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Chambers L D LD Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK - - 2014
For underwater vehicles to successfully detect and navigate turbulent flows, sensing the fluid interactions that occur is required. Fish possess a unique sensory organ called the lateral line. Sensory units called neuromasts are distributed over their body, and provide fish with flow-related information. In this study, a three-dimensional fish-shaped head, ...
Li Lin L Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, - - 2014
Although a blood analog of aqueous glycerol and xanthan gum was found to replicate the viscoelastic behavior of blood, measurements were restricted to laminar flow.OBJECTIVE: To expand the characterization of a non-Newtonian blood analog of aqueous glycerol and xanthan gum to transitional Reynolds numbers to quantify its behavior as a ...
Pereira Vitor Mendes VM Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2014
Flow diverter stents (FDS) have been effectively used for the endovascular treatment of sidewall intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Unlike standard endovascular treatments used to exclude directly the aneurysm bulge from the parent vessel, FDS induce reduction in the intra-aneurysmal flow and promote progressive and stable thrombosis therein. The advent of FDS ...
Rezk Amgad R - - 2014
Poloidal flow is curiously formed in a microliter sessile water drop over 157 to 225 MHz due to acoustic streaming from three-dimensional standing Lamb waves in a lithium niobate substrate. The flow possesses radial symmetry with downwelling at the center and upwelling at the periphery of the drop. Outside this ...
Brothers R Matthew RM Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, TX and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin - - 2014
Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) to changes in arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is assessed during steady-state or transient changes in PaCO2. This study tested two hypotheses; 1) that CVMR during steady-state changes differs from those during transient changes in PaCO2 and 2) that CVMR during rebreathing hypercapnia would be blunted when ...
Iyappan K K a Chemical Engineering Division, Central Leather Research Institute , Chennai , - - 2014
Electrochemical oxidation of tannery effluent was carried out in batch, batch recirculation and continuous reactor configurations under different conditions using a battery-integrated DC-DC converter and solar PV power supply. The effect of current density, electrolysis time and fluid flow rate on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy consumption has ...
Min Kyoung-Ik KI Center of Applied Microfluidic Chemistry (CAMC), Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 790-784, Republic of Korea. - - 2014
We present a pressure-tolerant 3D parallel polyimide (PI) film microreactor operating at up to ~160 bars with direct 3D flow focusing geometry for mass production of PEG-PLGA nanoparticles in a ~10(1) gram-scale (g h(-1)).
Archambault-Léger Véronique V Dartmouth College, Hanover NH 03755 (USA); DOE BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 - - 2014
During the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass for subsequent microbial or enzymatic processing, the fiber reactivity typically increases with increasing severity but so does sugar degradation. Experimental results with sugarcane bagasse show that this tradeoff can be mitigated substantially by pretreatment in a flow-through (FT) mode. A model that incorporates both ...
Domoki F F Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. - - 2014
The newborn pig is a widely accepted large animal model of hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) encephalopathy (HIE) of the term neonate appropriate for translational research. The methodology of the induction of H/I stress shows extensive variability of the literature, and little is known how these affect study outcome. The purpose of the ...
Morcos Sameh K SK Diagnostic Imaging, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, - - 2014
Parenchymal hypoxia within the renal outer medulla plays an important role in the pathogenesis of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). Nitric oxide (NO) is crucial for medullary oxygenation by enhancing regional blood flow. Augmenting the effect of NO in the renal medulla by the use of selective inhibitors of cyclic guanosine ...
Chia Celeste C Manufacturing Science and Technology, Roche Singapore Technical Operations Pte Ltd., - - 2014
Rigid chromatography resins, such as controlled pore glass based adsorbents, offer the advantage of high permeability and a linear pressure-flow relationship irrespective of column diameter which improves process time and maximizes productivity. However, the rigidity and irregularly shaped nature of these resins often present challenges in achieving consistent and uniform ...
Ma Shaohua S Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, - - 2014
The flow topology in moving microdroplets has a significant impact on the behaviour of encapsulated objects and hence on applications of the technology. This study reports on a systematic investigation of the flow field inside droplets moving in a rectangular microchannel, by means of micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV). Various water/oil ...
Kluwick A A Department of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, University of Technology Vienna, Resselgasse 3, 1040 Vienna, Austria - - 2014
In this work, laminar transonic weakly three-dimensional flows at high Reynolds numbers in slender channels, as found in microsupersonic nozzles and turbomachines of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are considered. The channel height is taken so small that the viscous wall layers forming at the channel walls start to interact strongly rather than ...
