Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1382
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Abel Richard L - - 2010
We describe several novel morphological features in the nasal region of the hammerhead shark Sphyrna tudes. Unlike the open, rounded incurrent nostril of non-hammerhead shark species, the incurrent nostril of S. tudes is a thin keyhole-like aperture. We discovered a groove running anterior and parallel to the incurrent nostril. This ...
Pesola Gene R - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: U.S. prediction equation estimated peak flows were obtained spirometrically and may not correctly predict actual peak flows that are obtained using a peak flow meter. The purpose of this investigation was to compare actual Mini Wright peak flows in normal volunteers as compared with spirometric predicted values to determine ...
Hansen Jens Georg - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of acute rhinosinusitis on lung function as measured by spirometry. METHOD: An observational study in Danish general practice on 25 adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis and without any signs of chronic lung disease or allergy. Patients performed spirometry at the initial ...
Parker James Courtney - - 2009
A prototype time cycled, constant volume, closed circuit perfluorocarbon (PFC) total liquid ventilator system is described. The system utilizes microcontroller-driven display and master control boards, gear motor pumps, and three-way solenoid valves to direct flow. A constant tidal volume and functional residual capacity (FRC) are maintained with feedback control using ...
Paredi P - - 2009
It is increasingly recognised that the airway circulation plays an important role in airway diseases, either through a change in blood flow or through microvascular leakage. Most of the information available regarding the anatomy and physiology of bronchial blood flow and its regulation has necessarily derived from animal studies. However, ...
Tenhunen M - - 2009
A nasal pressure transducer, which is used to study nocturnal airflow, also provides information about the inspiratory flow waveform. A round flow shape is presented during normal breathing. A flattened, non-round shape is found during hypopneas and it can also appear in prolonged episodes. The significance of this prolonged flow ...
Modrykamien Ariel M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There are important gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology and diagnosis of upper-airway obstruction. METHODS: We examined the diagnostic value of several criteria for predicting upper-airway obstruction, and we measured the frequency of detecting upper-airway obstruction via quantitative and visual assessment of flow-volume loops. We studied 4 quantitative ...
Watson Maura A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is difficult to diagnose. Laryngoscopy while the patient is symptomatic is the accepted standard method to establish a diagnosis of VCD, but patient characteristics and spirometry values are thought to be useful for predicting VCD. We sought to identify clinical and spirometric variables that suggest ...
Sterner James B - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The 2005 American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines on spirometry emphasize examination of the inspiratory curve of the flow-volume loop for evidence of intrathoracic or extrathoracic upper airway obstruction. We sought to determine how frequently evaluations are performed for abnormal inspiratory curves. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all examinations performed ...
Aggarwal Ashutosh N - - 2009
Lung function in 1686 adult patients was measured before, and 15 minutes after, salbutamol inhalation. Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) was defined as a 12% improvement over baseline in either FEV1 or FVC, along with an absolute volume increment of 200 ml. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) change, both absolute and relative to ...
Jiamsripong Panupong P Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Translational Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259, - - 2009
Analysis of intraventricular flow force and efficiency is a novel concept of quantitatively assessing left ventricular (LV) hemodynamic performance. We have parametrically characterized diastolic filling flow by early inflow force, late inflow force, and total inflow force and by vortex formation time (VFT), a fundamental parameter of fluid transport efficiency. ...
Mihaescu Mihai - - 2009
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to perform computer simulations of flow within an accurate model of a pediatric airway with subglottic stenosis. It is believed that the airflow characteristics in a stenotic airway are strongly related to the sensation of dyspnea. METHODS: Computed tomography images through the respiratory ...
Rodrigo Gustavo J - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To analyze the prediction of response of therapy into the context of acute adult asthma assessment in the emergency department (ED) setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Close monitoring of the patient's condition at presentation (static assessment) and response to treatment (dynamic assessment), including serial measurements of lung function, is ...
Nik Hisamuddin N A R - - 2009
The usual method for initial assessment of an acute asthma attack in the emergency room includes the use of peak flow measurement and clinical parameters. Both methods have their own disadvantages such as poor cooperation/effort from patients (peak flow meter) and lack of objective assessment (clinical parameters). We were looking ...
Banno Masashi - - 2009
Background: The recently released handheld In-Check device can be used to measure the peak inspiratory flow rate (PIF) of patients and is reportedly useful in determining whether the PIF is sufficient for using inhaler devices. In this study, we evaluated the effects of instructions for the use of the device ...
Ma Rong-Hua - - 2009
This study develops a MEMS-based low-cost sensing platform for sensing gas flow rate and flow direction comprising four silicon nitride cantilever beams arranged in a cross-form configuration, a circular hot-wire flow meter suspended on a silicon nitride membrane, and an integrated resistive temperature detector (RTD). In the proposed device, the ...
Ohkura Noriyuki - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Cough in the patients with cough variant asthma is triggered by bronchoconstriction, which responds to bronchodilator therapy. Following airway narrowing induced by inhaled methacholine, deep inspiration (DI) causes dilation of the airways in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship ...
