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Leung Lai Yee - - 2013
Traumatic brain injury often occurs in conjunction with additional trauma resulting in secondary complications such as hypotension due to blood loss. This study investigated the combined effects of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) on physiological parameters including acute changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), brain ...
Nagura Yutaka - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) has been implicated in the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). In plasma, LPC is converted to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by autotaxin (ATX). The effect of leukoreduction in the accumulation of these bioactive lipids and ATX in human autologous blood has not been fully investigated. STUDY ...
Meex Ingrid - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Current monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is limited to clinical observation of consciousness, breathing pattern and presence of a pulse. At the same time, the adequacy of cerebral oxygenation during CPR is critical for neurological outcome and thus survival. Cerebral oximetry, based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), provides a measure ...
Nishi Kouichirou - - 2013
The relationship between dilution caused by fluid resuscitation and blood coagulability during ongoing, uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS) remains unclear. We hypothesized that dilution caused by fluid resuscitation may impair blood coagulability in UHS. Eighteen rats underwent under halothane anesthesia. The UHS model consisted of the following phases: (1) an initial ...
Alexander James M - - 2013
Intrapartum hemorrhage is a serious and sometimes life-threatening event. Several etiologies are known and include placental abruption, uterine atony, placenta accreta, and genital tract lacerations. Prompt recognition of blood loss, identification of the source of the hemorrhage, volume resuscitation, including red blood cells and blood products when required, will result ...
Carr Marcus E - - 2013
Due to the lack of adequate controlled trials, the off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) to control hemorrhage in trauma patients remains controversial. The decision regarding when to initiate rFVIIa therapy is particularly problematic. Whereas most reports and trials have delayed use until significant bleeding has occurred, there is ...
Inaba Kenji - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of kaolin- and chitosan-based hemostatic agents for hemorrhage control in a 14-day survival, damage-control swine model of Grade IV liver injury. A total of 48 anesthetized pigs (40 kg) underwent a 35% total blood volume bleed, cooling ...
Bian Yuzhu Y Artificial Cells and Organs Research Center, Departments of Physiology, Medicine and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, - - 2013
Even though erythrocytes transport both oxygen and carbon dioxide, research on blood substitutes has concentrated on the transport of oxygen and its vasoactivity and oxidative effects. Recent study in a hemorrhagic shock animal model shows that the degree of tissue PCO(2) elevation is directly related to mortality rates. We therefore ...
Permpikul Chairat - - 2013
Septic shock is a serious condition leading to high mortality and morbidity. Many varieties of attempts aiming toward improving outcomes have been implemented. However the appropriate therapeutic endpoint of shock resuscitation is still under investigation. The authors report here the dynamics of commonly used parameters, namely central venous oxygen saturation ...
Elmer Jonathan - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage after trauma is a common cause of death in the United States and globally. The primary goals when managing traumatic shock are the restoration of oxygen delivery to end organs, maintenance of circulatory volume, and prevention of ongoing bleeding through source control and correction of coagulopathy. Achieving these ...
Rahmany Mária B - - 2013
Uncontrolled bleeding continues to be one of the leading causes of death in individuals following traumatic injury. Prognosis is worsened with the onset of acute coagulopathy characterized by metabolic acidosis, hypothermia and hemodilution, which consequently perpetuates blood loss and increases mortality. While there are several limitations to biomaterials employed as ...
Nunez Fiesky A FA Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd., Winston Salem , NC , - - 2013
Death after severe hemorrhage remains an important cause of mortality in people under 50 years of age. Keratin resuscitation fluid (KRF) is a novel resuscitation solution made from keratin protein that may restore cardiovascular stability. This postulate was tested in rats that were exsanguinated to 40% of their blood volume. ...
Sailliol Anne - - 2013
Freeze-dried plasma was developed by the US Army for the resuscitation of combat casualties during World War II. The French Military Blood Institute began producing French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 1949, in accordance with French blood product guidelines. Since 2010, a photochemical pathogen inactivation process has been implemented to reduce ...
Bouglé Adrien - - 2013
Managing trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock is complex and difficult. Despite our knowledge of the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock in trauma patients that we have accumulated during recent decades, the mortality rate of these patients remains high. In the acute phase of hemorrhage, the therapeutic priority is to stop the ...
Holley A - - 2013
The development of effective cryopreservation techniques for both red blood cells and platelets, which maintain ex vivo biological activity, in combination with frozen plasma, provides for a unique blood banking strategy. This technology greatly enhances the storage life of these products. The rationale and potential advantages of using cryopreservation techniques ...
Abassi Zaid A - - 2013
Uncontrolled hemorrhage, resulting from traumatic injuries, continues to be the leading cause of death in civilian and military environments. Hemorrhagic deaths usually occur within the first 6 hours of admission to hospital; therefore, early prehospital identification of patients who are at risk for developing shock may improve survival. The aims ...
