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Carroll Nick J NJ School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Department of Physics, Harvard University , 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United - - 2014
We present a simple, noninvasive method for simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and inference of liquid viscosity in a microfluidic channel. We track the dynamics of a sharp front of photobleached fluorescent dye using a confocal microscope and measure the intensity at a single point downstream of the initial front ...
Karande Rohan R Laboratory of Chemical Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, TU Dortmund University, Emil-Figge-Str. 66, Dortmund, 44227, - - 2014
Biofilm reactors are often mass transfer limited due to excessive biofilm growth, impeding reactor performance. Fluidic conditions play a key role for biofilm structural development and subsequently for overall reactor performance. Continuous interfacial forces generated by aqueous-air segmented flow are controlling biofilm structure and diminish mass transfer limitations in biofilm ...
Chen Duanduan D Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, - - 2014
Precise specification of left-right asymmetry is essential for patterning the internal organs of vertebrates. Within the embryonic node, posteriorly polarised cilia rotate, causing a leftward fluid flow (nodal flow) that establishes left-right asymmetry. The mechanism by which an embryo senses nodal flow remains uncertain. Existing hypotheses argue that either nodal ...
Huang Rong Fung RF a Department of Mechanical Engineering , National Taiwan University of Science and Technology , Taipei , Taiwan , Republic of - - 2014
A conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood and its improved version (termed the "IQV commercial kitchen hood") were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) detection methods. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique qualitatively revealed the flow field of the hood and the areas apt for ...
McAlary Todd T Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., 130 Research Lane, #2, Guelph, Ontario N1G 5G3, Canada. - - 2014
This paper presents a controlled experiment comparing several quantitative passive samplers for monitoring concentrations of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors in soil gas using a flow-through cell. This application is simpler than conventional active sampling using adsorptive tubes because the flow rate does not need to be precisely measured and ...
Hofemeier Philipp - - 2014
Due to experimental challenges, computational simulations are often sought to quantify inhaled aerosol transport in the pulmonary acinus. Commonly, these are performed using generic alveolar topologies, including spheres, toroids and polyhedra, to mimic the complex acinar morphology. Yet, local acinar flows and ensuing particle transport are anticipated to be influenced ...
Chiu Tai-Shun TS Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and - - 2014
Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure ...
Yao Junjie - - 2014
ABSTRACT. We propose a calibration-free photoacoustic (PA) method for transverse flow measurements. In this method, a pulsed periodically structured (i.e., grating patterned) optical beam is used to illuminate flowing absorptive particles in an optically scattering medium. The PA signal amplitudes measured over consecutive laser pulses carry an imprint of the ...
Michie Iain S IS Sustainable Environment Research Centre (SERC), Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Science, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, Mid-Glamorgan CF37 1DL, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this study three different tubular helical anode designs are compared, for each helical design the pitch and nominal sectional area/liquid flow channel between the helicoids was varied and this produced maximum power densities of 11.63, 9.2 and 6.73Wm(-3) (small, medium and large helical flow channel cross-sections). It is found ...
Maschmann Matthew R MR Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RX, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433, USA; Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, - - 2014
Artificial hair sensors consisting of a piezoresistive carbon-nanotube-coated glass fiber embedded in a microcapillary are assembled and characterized. Individual sensors resemble a hair plug that may be integrated in a wide range of host materials. The sensors demonstrate an air-flow detection threshold of less than 1 m/s with a piezoresistive ...
Nunes Janine K JK Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, - - 2014
A process for the fabrication of shaped microfibers is developed that combines software-enabled inertial microfluidics and photopolymerization. Flow deformations caused by flow around pillars sculpt the shape of a stream of reactive solution, which is photopolymerized into a fiber. The cross-sectional shapes and selective surface functionalization of the fibers compare ...
Kuo Ju-Nan JN Department of Automation Engineering, National Formosa University, No. 64, Wenhua Rd., Huwei, Yunlin, 632, Taiwan, - - 2014
Traditional clinical methods for separating whole blood into blood cells and cell-free plasma are labor intensive and time consuming. Accordingly, the present study proposes a simple compact disk (CD) microfluidic platform for the rapid separation of plasma from whole human blood and the subsequent mixing of the plasma with a ...
Dey Ranabir R Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal, India. - - 2014
The present work comprehensively addresses the hydrodynamic characteristics through microchannels with lotus leaf replica (exhibiting low adhesion and superhydrophobic properties) walls. The lotus leaf replica is fabricated following an efficient, two-step, soft-molding process and is then integrated with rectangular microchannels. The inherent biomimetic, superhydrophobic surface-liquid interfacial hydrodynamics, and the consequential ...
