Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1382
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Brimacombe J - - 2004
We tested the hypothesis that gum elastic-bougie-guided insertion of the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway is more frequently successful than introducer tool guided insertion after failed digital insertion. One hundred anaesthetized patients (ASA 1-2, aged 18 to 80 years) were randomized for the second insertion attempt using either the gum elastic ...
Prim M P - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the status of internal jugular veins (IJV) in patients with head and neck carcinomas. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This study included 108 IJV of 54 cancer patients who were prospectively evaluated between September 1994 and February 1997. Patency, presence of thrombosis, characteristics of vein wall, compressibility, area ...
van den Bemt Lisette - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Exposure to allergens plays a role in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and in the chronic inflammatory response seen in asthmatic patients. House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of allergen. Reduction of these allergens might lead to better lung function and reduction of asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The ...
Zacharasiewicz Angela - - 2004
Recent work suggests that exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) can be divided into airway and alveolar components, using varying expiratory flow rates. It is known that higher values of eNO are found with lower expiratory flow rates, thought to be due to prolonged contact of the expirate with the bronchial epithelium. ...
Van Meerhaeghe A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: This study examines the operating characteristics of the expiratory flow response to a negative pressure (NEP) applied to the mouth in the prediction of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in snoring patients. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty eight patients with normal spirometric values were studied. Full laboratory polysomnography was ...
Suleman M - - 2004
We have evaluated a mechanical glottis in healthy volunteers and in patients with bulbar motor neurone disease. In healthy volunteers, the mechanical glottis increased peak flow rate and decreased the time to peak flow during forced expiration, but cough produced even higher flow rates and shorter times to peak flow. ...
Tomalak Waldemar - - 2004
In order to construct reference equations, we attempted to measure forced inspiratory flows, i.e., peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and maximal inspiratory flow at 50% of FVC (MIF50%FVC) in 332 healthy schoolchildren aged 7-15 years during flow-volume loop measurements, using an electronic spirometer. In 255 children (122 boys and 133 girls), ...
Barnea Ofer - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Develop a sensitive algorithm and index for detection of asthma patients using forced expiratory flow curves. METHODS: A lumped-parameter model of forced expiration was developed. The model can predict the flow-volume curve during forced expiratory maneuver. The flow-volume curves generated by the model depend on values of resistance parameters ...
Sancho Jesús - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare peak cough flows (PCF) obtained with a pneumotachograph (PCFp) with those measured using a portable peak flow meter (PCFm) in a population of healthy subjects and patients with neuromuscular disease. DESIGN: A total of 30 healthy subjects and 32 medically stable patients with neuromuscular diseases were studied. ...
Maghni Karim - - 2004
The effects of an intravenous injection of Sephadex beads on lung eosinophil infiltration and eosinophil peroxydase activity and its relationship to bronchial hyperresponsiveness was examined in guinea pigs. This Sephadex beads injection led to blood, lung and airway eosinophilia in association with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Histologic examination of the lower bronchus ...
Kolobow Theodor T Pulmonary-Critical Care Medicine Branch, Section of Pulmonary and Cardiac Assist Devices, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1434, USA. - - 2004
To design and fabricate crush-proof polyurethane tracheal tubes for the newborn with the lowest resistance, least dead space, and thinnest wall. Test and evaluation of a novel, low-resistance, and low-dead-space tracheal tube for newborns. National Institutes of Health Research Laboratory. The short orotracheal portion of the tracheal tube was fabricated ...
Miyazawa Teruomi - - 2004
Airway stenting at the wave-speed flow-limiting segment (the choke point) is assessed. We determined prospectively the precise location of the choke point using the flow-volume curve, endobronchial ultrasonography, ultrathin bronchoscopy, and three-dimensional computed tomography scan before and after stenting in 64 patients with extrincic compression due to lung cancer. We ...
Cerveri Isa - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: A combination of functional measurements reflecting a decrease in maximum flow, a degree of lung hyperinflation, the relationship between maximum inspiratory and expiratory flows, bronchodilator response, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was used to quantify the extent of emphysema, as assessed by high-resolution CT ...