Robert Raymond - - 2009
Liquid-assisted ventilation (LAV) using perfluorochemicals (PFC) offers clear theoretical advantages over gas ventilation. During tidal liquid ventilation (TLV) the residual capacity of the lungs is filled with PFC and a liquid ventilator is necessary to inhale and exhale the tidal volume of PFC. However, during the expiration phase, a flow ...
Gregory N G - - 2009
Bovine respiratory tracts were examined for blood following shechita without stunning, halal slaughter without stunning, and captive bolt stunning with sticking. In all three methods the cattle were in the upright (standing) position at the start of bleeding. Those that had not been stunned continued to breathe during the early ...
Sepponen Anna - - 2008
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration is a marker of pulmonary inflammation. It is usually measured at a single exhalation flow rate. However, measuring exhaled NO at multiple flow rates allows assessment of the flow-independent NO parameters: alveolar NO concentration, bronchial NO flux, bronchial wall NO concentration, and bronchial diffusing capacity ...
Denlinger Loren C LC Section of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, P.O. Box 9988, Madison, WI 53792, USA. - - 2009
Upper respiratory tract infection is a guideline accepted risk domain for the loss of asthma control. The ionotrophic nucleotide receptor P2X(7) regulates compartmentalized acute inflammation and the immune response to airway pathogens. We hypothesized that variability in P2X(7) function contributes to neutrophilic airway inflammation during a cold and thereby is ...
Lin Shu-Hui - - 2009
In addition to the Poiseuille effect, a so-called temporal effect was proposed recently to elucidate the commonly observed tailing peak signals of flow injection analysis (FIA). A multi-channel absorbance detector was used in this study to obtain the FIA peaks on both the spatial and temporal coordinates. The temporal effect ...
Doorly D J - - 2008
Current approaches to model nasal airflow are reviewed in this study, and new findings presented. These new results make use of improvements to computational and experimental techniques and resources, which now allow key dynamical features to be investigated, and offer rational procedures to relate variations in anatomical form. Specifically, both ...
Teng ZhongZhao - - 2008
Trachea is the unique passage for air to flow in and out. Its tone is of importance for the respiration system. However, investigation on how tracheal tone changes due to asthma is limited. Aiming at studying how the mechanical property changes due to asthma as well as the compliance and ...
Holzman Roi - - 2008
During ontogeny, animals undergo changes in size and shape that result in shifts in performance, behavior and resource use. These ontogenetic changes provide an opportunity to test hypotheses about how the growth of structures affects biological functions. In the present study, we ask how ontogenetic changes in skull biomechanics affect ...
Choong Cliff K - - 2008
By creating artificial communications through bronchial walls into the parenchyma of explanted lungs (airway bypass), we expect to decrease the amount of gas trapped and to increase the rate and volume of air expelled during forced expirations. To describe the mechanism by which airway bypass improves the mechanical properties of ...
Ha Jonathan K - - 2008
A systematic study on the sources of drift in a turbine-based spirometer (VMM-400) is presented. The study utilized an air-tight cylinder to pump air through the spirometer in a precise and programmable manner. Factors contributing to the drift were isolated and quantified. The drift due to imbalance in the electronics ...
Schmalisch G - - 2009
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is routinely used for respiratory support in neonates. Air leaks are not uncommon and can hinder treatment. This study compared leak flow data obtained using different leak definitions through modeling and in vitro measurements. METHODS: Using a computer simulation of an ideal CPAP system, the ...
Walker Paul P - - 2008
A significant proportion of patients with COPD show post-bronchodilator improvement in lung volume even though this response is rarely considered when classifying subjects as having reversible or irreversible airway disease. We studied 266 patients with a clinical and physiological diagnosis of COPD who underwent pulmonary function testing and had their ...
Bertram Christopher D - - 2008
The self-excited oscillation of airway structures and flexible tubes in response to flow is reviewed. The structures range from tiny airways deep in the lung causing wheezing at the end of a forced expiration, to the pursed lips of a brass musical instrument player. Other airway structures that vibrate include ...
Brouwer A F J - - 2008
Current reference values for diurnal peak flow variation in healthy children (median 8.2%; 95th percentile 31%) are so high that considerable overlap exists with those of asthmatic children. These values have been obtained using written peak flow diaries, which are unreliable. The aim of the present study was to obtain ...
Gogate Shaila - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Markers of disease status that provide a numerical measure of disease activity, biomarkers, have come into more routine use in medicine. This is evidenced by troponin and brain natriuretic peptide when measuring cardiac function or glomerular filtration rate in relation to kidney function. Similar markers to assess ...
Suresh Vinod - - 2008
Elevated exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in the breath of asthmatic subjects is thought to be a noninvasive marker of lung inflammation. Asthma is also characterized by heterogeneous bronchoconstriction and inflammation, which impact the spatial distribution of ventilation in the lungs. Since exhaled NO arises from both airway and alveolar regions, ...