Hirst Deborah V L DV a National Institute for Occupational Safety and - - 2014
ABSTRACT Exposures to diacetyl, a primary ingredient of butter flavoring, have been shown to cause respiratory disease among workers who mix flavorings. This study focused on evaluating ventilation controls designed to reduce emissions from the flavor mixing tanks, the major source of diacetyl in the plants. Five exhaust hood configurations ...
Yue Jun J Laboratory of Chemical Reactor Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. - - 2014
We report a three-phase slug flow and a parallel-slug flow as two major flow patterns found under the nitrogen-decane-water flow through a glass microfluidic chip which features a long microchannel with a hydraulic diameter of 98 μm connected to a cross-flow mixer. The three-phase slug flow pattern is characterized by ...
Seiberlich Laura E LE Smiths Medical, ASD, Inc., St Paul, MN, - - 2014
Abstract Objective: Since there is a lack of current evidence to support the compatibility of the most commonly used arterial blood gas syringes with the latest multi-parameter analyzers, the objective of this study was to assess the agreement of analyte values between three heparinized arterial blood gas syringes using three ...
Vajda Péter P Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1600, - - 2014
This work reviews and discusses controversies and errors made in the determination of the average volumetric flow rate of a compressible mobile phase forced to flow through a chromatographic column. Proper estimates of the volumetric flow rate, which obviously changes along the column, are keys to understanding the retention mechanism ...
Riquier T T Pharmacy department, Cochin Hospital, groupe hospitalier Paris Centre, assistance publique des hôpitaux de Paris, 27, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, faculté de pharmacie, 4, avenue de l'Observatoire, 75006 Paris, - - 2014
Ethylene glycol poisoning is rare, but prompt diagnosis is crucial, in order to initiate specific treatments. Herein, we report the case of a patient who was admitted to ICU for coma and extreme metabolic acidosis with unexpected hyperlactatemia on initial ICU blood gas analyzer. Ethylene glycol poisoning was diagnosed, and ...
Wang G R GR Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, USA. - - 2014
Turbulence is commonly viewed as a type of macroflow, where the Reynolds number (Re) has to be sufficiently high. In microfluidics, when Re is below or on the order of 1 and fast mixing is required, so far only chaotic flow has been reported to enhance mixing based on previous ...
Fan Frank - - 2014
A new approach to flow battery design is demonstrated wherein diffusion-limited aggregation of nanoscale conductor particles at ~1 vol% concentration is used to impart mixed electronic-ionic conductivity to redox solutions, forming flow electrodes with embedded current collector networks that self-heal after shear. Lithium polysulfide flow cathodes of this architecture exhibit ...
Richter Sophie S Foundation Doctor in the Department of Vascular Surgery, Leicester Royal Infirmary, - - 2014
Arterial blood gas sampling forms a vital part of bedside investigation but is invasive and physician dependent. This study aimed to determine whether capillary blood gas sampling could provide an accurate and less invasive substitute for the measurement of blood gases and pH.
Balestra Costantino C President, EUBS, Professor of Integrative Physiology, Haute Ecole Paul Henri-Spaak, Brussels, E-mail: - - 2014
The sites for formation of microbubbles that are routinely detected precordially by Doppler after a decompression are still a matter of debate. Firstly, microbubbles could form on the endothelial wall of capillaries, at specific nanometric sites, but the release mechanism of such small emerging entities remains puzzling. They might also ...
Perrin Vincent E VE Delft University of Technology, 2600 AA Delft, The - - 2014
This study investigates the local flow characteristics near droplet-droplet collisions by means of direct numerical simulation of isotropic cloudlike turbulence. The key finding is that, generally, droplets do not collide where they preferentially concentrate. Preferential concentration is found to happen as expected in regions of low enstrophy (vorticity magnitude), but ...
Chen Jia-Kun JK Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, Republic of - - 2014
A novel design of range hood, which was termed the inclined quad-vortex (IQV) range hood, was examined for its flow and containment leakage characteristics under the influence of a plate sweeping across the hood face. A flow visualization technique was used to unveil the flow behavior. Three characteristic flow modes ...
Sochol Ryan D RD Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, USA. - - 2014
Continuous flow particulate-based microfluidic processors are in critical demand for emerging applications in chemistry and biology, such as point-of-care molecular diagnostics. Challenges remain, however, for accomplishing biochemical assays in which microparticle immobilization is desired or required during intermediate stages of fluidic reaction processes. Here we present a dual-mode microfluidic reactor ...