Sharafkhaneh Amir - - 2004
During forced vital capacity maneuvers in subjects with expiratory flow limitation, lung volume decreases during expiration both by air flowing out of the lung (i.e., exhaled volume) and by compression of gas within the thorax. As a result, a flow-volume loop generated by using exhaled volume is not representative of ...
Kohler Dieter - - 2004
For most dry powder inhalers (DPIs) a defined minimal inspiratory flow must be achieved immediately after the start of the inspiration procedure, to avoid insufficient deposition in the lung and excessive drug deposition in the patient's mouth and/or oropharynx. The Novolizer" (VIATRIS GmbH and Co. KG, Frankfurt, Germany) provides a ...
Cegla Ulrich H - - 2004
This study compared inspiratory characteristics of the Novolizer and Turbuhaler. Sixty patients with obstructive lung disease (40 asthmatics, 20 patients with COPD) and without DPI experience were enrolled into this investigator initiated, randomized, cross-over study. Collected data of 56 patients were eligible for analysis. Inspiratory pressure and inspiratory flow through ...
Mendes Eliana S - - 2004
Asthma is associated with an increase in airway blood flow (Qaw), presumably as a manifestation of airway inflammation. We therefore determined the effect of the antiinflammatory agents montelukast (ML) and fluticasone propionate (FP) on Qaw in 12 patients with mild intermittent asthma. Using a double-blind approach, Qaw along with FEV(1) ...
Colasanti Ric L - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To explore the flow and time domain characteristics of resting tidal airflow profiles in the presence of obstructive airway disease. METHODS: Spirometry was performed on 81 adults and 46 juveniles in the lung function laboratory. All the juveniles had cystic fibrosis (CF), as did some of the adults ...
Brighenti C C Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Sistemistica, Universitá di Bologna, Cesena, - - 2004
Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is frequent in mechanically ventilated patients with obstructive pulmonary disease and its prompt detection is important to optimize respiratory assistance. The present study aims to compare by simulation two methods for the detection of flow limitation in intensive care unit: the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) method ...
Berney Susan - - 2004
The purpose of this prospective randomised cross-over study was to measure peak expiratory flow rates during manual hyperinflation and to determine if the addition of a head-down tilt to physiotherapy treatment increased sputum production in patients who are intubated and ventilated. Twenty patients who were intubated, ventilated and haemodynamically stable ...
Baydur Ahmet - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique is used to detect intrathoracic expiratory flow limitation (EFL) in patients with respiratory disorders. Application of NEP may result in a sustained decrease of flow below control as a result of upper airway collapse, which may invalidate interpretation of the test. This response ...
Maxwell Lyndal J - - 2004
Operator performance during the expiratory phase of manual hyperinflation appears to vary between physiotherapists for Mapleson-B or C circuits. Some physiotherapists release the valve but maintain compression of the bag, whereas others release both the valve and the bag. The effect of this difference on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) ...
Hossain I I Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB. - - 2004
To investigate the relationship between lung sound (LS) and flow, we studied LS signals from 5 healthy adults (group I), 10 healthy children (group II) and 7 asthmatic children (group III). The LS signals were recorded on right upper lung lobe at different flow rates varied from 0.4 to 3.0 ...
Wanner Adam - - 2004
Inhaled glucocorticosteroids (corticosteroids) continue to be the standard treatment for nonexacerbated asthma because of their anti-inflammatory actions. These include effects on the airway vasculature, which participates in the inflammatory process. Corticosteroids are now known to have genomic as well as nongenomic effects that involve different mechanisms of action. The genomic ...
Delanvar Soheil S Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, - - 2004
We designed, calibrated and tested a flow meter for use inside an MRI scanner for measuring airflow through a metered dose inhaler (MDI). Several flow measurement methods were analyzed and the differential pressure method was selected utilizing the inhaler as part of the sensor. Our system can measure respiratory flows ...