Cassel K W KW Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, USA - - 2014
This paper provides a brief review of the analytical and numerical developments related to unsteady boundary-layer separation, in particular as it relates to vortex-induced flows, leading up to our present understanding of this important feature in high-Reynolds-number, surface-bounded flows in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient. In large part, ...
Fornberg Bengt B Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA - - 2014
Steady laminar flows past simple objects, such as a cylinder or a sphere, have been studied for well over a century. Theoretical, experimental and numerical methods have all contributed fundamentally towards our understanding of the resulting flows. This article focuses on developments during the past few decades, when mostly numerical ...
Braun S S Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Vienna University of Technology, Resselgasse 3, 1040 Wien, Austria - - 2014
Thin aerofoils are prone to localized flow separation at their leading edge if subjected to moderate angles of attack α. Although 'laminar separation bubbles' at first do not significantly alter the aerofoil performance, they tend to 'burst' if α is increased further or if perturbations acting upon the flow reach ...
Lang Amy W AW Department of Aerospace Engineering & Mechanics, University of Alabama, 255H. M. Comer, 245 7th Avenue, Box 870280, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, - - 2014
Shark scales on fast-swimming sharks have been shown to be movable to angles in excess of 50°, and we hypothesize that this characteristic gives this shark skin a preferred flow direction. During the onset of separation, flow reversal is initiated close to the surface. However, the movable scales would be ...
Wu Chueh-Yu CY Department of Bioengineering, California NanoSystems Institute, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza, 5121 Engineering V, Box 951600, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. - - 2014
In this issue we highlight three recent papers that demonstrate new strategies to extend the capabilities of paper microfluidics. Paper (a mesh of porous fibers) has a long history as a substrate to perform biomolecular assays. Traditional lateral flow immunoassays (LFAs) are widely used for rapid diagnostic tests, and perform ...
Kwon Seung-Ryong SR Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Korea. inseong@snu.ac.kr - - 2014
A mass-based label-free detection of blood biomarkers under physiological conditions is realised using gold-plated magnetic polymer microspheres covered with self-assembled monolayers of polyethylene glycol alkanethiolates that effectively prevent heavy nonspecific binding of serum proteins.
Sharma Abhinav A Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, - - 2014
Strategic application of external electrostatic field on a pressure-driven two-phase flow inside a microchannel can transform the stratified or slug flow patterns into droplets. The localized electrohydrodynamic stress at the interface of the immiscible liquids can engender a liquid-dielectrophoretic deformation, which disrupts the balance of the viscous, capillary, and inertial ...
Chen Yan-Wen - - 2014
PEGylated 96-well polystyrene (PS) microplate was first introduced for applications in high throughput screening for selective blood typing to minimize the risks in blood transfusions. Herein, we present a hemocompatible PS 96-well microplate with adjustable PEGylated hyperbranch brush coverage prepared by ozone pre-treated activation and thermal-induced surface PEGylation. The grafting ...
Brito Jôse Mára JM Faculty of Medicine of University of São Paulo - - 2014
Background: Ambient particles may undergo modifications to their chemical composition as a consequence of climatic variability. The determination whether these changes modify the toxicity of the particles is important for the understanding of the health effects associated with particle exposure. Objectives: a) to determine if low levels of particles promote ...
Zhang Fang F Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L - - 2014
A new microfluidic method of particle separation was proposed and studied theoretically in this paper. This method is based on the induced charge electroosmotic flow (ICEOF) and polarizability of dielectric particles. In this method, a pair of metal plates is embedded on the side channel walls to create a region ...
Sennoga Charles A CA Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: - - 2014
Hemodynamic flow variations at low fluid shear stress are thought to play a critical role in local atherosclerotic plaque initiation and development and to affect plaque instability. Targeted microbubbles are being developed as intravascular agents for identifying atherosclerotic lesions using ultrasound. How variations in local hydrodynamic flow influence the adhesiveness ...
Pajek Daniel D Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address: - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of intravascular perfluorocarbon droplets to reduce the sonication power required to achieve clot lysis with high-intensity focused ultrasound. High-intensity focused ultrasound with droplets was initially applied to blood clots in an in vitro flow apparatus, and inertial cavitation thresholds were determined. An ...