Lu Chunhui C National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001, - - 2014
We introduce a simple correction to coastal heads for constant-density groundwater flow models that contain a coastal boundary, based on previous analytical solutions for interface flow. The results demonstrate that accurate discharge to the sea in confined aquifers can be obtained by direct application of Darcy's law (for constant-density flow) ...
Itoga Nathan K NK Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawai'i John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI 96826, USA; Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women & Children, Honolulu, HI 96826, - - 2014
Nebulized particles must have diameters between 1 to 5 μm (optimal particle size range [OPSR]) to be deposited in the lower respiratory tract. The purpose of this study is to determine factors that affect the particle size distributions of nebulized albuterol. We used a sophisticated laser diffraction machine to measure ...
Shantsila E - - 2014
Circulating blood microparticles are likely to play a significant role as messengers of biological information. Their accurate quantification and characterisation is challenging and needs to be carefully designed with preferable usage of fresh minimally-processed blood samples. Utilisation of flow cytometers specifically designed for analysis of small-size particles is likely to ...
Cevheri Necmettin N G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405, USA. ncevheri@gatech.edu - - 2014
Polystyrene microparticles of 0.5 μm diameter form long-lived streamwise bands within 1 μm of the wall in the combined steady electroosmotic (EO) and Poiseuille flow of a dilute particle suspension through fused-silica microchannels. The bands disappear when the electric field driving the EO flow is turned off, and the band ...
Abreu David D II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
We review the dynamical behavior of giant fluid vesicles in various types of external hydrodynamic flow. The interplay between stresses arising from membrane elasticity, hydrodynamic flows, and the ever present thermal fluctuations leads to a rich phenomenology. In linear flows with both rotational and elongational components, the properties of the ...
Barmi Meysam R - - 2014
The evaporation rate and internal convective flows of a sessile droplet with pinned contact-line was formulated and investigated numerically. We developed and analyzed a unified numerical model that includes the effects of temperature, droplet volume and contact angle on evaporation rate and internal flows. The temperature gradient on the air/liquid ...
Dhital Sushil S ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls, Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia. - - 2014
The in vitro amylolysis of both granular and cooked maize starch and the diffusion of glucose in the presence of 1% and 2% cereal soluble fibre polysaccharides (arabinoxylan and mixed linkage beta-glucan) were studied at various levels of shear mixing in order to identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying observed glycemia-reducing ...
Piyasena Menake E ME Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, - - 2014
A modern flow cytometer can analyze and sort particles on a one by one basis at rates of 50 000 particles per second. Flow cytometers can also measure as many as 17 channels of fluorescence, several angles of scattered light, and other non-optical parameters such as particle impedance. More specialized flow ...
Yamauchi Shigeru S Department of Neurosurgery, Hokuto Social Medical Corporation Hokuto Hospital, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan - - - 2014
Recently, transarterial embolization (TAE) with liquid embolic materials has been recognized as one of the curative therapeutic options for non-sinus type dural arteriovenous fistula (d-AVF). To prevent glue fragmentation and incomplete obliteration, flow reduction of transosseous high-flow feeders is one of the key points of this therapy. However, flow reduction ...
Papadopoulou Virginie V Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK; Environmental & Occupational Physiology Lab., Haute Ecole Paul Henri Spaak, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: - - 2014
Bubbles can form in the body during or after decompression from pressure exposures such as those undergone by scuba divers, astronauts, caisson and tunnel workers. Bubble growth and detachment physics then becomes significant in predicting and controlling the probability of these bubbles causing mechanical problems by blocking vessels, displacing tissues, ...
Janiga Gábor G Laboratory of Fluid Dynamics and Technical Flows, University of Magdeburg "Otto von Guericke", - - 2014
This work investigates the flow in a benchmark nozzle model of an idealized medical device proposed by the FDA using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It was in particular shown that a proper modeling of the transitional flow features is particularly challenging, leading to large discrepancies and inaccurate predictions from the ...
Cian Francesco F Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2014
Flow cytometric analysis of blood samples for immunophenotyping lymphoproliferative diseases has become popular in veterinary medicine. Unfortunately, the use of this technique has been limited by the necessity to test samples within a short time frame after blood collection. A possible solution to this problem is the use of fixative ...
Sisan Thomas B TB Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, - - 2014
Transformative technologies for desalination and chemical separations call for understanding molecular transport through man-made and biological nanochannels. Using numerical simulation of single-file flow of water through carbon nanotubes, we find that flow is due to fast-moving density variations (solitons) that are additive so flow rate is proportional to number of ...