Arbak Peri - - 2004
This prospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of hyperthyroidism on flow-volume loops in nonasthmatic 20 patients with hyperthyroidism. Thyroid related hormones (Total T3, Total T4 and TSH), thyroid gland volumes with ultrasonography, circumference of neck values and flow-volume loops were obtained at the beginning and after three months ...
Kjaergaard S K - - 2004
Sixteen healthy nonsmoking subjects (7 women), 21-49 yr old, were exposed in a climate chamber to either clean air or 300 parts/billion ozone on 4 days for 5 h each day. Before each exposure, the subjects had been pretreated with either oxidants (fish oil) or antioxidants (multivitamins). The study design ...
Younes Magdy - - 2004
Arousal is believed to be needed for upper airway opening in obstructive hypopneas-apneas, without compelling evidence to support this notion. The association may be incidental. I studied the temporal relation between arousal and opening and impact of arousal on flow response at opening in 82 patients (apnea-hypopnea index, 46 +/- ...
Kondo Tetsuri - - 2003
The middle-sized bronchus constricts during mid-inspiration through early-expiration. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological role of this respiratory-related bronchial rhythmic constriction (RRBRC). The following parameters were measured in 12 decerebrated and paralyzed dogs: pressure from a balloon-tipped catheter in the fifth-generation bronchus (to reveal RRBRC), efferent ...
de Boer A H - - 2003
The performance of five different compressors (CR60), Porta-Neb, Pulmo-Aide, TurboBoy and Freeway Freedom) was studied in combination with the widely recommended PARI LC PLUS nebuliser for the aerosolisation of a marketed tobramycin solution (TOBI). The droplet size distribution of the generated aerosol was measured with laser diffraction technique at stationary ...
Cantarella Giovanna - - 2003
Laryngeal hemiplegia (LH) is the most common disorder of laryngeal motility. It is deemed not to cause obstruction of the upper airway; in fact, the main symptoms are dysphonia and breathiness, and respiratory impairment is not commonly reported. The aim of this study was to objectively assess upper airway patency ...
Cabezas Gloria A GA Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, José M Vargas Medical School, Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela. - - 2003
Dopamine exerts inhibitory and excitatory effects on different systems. In the lungs, dopamine modulates respiratory functions through carotid bodies and modulates pulmonary blood vessel tone, alveolar liquids, and bronchial exchange, and possibly participates in the regulation of airways diameter. It has been reported that dopamine has no acute effect on ...
Le Merre C - - 2003
Several studies have demonstrated that nasal challenges can induce reflex responses in the respiratory system. Some authors have described bronchoconstriction and modification of the pattern of breathing following nasal challenges by irritants and cold air. We propose to determine the effect of nasal stimulation with cold dry air on airway ...
Shin Hye-Won - - 2004
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration is a noninvasive index for monitoring lung inflammation in diseases such as asthma. The plateau concentration at constant flow is highly dependent on the exhalation flow rate and the use of corticosteroids and cannot distinguish airway and alveolar sources. In subjects with steroid-naive asthma (n ...
Polak Adam G - - 2003
We present a computational model to predict maximal expiration through a morphometry-based asymmetrical bronchial tree. A computational model with the Horsfield-like geometry of the airway structure, including wave-speed flow limitation and taking into consideration separate airflows from several independent alveolar compartments has been derived. The airflow values are calculated for ...
Sheikh Shahid - - 2003
Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of maximum forced expiratory flow measured at functional residual capacity (V'maxFRC) and the ratio of flow at 75% of the forced expiratory volume to peak forced expiratory flow (FEF(75)/FEF(peak)) for detecting bronchodilator-related changes in wheezy infants. In 55 infants (mean age, 7.8 +/- ...
Hodgson M - - 2003
Mastication, swallowing, breath flow, and aroma release were measured simultaneously in vivo using electromyography, electroglottography, a turbine air flow meter, and the MS-Nose, respectively. Signals were synchronized either electronically or by aligning the nasal airflow data with the breath by breath release of acetone. Chewing affected nasal airflow, with the ...
