Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1382
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Prinianakis George - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine patient-ventilator interaction during pressure support ventilation in critically ill patients when they were ventilated: (1) by a new system (Vision, Respironics) which uses the flow waveform as a method of triggering and cycling; and (2) by a new generation ventilator (Evita 4, Drager) which uses the traditional ...
Herholz C - - 2003
Tidal breathing flow-volume loop (TBFVL) indices in healthy horses and in horses suffering from mild and moderate to severe recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) were measured. In addition, the ability of these indices to differentiate healthy controls from horses with mild RAO by separating the horses according to their usage was ...
Lin Debby A - - 2003
Large airway obstruction can present with symptoms typically associated with asthma, including cough, dyspnea, or wheezing. Obstruction of the large airways should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with difficult to manage asthma, particularly those with known risk factors for tracheal disease, atypical clinical features, or lack of ...
Paredi P - - 2003
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) there is decreased vascularity of the bronchi and inflammation of the airways that may have opposite effects on the regulation of heat loss. Exhaled air temperature increase (delta(e) T) was measured in 23 patients with moderate COPD (18 male, mean age +/- SEM 70 ...
Chugh Krishan - - 2003
Acute asthmatic exacerbation is one of the commonest emergencies seen in the pediatric age group. Viral infections are the most important triggers which set up the inflammatory reaction in the bronchial mucosa. GINA 2002 guidelines for assessing the severity and management are very useful for day to day practice. There ...
van der Palen J - - 2003
With a handheld peak inspiratory flow (PIF) meter (In-Check DIAL), the internal resistance of the Diskus (DKR) and the Turbuhaler (THR) can be simulated by means of calibrated resistances. This study investigated whether patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease could generate a PIF which is optimal for the ...
Chatwin M - - 2003
Adults and children with neuromuscular disease exhibit weak cough and are susceptible to recurrent chest infections, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Mechanical insufflation/exsufflation may improve cough efficacy by increasing peak cough flow. It was hypothesised that mechanical insufflation/exsufflation would produce a greater increase in peak cough flow than ...
Walraven D - - 2003
A mathematical model was developed describing the entire expiratory flow pattern during spontaneous, tidal breathing in the absence of expiratory muscle activity. It provides estimates for the time constants of the respiratory system (tau RS(model)) and of the decay of continuing inspiratory muscle activity in early expiration (tau mus(model)). In ...
Laghi Franco - - 2003
The effect of the settings of inspiratory time and inspiratory flow during assist-control ventilation on the response of a patient's respiratory controller has been the subject of intense research during the last few years. An increase in inspiratory flow or a decrease in tidal volume delivered by the ventilator is ...
Martínez T - - 2003
Exhaled nitric oxide (Fe(NO)) measurements provide a noninvasive approach to the evaluation of airway inflammation. Flow-independent NO exchange parameters [airway NO transfer factor (D(NO)) and airway wall NO concentration (Cw(NO))] can be estimated from Fe(NO) measurements at low flows and may elucidate mechanisms of disturbances in NO exchange. We measured ...
Ferry-Graham Lara A - - 2003
Nearly all aquatic-feeding vertebrates use some amount of suction to capture prey items. Suction prey capture occurs by accelerating a volume of water into the mouth and taking a prey item along with it. Yet, until recently, we lacked the necessary techniques and analytical tools to quantify the flow regime ...
Harper V Paul - - 2003
The analysis of breathing sounds measured over the extrathoracic trachea offers a noninvasive technique to monitor obstructions of the respiratory tract. Essential to development of this technique is a quantitative understanding of how such tracheal sounds are related to the underlying tract anatomy, airflow, and disease-induced obstructions. In this study, ...
Broeders Mariëlle E A C - - 2003
Turbuhaler and Salbutamol-Diskus produce therapeutic doses at peak inspiratory flow (PIF) of >30 L/min. However, the optimum flow for Fluticasone-Diskus and Turbuhaler, in terms of total emitted dose and fine particle mass, is >60 L/min. The Turbuhaler achieved a higher output at this flow, as compared to Diskus. For pMDI ...
Chattopadhyay B P - - 2003
In Kolkata city the road transports are maintained by private and Government organization. A major work force belonged to the State Transport Corporation (KSTC), Government of West-Bengal. The pollution caused by these vehicles affects the workers health and caused different types of respiratory problems. This study was undertaken to assess ...
Sano T - - 2003
Th2 cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. In the present study, we investigated the effect of suplatast tosilate, a selective Th2 cytokine inhibitor, on asthma control, in terms of subjective symptoms and pulmonary function in patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Thirty-eight patients with bronchial asthma being ...
Maxwell Lyndal J - - 2003
Traditionally, manual hyperinflation has been performed using "rapid release" to promote a fast peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) but rapid release has not been described. In addition, it has been demonstrated that different resuscitation circuits provide varying degrees of resistance to expiratory flow and it is known that a variety ...
de Boer A H - - 2002
Cascade impactor analysis is the standard technique for in vitro characterization of aerosol clouds generated by medical aerosol generators. One important reason for using this inertial separation principle is that drug fractions are classified into aerodynamic size ranges that are relevant to the deposition in the respiratory tract. Measurement of ...