Zhu Ruirui R Key Laboratory for Integrated Regulation and Resources Exploitation on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, HoHai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210098, - - 2014
The phenomenon of coagulation settling in liquid suspensions has a variety of applications, including mineral processing, treatment of industrial effluents, and municipal sewage sludge purification. This study was to investigate the coagulation settling characteristics of fine-grind natural zeolite and evaluate the removal efficiency of contaminants simultaneously in static and turbulent ...
Fee Conan C Department of Chemical & Process Engineering and Biomolecular Interaction Centre, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020, New Zealand. Electronic address: - - 2014
In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the use of 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing or rapid prototyping) to create porous media with precisely defined packing morphologies, directly from computer aided design (CAD) models. We used CAD to design perfectly ordered beds with octahedral beads (115μm ...
Ghisalberti Marco M School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, - - 2014
At Mistaken Point, Newfoundland, Canada, rangeomorph "fronds" dominate the earliest (579-565 million years ago) fossil communities of large (0.1 to 2 m height) multicellular benthic eukaryotes. They lived in low-flow environments, fueled by uptake [1-3] of dissolved reactants (osmotrophy). However, prokaryotes are effective osmotrophs, and the advantage of taller eukaryotic osmotrophs ...
Soliven Arianne A Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science (ACROSS), School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta, NSW, - - 2014
Active flow technology (AFT) columns are designed to minimise inefficient flow processes associated with the column wall and radial heterogeneity of the stationary phase bed. This study is the first to investigate AFT on an analytical scale 4.6mm internal diameter first-generation silica monolith. The performance was compared to a conventional ...
Cantillo David D Institute of Chemistry, University of Graz , Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz, - - 2014
A continuous-flow, two-step procedure for the preparation of α-CF3-substituted carbonyl compounds has been developed. The carbonyl substrates were converted in situ into the corresponding silyl enol ethers, mixed with the CF3 radical source, and then irradiated with visible light using a flow reactor based on transparent tubing and a household ...
Pastorino C C Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, CNEA/CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Pcia. de Buenos Aires, - - 2014
We study mixed brushes under shear flow by molecular dynamics simulation with an explicit solvent. The primary brush is formed by chemically grafting polymers to a solid substrate, the secondary brush is comprised of shorter, physically end-adsorbed molecules that can laterally diffuse. By virtue of the immobility of the grafted ...
Ritos Konstantinos K James Weir Fluids Lab, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ, United - - 2014
The high water flow rates observed in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have previously been attributed to the unfavorable energetic interaction between the liquid and the graphitic walls of the CNTs. This paper reports molecular dynamics simulations of water flow in carbon, boron nitride, and silicon carbide nanotubes that show the effect ...
Bullard Elizabeth C EC Kavli Nanoscience Institute and Departments of Physics, Applied Physics, and Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, - - 2014
Rarefied gas flows generated by resonating nanomechanical structures pose a significant challenge to theoretical analysis and physical interpretation. The inherent noncontinuum nature of such flows obviates the use of classical theories, such as the Navier-Stokes equations, requiring more sophisticated physical treatments for their characterization. In this Letter, we present a ...
Borremans Benny B Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, - - 2014
To solve the problem of fixed dried blood spot elution without damaging IgG antibodies. The minimum effective concentration of liquid ammonium (NH3 ) in a PBS solution, which was found to elute fixed blood, was determined. By using a dilution series, the effects of NH3 on IgG antibody quality were ...
Moroni Monica M Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile Edile e Ambientale, Sapienza Università di Roma, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Roma, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The present work deals with the experimental fluid mechanics analysis of a wavy-bottomed cascade photobioreactor, to characterize the extent and period of recirculatory and straight-flowing streams establishing therein as a function of reactor inclination and liquid flow rate. The substream characterization via Feature Tracking (FT) showed that a local recirculation ...
Bradshaw R R Biomedical Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, S1 1WB Sheffield, - - 2014
The determination of the presence of blood in fingermarks constitutes important intelligence in a criminal investigation as it helps to reconstruct the events that have taken place at a scene of crime. Various methodologies have been reported and are currently employed for the detection of the presence of blood including ...
Véliz Diosángeles Soto DS Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting, Centre for Functional Materials, Abo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500 Turku, - - 2014
In this communication, we report a non-linear variation in the strength of blood attachment to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials as the fractions of bacterial cellulose to kaolin are increased. The changes observed for attachment strength are elucidated following both experimental and numerical investigations on both the biomaterial and the blood-biomaterial interface. ...
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