Prat Daphna D Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, - - 2013
Background. Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PM-NASAH) is characterized by a benign course compared with aneurysmal SAH. While vasospasm (VS) after aneurysmal SAH is considered responsible for serious complications, VS post-PM-NASAH is not well documented. Our purpose was to characterize the incidence and course of VS among 63 patients-one of the ...
de Souza Diego Agra - - 2013
Blood products and derivatives are indispensable resources in medical therapies. However, it is important to note that the number of donations is far from ideal. Despite constant campaign efforts, a deficit of 1 million units is expected by 2030. To determine the adequacy of the indications for red blood cell ...
Pacagnella Rodolfo Carvalho RC Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, - - 2013
This systematic review examines the relationship between blood loss and clinical signs and explores its use to trigger clinical interventions in the management of obstetric haemorrhage. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using a comprehensive search strategy to identify studies presenting data on the relationship of clinical ...
Sulzer Jesse K JK Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112-1393, - - 2013
Acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) impairs the hemodynamic and arginine vasopressin (AVP) counter-regulation to hemorrhagic shock (HS) and lactated Ringer's solution (LR) fluid resuscitation (FR). The mechanism of AAI-induced suppression of AVP release in response to HS involves accentuated nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory tone. In contrast, AAI does not prevent AVP ...
Vollmer Christian - - 2013
Hypothermia is known to improve tissue function in different organs during physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hypothermia on oral and gastric mucosal microvascular oxygenation ( μ HbO2) and perfusion ( μ flow) under physiological and hemorrhagic conditions. Five dogs were ...
Strandenes Geir - - 2013
The Blood Far Forward (BFF) research program was established to conduct blood product efficacy and safety studies, donor performance studies, and research on optimal training methods to improve the safety of blood collection and transfusion performed by Norwegian Naval Special Operation Commando soldiers. The use of intravenous fluids for volume ...
Guerci Philippe - - 2012
The choice of volume expander for fluid resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock is still debated. Changes in plasma viscosity (PV) are barely investigated while PV modulates functional capillary density, microcirculation and organ function. The present study evaluated the impact of 2 strategies of fluid resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock in pigs. Ten ...
Bodnar Daniel - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, limitations and costs involved in providing prehospital trauma teams with packed red blood cells (pRBCs) for use in the prehospital setting. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study, examining 18 months of historical data collated by the Queensland Ambulance Service Trauma Response Team (TRT) and the Pathology ...
Galvagno Samuel M SM - - 2013
Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) and hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) are used for resuscitation of trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock. In this review, the clinical application, dosing, administration, and side effects of these solutions are discussed. Although HBOC and HSS are not ideal resuscitation fluids, until rapidly thawed universal donor frozen ...
Régnier Marie-Alix - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: Lactate has been shown to be a prognostic biomarker in trauma. Although lactate clearance has already been proposed as an intermediate endpoint in randomized trials, its precise role in trauma patients remains to be determined. METHODS:: Blood lactate levels and lactate clearance (LC) were calculated at admission and 2 ...
Pidcoke Heather F - - 2012
The Joint Theater Trauma Registry database, begun early in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, created a comprehensive repository of information that facilitated research efforts and produced rapid changes in clinical care. New clinical practice guidelines were adopted throughout the last decade. The damage-control resuscitation clinical practice guideline sought ...
Sugiura Tokio - - 2012
To study the effect of exchange transfusion on cytokine profiles in a patient with necrotizing enterocolitis, the levels of 12 cytokines and serum calprotectin were measured among exchange transfusion. A male extremely low birth weight infant was in non-compensated shock and diagnosed stage 3 necrotizing enterocolitis. Exchange transfusion was performed ...
Nacionales Dina C DC Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, - - 2012
Blood transfusion is a well-established risk factor for adverse outcomes during sepsis. The specific mechanisms responsible for this effect remain elusive, and few studies have investigated this phenomenon in a model that reflects not only the clinical circumstances in which blood is transfused, but also how packed red blood cells ...
Nolen-Walston Rose D - - 2012
Large animal species in states of shock can require particularly high flow rates for volume resuscitation and the ability to deliver adequate volumes rapidly may be a rate-limiting step. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum flow rates of common combinations of IV catheter, extension set, and ...
Harris Mark - - 2012
Split-flow models used in conjunction with demand-to-capacity staffing and Lean strategies can resuscitate emergency department (ED) metrics by: Expediting front-end triage and intake processes, Segregating patient flow into two categories, with different care processes for each, Establishing a process of resource pooling in which physicians and nurses conduct joint assessments, ...
Calzia Enrico - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The role of the gaseous mediator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in hemorrhagic shock is still a matter of debate. This debate is emphasized by the fact that available literature data on blood and tissue H2S concentrations vary by three orders of magnitude, both under physiological conditions as well as during ...
Thorson Chad M - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The decision to transfuse packed RBCs (PRBC) during initial resuscitation of trauma patients is based on physiologic state, evidence for blood loss, and potential for ongoing hemorrhage. Initial hematocrit (Hct) is not considered an accurate marker of blood loss. This study tests the hypothesis that admission Hct is associated ...