Talwar A - - 2002
Flow volume loop and its various indices can be used to diagnose UAO. Change in posture from sitting to horizontal position per se causes a decrease in effort dependent inspiratory and expiratory flow rates but no significant change in upper airway obstruction indices. Thus, measurement of FVL in supine posture ...
Koh Y I - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Cytokines production by T helper lymphocytes (Th cells), which orchestrate the interplay of the different cells involved in airway inflammation of asthma, may be reflected in peripheral blood. Some studies have suggested that the Th cell cytokines by peripheral blood T cells correlate with asthma severity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ...
Flood-Page Patrick T - - 2003
The role of eosinophils as effector cells in asthma pathogenesis has been questioned since an anti-interleukin (IL)-5 monoclonal antibody (mepolizumab), which depleted blood and sputum eosinophils, failed to inhibit allergen-induced bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the effect of IL-5 blockade on tissue eosinophils was not examined. We sought to determine ...
Ritz Thomas - - 2002
We studied the effects of viewing pictures in three series of homogeneous affects on respiratory resistance. Results from prior studies had been equivocal with respect to modulation of resistance by affective valence or arousal. Forty-two healthy participants viewed three series of affective slides preselected for global categories of positive, neutral ...
Anderson Joseph C - - 2002
A morphometric analysis was made on the bronchial vasculature of intrapulmonary airways in sheep lungs. This study provides the parameters to calculate the quantity of soluble gas diffusion between the vasculature and airways for use in a mathematical model describing heat and mass exchange in the lungs. To achieve these ...
BuSha Brett F - - 2002
Imperceptible levels of proportional assist ventilation applied throughout inspiration reduced inspiratory time (TI) in awake humans. More recently, the reduction in TI was associated with flow assist, but flow assist also reaches a maximum value early during inspiration. To test the separate effects of flow assist and timing of assist, ...
Tiddens Harm A W M - - 2002
In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, both severe lung inflammation and severe lung damage occur early and persist throughout life. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), a more sensitive method of detecting structural abnormalities than chest X-ray, shows that airways undergo substantial thickening in early CF lung disease. Lung function tests, which are ...
Thomas Robert Joseph - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that stability of the upper airway during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration is influenced by the microstructure of sleep as defined by the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). METHODS: Retrospective review of 12 CPAP titration records. The patterns of flow-limitation during CPAP at subtherapeutic pressures were characterized ...
Sutherland E Rand - - 2002
This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bronchoprotective sputum induction protocol in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Forty-two adults with COPD (FEV1 = 51.7 +/- 3.2% predicted (mean +/- SEM)) under went sputum induction using a protocol designed to minimize hypertonic ...
Ruoff Gary - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This project focused on increasing compliance, in a large family practice group, with quality indicators for the management of asthma. The objective was to determine if use of a flow sheet incorporating the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines could improve compliance with those guidelines if the ...
Suárez Adrián Alejandro - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To study the expiratory muscle force and the ability to cough estimated by the peak expiratory flow and peak cough flow in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. DESIGN: A total of 27 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 52 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were ...
Deykin Aaron - - 2002
Measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) has been proposed as a noninvasive assessment of asthmatic airway inflammation. The influence of the expiratory flow rate during the collection maneuver on the ability of FENO to discriminate healthy subjects from those with asthma is unknown. We compared online and ...
Belvisi Maria G - - 2002
The autonomic nervous system controls many aspects of airway function, including regulation of airway smooth-muscle tone, mucus secretion from submucosal glands and surface epithelial goblet cells, vascular permeability and blood flow. Recent data suggest that enhanced neural activity may play a key role in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of airway ...
Sims Erika J - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to determine the variability of laboratory nasal function tests in 26 patients (18 female) with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) (mean age 38.1 years). Their usual medication for SAR was withheld for 2 separate one week washout periods, separated by at least 2 weeks, in ...
Sala H - - 2002
In normal subjects supramaximal flows (SF) are known to be correlated with flow limitation. To further understand the mechanisms involved in SF this correlation and the influence of salbutamol and methacholine administration on SF have been investigated in asthmatic subjects. Protocol A involved obtaining basal maximal expiratory flow/volume curves and ...
Vanpee Dominique - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The assessment of pulmonary function in elderly persons is not often easy in the clinical practice because of poor patient collaboration. A new technique, negative expiratory pressure (NEP), should provide a simple, rapid and non-invasive method for detecting flow limitation without collaboration of the patients. Our aim ...
van Deventer Jan - - 2002
This paper investigates the effects of non-identical ultrasonic transducers on reciprocity and zero-flow calibration in transit time flow meters. According to the theorem of reciprocity, there should not be any difference between the up- and downstream acoustic times of flight in a zero-flow situation. This would thus eliminate zero-flow estimation ...