Langlois I I Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, J2S 2M2, - - 2014
To determine whole blood and serum concentrations of l-lactate and serum concentrations of d-lactate in healthy rabbits and compare three methods of analysis for l-lactate measurement. Prospective study using 25 rabbits. Concentrations of whole blood l-lactate were measured using a portable analyser and a blood gas analyser. The remainder of ...
Juretic Hrvoje H Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3080, USA; Department of Energy, Power Engineering and Environment, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lucica 5, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia; Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3232, - - 2014
The creation of free radicals by ultrasonic cavitation is the main mechanism that leads to chemical degradation of target pollutants and the process is considered an alternative advanced oxidation technology. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of batch and continuous flow ultrasonic systems on the formation ...
Morton John M JM Lutheran Medical Group, Fort Wayne, IN. Electronic address: - - 2014
Instrumented fusion of the spine is a surgery commonly performed to stabilize vertebrae causing pain and to correct anatomic deformities. Such surgery can create substantial blood loss. Autotransfusion is a means to limit homologous blood transfusion in this setting. However, a dilemma is created when the high-speed drill used for ...
Kapetas Leon L Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, - - 2014
The formation of preferential flow paths in the partially saturated zone, and in naturally structured media, is well known. This study examines non-uniform flow in uniform sand columns under different pressure and infiltration/drainage conditions. Experiments were carried out in a vacuum box, with applied suction set to three different heads, ...
Qiang Wei W School of Computer Science, China University of Geosciences, 430074, Wuhan, China, - - 2014
We study the flow patterns of turbulent convection in an inclined layer with a large aspect ratio Γ and moderately high Rayleigh numbers ranging from 9 × 10(4) to 2 × 10(7) based on three-dimensional numerical simulations. The Prandtl number is fixed at σ = 0.7 and the angles of ...
Aguirre M A MA Grupo de Medios Porosos, Fac. de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Paseo Colón 850, (C1063ACV) Buenos Aires, - - 2014
For the last 50 years, the flow of a granular material through an aperture has been intensely studied in gravity-driven vertical systems (e.g., silos and hoppers). Nevertheless, in many industrial applications, grains are horizontally transported at constant velocity, lying on conveyor belts or floating on the surface of flowing liquids. ...
Frankel Alexandra E AE Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, - - 2014
Colloidal particles can achieve autonomous motion by a number of physicochemical mechanisms. For instance, if a spherical particle acts as a catalyst with an asymmetric surface reactivity, a molecular solute concentration gradient will develop in the surrounding fluid that can propel the particle via self-diffusiophoresis. Theoretical analyses of self-diffusiophoresis have ...
Chen Qianjin - - 2014
In the past few decades, much research has been devoted to nanoscale transport, despite of the complexity. Here we present results, which are counterintuitive, showing that adsorption of polystyrene-b-polyisoprene (PS-b-PI) diblock copolymer to the nanopore membrane wall considerably reduces the friction of the organic solvents passing through the nanopore channels. ...
Kozu Hiroyuki H Food Engineering Division, National Food Research Institute, NARO, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan. - - 2014
This study quantitatively analyzed the flow phenomena in model gastric contents induced by peristalsis using a human gastric flow simulator (GFS). Major functions of the GFS include gastric peristalsis simulation by controlled deformation of rubber walls and direct observation of inner flow through parallel transparent windows. For liquid gastric contents ...
Savtchenko Serguei S Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S-3G8, - - 2014
A numerical study is performed to examine the effect of introducing a swirling desolvation gas flow on the flow transport characteristics in an electrospray and an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) system. An ion source having three coaxial tubes is considered: (1) an inner capillary tube to inject the liquid ...
Thiébaud Marine M Université Grenoble I/CNRS, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique/UMR5588, Grenoble F-38041, - - 2014
Red blood cells play a major role in body metabolism by supplying oxygen from the microvasculature to different organs and tissues. Understanding blood flow properties in microcirculation is an essential step towards elucidating fundamental and practical issues. Numerical simulations of a blood model under a confined linear shear flow reveal ...
Zlotnik Vitaly A VA Department of Mathematics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, - - 2014
Analytical models of groundwater flow with a spatially varying elevation of a top boundary are widely used. However, a vast majority of previous analytical studies truncated the irregularly shaped top section with little to no analyses of the shortcomings of the approximate solutions for the resulting rectangles or parallelepipeds. We ...
