oxygen content, and fractional oxygen extraction were compared, and critical values were determined based on ...
Kutzsche S - - 1999
Bioelectric sensors for continuous registration of nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in tissues provide a new tool for invasive measurement of this gaseous molecule. This study sought to validate cerebral NO measurements using an amperiometric sensor. A series of experiments in 1- to 3-day-old piglets was carried out to study the ...
Kurdi J - - 1999
1 To investigate the effect of moderate hypoxia alone or combined with an inflammatory reaction or after 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) pre-treatment on cytochrome P450 (P450), conscious rabbits were exposed for 24 h to a fractional concentration of inspired O2 of 10% (mean PaO2 of 34 mmHg). Hypoxia decreased theophylline metabolic clearance ...
Mortola J P - - 1999
The most immediate response to acute hypoxia in newborn mammals is hyperventilation, like in the adult. However. hyperventilation is often achieved by a reduction in metabolic rate (hypometabolism), rather than by an increase in ventilation (hyperpnea). This response is a regulated phenomenon largely based on inhibition of thermogenesis in all ...
Pandit J J - - 1999
We have determined the influence of 0.1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane on the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia (AHVR), hypoxic ventilatory decline (HVD) and the magnitude of the rapid decline in ventilation on relief of sustained hypoxia (the off-response) in eight healthy adult volunteers. The following design was ...
Kohzuki H - - 1999
1. It has previously been shown that perfusion with high O2-affinity-erythrocytes decreases venous PO2 (PVO2) and decreases O2 uptake (VO2) in contracting muscle at the same O2 delivery (arterial O2 concentration x flow). A linear VO2-PVO2 relationship has been obtained with a VO2-axis intercept, suggesting that, during this type of ...
Marrif H - - 1999
Astrocytes cope more readily with hypoxic insults than do neurons. We hypothesized that astrocytes can upregulate their glycolytic capacity, allowing anaerobic glycolysis to provide sufficient ATP for cell survival as well as for carrying out critical functions such as taking up glutamate. To test this hypothesis, astrocytes were subjected to ...
Kjaer M - - 1999
Reflex mechanisms from contracting skeletal muscle have been shown to be important for cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and extramuscular fuel-mobilization responses in exercise. Furthermore, because hypoxia results in exaggerated metabolic changes in contracting muscle, the present study evaluated whether enhancement of cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses by hypoxia during exercise is influenced by ...
Picard S - - 1999
We investigated whether the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel activation by bimakalim, at concentrations devoid of both negative inotropic and action-potential duration (APD) shortening effects, might exhibit myocardial protection after hypoxia and reoxygenation in human atrial myocardium by using 112 preparations. The recovery of contractility of human atrial trabeculae, ...
Hicks J W - - 1999
A hypometabolic response during acute exposure to hypoxia has been measured in both endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. In the turtle, we determined the metabolic response to normocapnic hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxic hypometabolism was a regulated response that did not depend on O(2) ...
Groenendaal F - - 1999
The present study was designed to examine the effects of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase on cerebral energy metabolism after hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets. Ten 1- to 3-d-old piglets received N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NNLA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NNLA-hypoxia, n = 5), or normal saline (hypoxia, n = 5) 1 ...
Clar C - - 1999
This study investigated whether changing sympathetic activity, acting via beta-receptors, might induce the progressive ventilatory changes observed in response to prolonged hypoxia. The responses of 10 human subjects to four 8-h protocols were compared: 1) isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 50 Torr) plus 80-mg doses of oral propranolol; 2) isocapnic ...
Finder D R - - 1999
The keto (linear) form of exogenous fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, a highly charged glycolytic intermediate, may utilize a dicarboxylate transporter to cross the cell membrane, support glycolysis, and produce ATP anaerobically. We tested the hypothesis that fumarate, a dicarboxylate, and 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG), an intermediate structurally similar to a dicarboxylate, can support contraction ...
Lu G W - - 1999
Changes in oxygen consumption, body temperature and energy metabolism were studied while mice were repeatedly exposed to a sealed environment. The average tolerance limits of environmental oxygen level (vol%) and the average oxygen consumption rates (ml/g x min) were exponentially decreased and the average body rectal temperatures (degrees C) were ...
Chapman R F - - 1999
PURPOSE: Elite endurance athletes display varying degrees of pulmonary gas exchange limitations during maximal normoxic exercise and many demonstrate reduced arterial O2 saturations (SaO2) at VO2max--a condition referred to as exercise induced arterial hypoxemia (EIH). We asked whether mild hypoxia would cause significant declines in SaO2 and VO2max in EIH ...
Scheuermann B W - - 1999
The effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide (Acz, 10 mg/kg) on the ventilatory response to an abrupt switch into hyperoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 450 Torr) and hypoxia (end-tidal PO2 = 50 Torr) was examined in five male subjects [30 +/- 3 (SE) yr]. Subjects exercised at a work rate ...
Green H - - 1999
To investigate the effects of training in normoxia vs. training in normobaric hypoxia (fraction of inspired O2 = 20.9 vs. 13.5%, respectively) on the regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase pump concentration in skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis), 9 untrained men, ranging in age from 19 to 25 yr, underwent 8 wk of cycle ...
Armstead W M - - 1999
Since recent studies show that pial artery dilation during a 20 or 40 min hypoxic exposure was less than that observed during a 5 or 10 min exposure, stimulus duration determines the nature of the vascular response to hypoxia. Decremented hypoxic pial dilation during longer exposure periods results, at least ...
Koulmann N - - 1999
To determine whether or not acute hypobaric hypoxia alters the rate of water absorption from a carbohydrate beverage ingested during exercise, six men cycled for 80 min on three randomly assigned different occasions. In one trial, exercise was performed in hypoxia (barometric pressure, P(B) = 594 hPa, altitude 4,400 m) ...
Hülsmann S - - 1999
The protection of neuronal function by 21-aminosteroids against a hypoxic challenge was tested in guinea pig hippocampal slices. 21-aminosteroids, which apart from a protective mechanism against membrane lipid peroxidation, provide direct membrane stabilizing effects, are reported. We tested whether the 21-aminosteroid U-74389G delays the anoxic terminal negativity (ATN) of the ...
St Croix C M - - 1999
We measured the end-tidal plateau in exhaled NO concentration (CETNO) by chemiluminescence and calculated the product of V E and CETNO (V NO) in nine healthy subjects at rest and during three intensities of cycling exercise (30%, 60%, and 90% V O2max), two levels of hyperventilation (V E = 42.8 ...
Mills N E - - 1999
Oxygen available to amphibian embryos fluctuates widely and is often very low. We investigated the effects of oxygen partial pressure (1. 3-16.9 kPa) on embryonic development and hatching of two salamander (Ambystoma) and two frog (Rana) species. In Ambystoma, chronic hypoxia resulted in slowed development, delayed hatching, and embryos that ...
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