Filho Ivo Torres - - 2012
Hemorrhage is responsible for a large percentage of trauma-related deaths but the mechanisms underlying tissue ischemia are complex and not well understood. Despite the evidence linking glycocalyx degradation and hemorrhagic shock, there is no direct data obtained in vivo showing glycocalyx thickness reduction in skeletal muscle venules after hemorrhage. We ...
Kopterides Petros - - 2012
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to study the interrelationship between blood and tissue lactate in critically ill patients with or without shock admitted in a general intensive care unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 162 mechanically ventilated patients: 106 with shock (septic shock, 97; cardiogenic shock, 9) and ...
Hayter Megan A - - 2012
PURPOSE: Massive transfusion has recently been given a dynamic definition, namely, the replacement of more than four red cell concentrates within an hour. The purpose of this continuing professional development module is to review the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock in the trauma patient and the current management strategies of the ...
Foley Lesley M LM Pittsburgh NMR Center for Biomedical Research, Mellon Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, - - 2013
Secondary insults such as hypotension or hemorrhagic shock (HS) can greatly worsen outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We recently developed a mouse combined injury model of TBI and HS using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model and showed that 90 minutes of HS can exacerbate neuronal death in hippocampus ...
Lu Guo-Ping - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the effect of continuous blood purification on cardiac function and plasma vasoactive substances in endotoxic shock in piglets. DESIGN:: This was a randomized controlled trial in an animal laboratory in a tertiary care pediatric center. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Twenty-three healthy Shanghai white piglets weighing 8-14 kg were ...
White Heath - - 2012
SESSION TYPE: Sepsis/Shock PostersPRESENTED ON: Wednesday, October 24, 2012 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMPURPOSE: Severe sepsis and septic shock are life-threatening conditions within the intensive care unit that frequently require analysis of acid-base status and oxygenation. Arterial blood gases have traditionally been used for this evaluation but their collection ...
Sharma Pushpa - - 2012
To evaluate the effectiveness of normal saline, hypertonic saline, and Ringer's lactate solution followed by blood infusion in ameliorating the physiological, biochemical, and organ functions following hemorrhagic shock (HS) in rats. Anesthetized, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent computer-controlled HS, and were randomly divided into five groups consisting of (1) sham, (2) ...
Raum Marcus R - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Acute hemorrhage after life-threatening injury is still one of the main killers after trauma. The article by Brockamp and colleagues presents a good overview of recent scores for estimation of blood loss and transfusion requirement.
Stapley Ryan R Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, - - 2012
Storage of erythrocytes in blood banks is associated with biochemical and morphological changes to RBCs (red blood cells). It has been suggested that these changes have potential negative clinical effects characterized by inflammation and microcirculatory dysfunction which add to other transfusion-related toxicities. However, the mechanisms linking RBC storage and toxicity ...
Hahn R G - - 2012
Intravenous fluid is life-saving in hypovolemic shock, but fluid sometimes aggravates the bleeding. During the past 25 years, animal models have helped our understanding of the mechanisms involved in this unexpected effect. A key issue is that vasoconstriction is insufficient to arrest the bleeding when damage is made to a ...
Sisak Krisztian - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Early transfusion (ET=within 24h) has been shown to be required in approximately 5% of trauma patients. Critical care transfusion guidelines control transfusion triggers by evidence based cut-offs. Empirical guidelines influence decision making for ET in trauma. AIM: to describe the patterns, indications and timing of ET at level 1 ...
Chandler Mark H - - 2012
Since its introduction in the early part of the last century, fresh whole blood (FWB) has been used by the US military as a battlefield expedient resuscitation method, even after the development of component therapy in the 1960s. In the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, FWB was used once ...
Schmidt Bruno M - - 2012
The objective of this study was to investigate regional organ perfusion acutely following uncontrolled hemorrhage in an animal model that simulates a penetrating vascular injury and accounts for prehospital times in urban trauma. We set forth to determine if hypotensive resuscitation (permissive hypotension) would result in equivalent organ perfusion compared ...
Sarkar R S RS Commandant, 151 Base Hospital, C/o 99 - - 2012
Providing blood at the times of national emergencies and war-like scenarios is a challenge to the blood transfusion services. The dictum should be adequate bleeding, minimum storage time, quick transportation and maximum utilization of blood as soon as possible. For the successful implementation of its role, forward transfusion services should ...
McDonald M - - 2012
In the cores of some clusters of galaxies the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous 'cooling flows' of gas sinking towards the cluster centre, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star-formation rates and ...
Liu David - - 2012
The aim of the study was to determine whether the placement of a SmartSite antireflux valve between a bag of fluid with line giving set and an intravenous cannula decreases the flow rate. Fluid flow rates were compared in paired experiments with and without an antireflux valve using a pressure ...
Duckett Jonathan - - 2012
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The relationship between free flow (FFS) and pressure flow (PFS) voiding studies remains uncertain and the effect of a urethral catheter on flow rates has not been determined. The relationship between residuals obtained at FF and PFS has yet to be established. METHODS: This was a prospective ...
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