Alves Luiz Antonio - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Flutter VRP1 device is used for airway clearance. Its performance is based on 4 basic effects: positive expiratory pressure (PEP), forced exhalations (huff), high-frequency airway flow oscillation, and modification of mucus viscoelasticity. The purpose of this study was to determine the flow and angle conditions in which these ...
Bhashyam Abhiram R - - 2008
In most circumstances, a nasal route for the delivery of pulmonary aerosol medications is rarely considered; however, in specific instances, this route may be quite useful. Consider, for example, the delivery of aerosol treatments during humidified high-flow nasal cannula use in pediatric critical care, or continuous aerosol delivery via cannula ...
Ashraf Mohammad - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and its clinical utility in diagnosing OSA. METHODS: We conducted an observational study between March 2006 and March 2007 at King Khalid University Hospital on consecutive patients presenting with suspected OSA. Spirometric indices of forced expiratory ...
Fresconi Frank E - - 2008
The adverse health effects of inhaled particulate matter from the environment depend on its dispersion, transport, and deposition in the human airways. Similarly, precise targeting of deposition sites by pulmonary drug delivery systems also relies on characterizing the dispersion and transport of therapeutic aerosols in the respiratory tract. A variety ...
Mandard Emmanuelle - - 2008
This article reports the methodology used to develop a high-precision ultrasound transit time flow meter dedicated to liquid hydrocarbons. This kind of flow meter is designed for custody transfer applications requiring accuracy better than 0.15% of reading. We focus here on certain specific points to achieve this accuracy. The transit ...
Goyal M - - 2008
Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) variability follows a specific pattern in asthmatics as well as in healthy individuals. There is scarcity of data for Indian healthy subjects. The PEFR (L/min.) was measured with Wright's portable peak flow meter at 05:00, 8:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00 and 23:00 hours in 42 ...
Tomari Shinya - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Little is understood about the additive effects of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) on asthmatics currently medicated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABA). OBJECTIVES: The present study examines the anti-inflammatory effects of the LTRA pranlukast in addition to ICS and LABA, among asthmatic patients with normal pulmonary function ...
Lee Seung Soo - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of respiration on the spectral Doppler wave of the right hepatic vein (RHV) in right lobe living donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients. METHODS: A spectral Doppler wave of the RHV was obtained from 23 consecutive right lobe LDLT recipients ...
Sinha Roy A - - 2007
Interventional treatment of aortic aneurysms using endovascular stentgrafting is a minimally invasive technique. Following device implantation, transient drag forces act on the stentgraft. When the drag force exceeds the fixation force, complications like stentgraft migration, endoleaks and stentgraft failure occur. In such a scenario the device becomes unstable, causing concern ...
Singh Gurdev Dave - - 2007
Patients with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) require antero-posterior (AP) correction of mandibular position inter alia. Determination of the limit of the AP correction using a sibilant phoneme registration (SPR) protocol is essential in not increasing muscular tonus. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a SPR protocol ...
Crimi Emanuele - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is believed to be caused in part by the inability of deep inspirations to modulate airway narrowing. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether deep inspirations taken before or after methacholine inhalation attenuate bronchoconstriction in subjects with rhinitis. The results were compared with a group of healthy subjects. ...
Vaz Fragoso Carlos A CA Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, P.O. Box 208025, New Haven, CT 06250-8025, USA. - - 2007
Peak expiratory flow ("peak flow") predicts important outcomes in older persons. Nevertheless, its clinical application is uncertain because prior strategies for reporting peak flow may not be valid. We thus determined the frequency distribution of peak flow by the conventional strategy of percent predicted (%predicted) and by an alternative method ...
Gonlugur U - - 2007
To our knowledge, there is no data on the effect of tiotropium on pulmonary gas exchange in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tiotropium on pulmonary diffusing capacity. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were enrolled for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Spirometric measurements, including ...
Lee Jong-Tae - - 2007
There is increasing concern that airborne particles are critical risk factors for adverse health conditions in susceptible populations. The objective of this panel study is to investigate an association between particulate matter and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in the elderly and to compare estimated risks using PM10 or ...
Saarinen Antti - - 2007
Injection laryngoplasty restores voice in subjects with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, but knowledge of its effects on airflow dynamics is limited. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a non-invasive technique to investigate airway resistance. It is easily performed during normal breathing. A prospective study was conducted in order to investigate the effects ...
Pietropaoli Anthony P - - 2007
Air exhaled by cigarette smokers contains reduced amounts of nitric oxide (NO). Measurement of NO at different expiratory flow rates permits calculation of NO production by the conducting airways (Vaw(NO)) and alveolar concentration of NO (P(ALV)). An independent measurement of diffusing capacity of the alveolar compartment (D(LNO)) multiplied by P(ALV) ...
Polak Adam G - - 2008
Flow limitation in the airways is a fundamental process constituting the maximal expiratory flow-volume curve. Its location is referred to as the choke point. In this work, expressions enabling the calculation of critical flows in the case of wave-speed, turbulent or viscous limitation were derived. Then a computational model for ...
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