Miyauchi Shunichi S Department of Rheumatology, Infectious Diseases, and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Institute of Rheumatology, Zenjinkai Shimin-No-Mori Hospital, Department of Anatomy, Ultrastructural Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki and Miyazaki University HTLV-1/ATL Research Facility, Miyazaki, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of leucocytapheresis (LCAP) in patients with RA. Protein profiles of blood samples from two patients with RA obtained via LCAP column inlet and outlet lines were analysed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The lactoferrin (LTF) levels ...
Batista Alex D AD Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O. Box 96, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. - - 2014
The main contributions of Brazilian researchers to the field of flow analysis are reviewed, with an emphasis on historical developments, conceptual aspects, system design, and analytical applications. Contributions after the advent of flow injection analysis are highlighted. Novel approaches (e.g. zone merging, zone sampling, zone trapping, multi-site detection, and multi-commutation), ...
Wang Ying - - 2014
In this paper, we report a gas flow phenomenon induced by ultrasonic water cavitation and capillary wave in a vibrating hollow tip and reflector system. The cavitation clouds generated a gas suction force and the capillary wave created tunnels through which the gas could go into the liquid. The gas ...
Kotze Marthinus J MJ Dr. Kotze is a senior lecturer, Department of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, P.O. Box 1266, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa, e-mail thinus.kotze@up.ac.za. Address correspondence to Dr. - - 2014
In the study reported in this article, the authors aimed to demonstrate the presence of blood on the surface and in the lumen of two gauges of dental needles after administration of local anesthetic (LA) by using three LA-administering techniques normally used for the extraction of teeth. The authors obtained ...
Miralles Sophie S Laboratoire de Physique, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS & Université de Lyon, 46 allée d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, - - 2014
Hydrodynamic and magnetic behaviors in a modified experimental setup of the von Kármán sodium flow-where one disk has been replaced by a propeller-are investigated. When the rotation frequencies of the disk and the propeller are different, we show that the fully turbulent hydrodynamic flow undergoes a global bifurcation between two ...
Mohammed Hlack H GSK plc, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire, SG12 0DP, - - 2014
Compendial methods determining dry powder inhaler (DPI)-emitted aerosol aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) collect a 4-L air sample containing the aerosol bolus, where the flow, which propagates through the cascade impactor (CI) measurement system from the vacuum source, is used to actuate the inhaler. A previous article described outcomes with ...
Jensen Klavs F KF Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge MA 02139, USA. - - 2014
Chemical synthesis in microsystems has evolved from simple proof-of-principle examples to become a general technique in academia and industry. Numerous such "flow chemistry" applications are now found in pharmaceutical and fine chemical synthesis. Much of the development has been based on systems employing macroscopic flow components and tubes, rather than ...
Simona Benjamin R - - 2014
The influence of electrochemistry on the coagulation of blood on metal surfaces was demonstrated several decades ago. In particular, the application of cathodic currents resulted in reduced surface thrombogenicity but no molecular mechanism has been so far proposed to explain this observation. In this article we used for the first ...
Ma Qianqian Q College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cycling is the process of reutilization of matter or energy in the ecosystem. As it is not directly measurable, the strength of cycling is calculated based on mathematical models of the ecosystem. For a storage-flow type ecosystem model, throughflow is the total amount of material flowing through all system compartments ...
Soliven Arianne A Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science (ACROSS), School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta, NSW, - - 2014
Analytical scale active flow technology first generation silica monolithic columns kitted out in curtain flow mode of operation were studied for the first time. A series of tests were undertaken assessing the column efficiency, peak asymmetry and detection sensitivity. Two curtain flow columns were tested, one with a fixed outlet ...
Shi Qiang - - 2014
Hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) caused by implant devices in vivo and non-polyvinylchloride containers for RBC preservation in vitro has recently gained much attention. To develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term anti-hemolysis capability, we present a facile method to construct a hydrophilic, 3D hierarchical architecture on the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene ...
Stefanič M M KRKA d.d., Novo mesto, Šmarješka cesta 6, 8501 Novo mesto, - - 2014
The purpose of this research was to predict the in vivo dissolution of lansoprazole from enteric coated pellets in the fasted state using a biorelevant flow-through dissolution method with low flow rates and volumes close to those in vivo. Additionally, a novel rotating stirring element, composed from magnet inserted in ...
Choi Hyoungseon H Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul, - - 2014
Detection of pathogenic bacteria requires a sensitive, accurate, rapid, and portable device. Given that lethal microbes are of various sizes, bacterial sensors based on DC (direct current) impedance on chips should be equipped with channels with commensurate cross sections. When it comes to counting and interrogation of individual bacteria on ...
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