Wagner Elizabeth M - - 2002
Altered perfusion of the bronchial mucosal plexus relative to the adventitial plexus may contribute to geometric changes in the airway wall and lumen. We studied bronchial perfusion distribution in sheep by using fluorescent microspheres at baseline and during intrabronchial artery challenge with methacholine chloride (MCh; n = 7). Additionally, we ...
Wilson C M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Normal subjects frequently experience troublesome respiratory symptoms when acclimatised to altitude. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and full and partial flow-volume loops were measured before and after ascent to 5000 m altitude to determine if there are changes in resting bronchial tone and BHR that might explain the symptoms. METHODS: BHR ...
Verin Eric - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to examine the expiratory flow response to a negative pressure (NEP) applied at the airway in patients with no abnormalities of the intrathoracic airway but suffering from the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: Nineteen patients with OSAS with normal spirometric values were studied. NEP ...
Winck João C - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Nasal obstruction is one of the most frequent and sometimes troublesome side effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS: We describe a 60-year-old man with allergic seasonal rhinitis and OSAS, with worsening nasal symptoms 1 week after beginning home nCPAP, ...
Acuña A A - - 2002
Inhaled glucocorticosteroids may reduce airway mucosal oedema in acute asthma. Inhaled platelet-activating factor (PAF) provokes pulmonary gas exchange disturbances, similar to those shown in severe asthma, which may be due to increased airway plasma leakage. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study investigated the effects of high doses of inhaled fluticasone ...
Sciuto Alfred M - - 2002
One hallmark of phosgene inhalation toxicity is the latent formation of life-threatening, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phosgene inhalation on respiratory dynamics over 12 h. CD-1 male mice, 25-30 g, were exposed to 32 mg/m(3) (8 ppm) phosgene for 20 min ...
Bauer Inge - - 2002
Blood loss and ensuing circulatory failure continues to be the leading cause of death between the ages of 1 and 45 in most western countries. Hepatocellular dysfunction is a key feature of the pathophysiological sequelae of trauma/hemorrhage in patients surviving the first hours and hemorrhagic hypotension has been widely used ...
Rathgeber Jörg - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of humidification efficiency, flow resistance, and alarm functions of heated humidifiers (HH;(Kendall-Aerodyne-delta, Fisher&Paykel-MR 730; Dräger-Aquapor; Puritan-Bennett-Cascade II) in accordance with ISO/EN-8185:1997 and on a ventilated lung model in accordance with ISO/EN-9360:2000. METHODS: Humidification efficiency was evaluated by (a) measuring the water content of the inspiratory air on perfusion ...
Vesely Thomas M - - 2002
PURPOSE: The goals of this investigation were to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the Angioflow meter system with use of in vitro and in vivo methods and to compare it to the standard Transonics HD01 system in a clinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Angioflow meter system consists of ...
Kissoon Niranjan - - 2002
Exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) is a noninvasive and practical method to assess airway inflammation. We conducted this investigation to determine the most appropriate flow rate to measure FE(NO) and to obtain reference values for FE(NO) in children. FE(NO) was measured in 112 healthy 6-18 year olds (60 males) at 4 ...
de Koning J P - - 2002
Inhalation is a convenient way to deliver drugs to the respiratory tract in the treatment of respiratory diseases. For dry powder inhalers (DPI's), the principle of operation is to use the patient-generated inspiratory flow as energy source for emptying of the dose system and the delivery of fine drug particles ...
Tomita Katsuyuki - - 2002
Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 production is decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mild asthma. Using whole blood culture and flow cytometry we examined whether monocyte heterogeneity influenced IL-10 and IL-12 production in subjects with severe asthma. We demonstrated that IL-10 release in LPS-stimulated whole blood culture was ...
Totapally Balagangadhar R - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of nebulized albuterol on tidal breathing flow-volume loops in infants with bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, control study. SETTING: Pediatric unit in a community teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty infants younger than 1 year of age (mean age, 5.8 +/- 2.8 ...
Koulouris N G - - 2002
The term expiratory flow limitation is used to indicate that maximal expiratory flow is achieved during tidal breathing and is characteristic of intra-thoracic airflow obstruction. Despite the severe consequences of expiratory flow limitation, the prevalence and clinical significance of this phenomenon have not been adequately studied in chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
Delclaux Christophe - - 2002
The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of nitric oxide (NO) output measurement at multiple expiratory flow rates during diseases characterized by increased exhaled NO (FE(NO)) that could come from alveolar (liver cirrhosis) or bronchial (asthma) sources. It has been proposed that NO output measurements expressed as ...
Ochi Kentaro - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: We examined the potential correlation between the effectiveness of an external nasal dilator for Asians and nasal dimensions. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: The length, width, and height of the subjects' nose were measured. From these parameters, a nasal index (nasal width/nasal length) and a basal view index (columella height/nasal ...
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