Sera Toshihiro - - 2003
The possible mechanism of wheeze generation in tracheostenosis was identified by measuring inspiratory and expiratory flow in a "morphological and distensible" realistic tracheostenosis model. The shape of the model was based on CT (Computed Tomography) images of a patient that had tracheostenosis. A trachea consists of tracheal cartilage rings and ...
Jang An-Soo - - 2003
The monitoring of airway inflammation has assessed in bronchial asthma directly by sputum examination, and indirectly by measurements in peripheral blood. To investigate the diagnostic value of these two methods, we compared nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, eosinophils, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in sputum and blood in patients with asthma ...
Swart François - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The performance of spirometers is often evaluated under ideal conditions with computer-generated waveforms or in vivo testing with healthy subjects. Real-life conditions are less ideal because of comorbidities, age of the subjects, and a variety of air flow limitations. Evaluation of new spirometry equipment can also be performed under ...
Mendes E S - - 2003
The vasoconstrictive efficacies of glucocorticosteroids (GS) are usually compared by the McKenzie skin-blanching test and taken as an index of relative potency. The rationale for the present study was to transpose the McKenzie test to the airway and to compare the airway vascular effects of three inhaled GS: beclomethasone dipropionate ...
Hirose Shinjiro - - 2003
The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure was originally developed to reverse temporary tracheal occlusion in patients who had undergone foetal surgery for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In a select group of foetuses with CDH, tracheal occlusion is used to obstruct the normal flow of foetal lung fluid and ...
Hess Dean R - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of inspiratory time and inspiratory flow pattern on albuterol delivery by aerosol during mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: A ventilator was connected to a lung model and set to deliver a tidal volume of 0.6 l, PEEP 5 cmH(2)O, and respiratory rate of 15/min. We evaluated inspiratory ...
Miller M R - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the frequency response requirements for peak expiratory flow (PEF) meters are higher than was first thought and that the American Thoracic Society (ATS) waveforms to test PEF meters may not be adequate for the purpose. METHODS: The dynamic response of mini-Wright (MW), Vitalograph (V), TruZone ...
Ohta Kotoe Machida - - 2003
PURPOSE: The object of this work was to investigate the mechanism of how the surface geometric structure of flow agents affects on the flowability of pharmaceutical powder mixtures. METHODS: Nonporous and porous silicas were mixed with directly compressible fillers as flow promoting agents. The geometric structure of flow agents was ...
Yang Shieh-Ching - - 2003
Geographic and ethnic differences exist for the effects of respirable coal-mine dust on the lung function of miners. In this study, the authors compared 177 coal workers who had radiological evidence of progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) with 87 healthy male control subjects. The authors performed maximal expiratory flow volume measurements, ...
Strinić Tomislav - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether oral contraceptives affect lung mechanics. DESIGN: Open-label study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENT(S): Thirty-six healthy nonsmoking women. INTERVENTION(S): Administration of an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol, 35 microg, and norgestimat, 250 microg for 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Forced vital capacity; forced expiratory volume in 1 ...
Palma-Carlos A G - - 2003
The currently proposed guidelines and consensus for asthma include Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) as two criteria to classify asthma severity. The report between these functional data and clinical classification degrees has been evaluated in 153 asthmatic patients. Concordance between functional evaluation ...
Hayama Naoki - - 2003
This study tested the hypothesis that intrathoracic bronchi intermittently constrict during coughing and attempted to elucidate the effect on explosive flow. The subjects were 21 dogs having undergone tracheostomy. In the first group A (n = 7), the diameter of the fifth-generation bronchus was measured with a balloon-tipped catheter and ...
Gauld L M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To show that in children with moderately severe cystic fibrosis lung disease: (i). inspiratory flow may be reduced; and (ii). peak inspiratory flow may be predicted from height, expiratory flow analysis or body mass index. METHODS: All children attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, between May and July, 2001 ...
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