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Dehkordi Parastoo P Electrical and Computing Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, - - 2014
In this paper, an innovative method for estimating the respiratory flow and efforts is proposed and evaluated in various postures and flow rates. Three micro electro-mechanical system accelerometers were mounted on the suprasternal notch, thorax and abdomen of subjects in supine, prone and lateral positions to record the upper airway ...
Licina Dusan D National University of Singapore - Building, School of Design and Environment 4, Architecture Drive, Singapore, 117566; Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy - Civil Engineering, Nils Koppels Allé, Building 402, Room 227, Lyngby, 2800, - - 2014
This study investigates the interaction between the human convective boundary layer (CBL) and uniform airflow with different velocity and from different directions. Human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with complex body shape and surface temperature distribution as the skin temperature of an average person. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) ...
Tancredi Felipe B - - 2014
Respiratory manipulations modulating blood flow and oxygenation levels have become an important component of modern functional MRI applications. Manipulations often consist of temporarily switching inspired fractions of CO2 and O2; and have typically been performed using simple oxygen masks intended for applications in respiratory therapy. However, precise control of inspired ...
Watanabe Tamaki T a Faculty of Pharma-Sciences, Practical Pharmacy , Teikyo University , Tokyo , - - 2014
Uric acid (UA) levels in mouse blood have been reported to range widely from 0.1 μM to 760 μM. The aim of this study was to demonstrate false in vitro and in vivo elevations of UA levels in mouse blood. Male ICR mice were anesthetized with pentobarbital (breathing mice) or sacrificed with ...
Mochalski Pawe - - 2014
Monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath shows great potential as a non-invasive method for assessing hemodialysis efficiency. In this work we aim at identifying and quantifying of a wide range of VOCs characterizing uremic breath and blood, with a particular focus on species responding to the dialysis ...
Fussell Elizabeth E Washington State University, PO Box 644020, Wilson Room 253, Pullman, WA - - 2014
Hurricane Katrina's effect on the population of the City of New Orleans provides a model of how severe weather events, which are likely to increase in frequency and strength as the climate warms, might affect other large coastal cities. Our research focuses on changes in the migration system - defined ...
Martin-Flores M M Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
The use of spring-loaded mouth gags in cats can be associated with the development of central neurological deficits, including blindness. In this species, the maxillary arteries are the main source of blood supply to the retinae and brain. Spring-loaded gags generate constant force after placement that could contribute to bulging ...
Paneroni M M Respiratory Rehabilitation Division, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Lumezzane (BS), - - 2014
Cough capacity derangement is associated with a high risk of pulmonary complications in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients when cough assistance is not routinely performed at home. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a long-term home based daily self-monitoring cough capacity. Eighteen subjects were enrolled ...
Cross Troy J TJ Griffith Health Institute and Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland, Australia ; Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of - - 2014
To examine whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired during maximal voluntary apnoea in trained divers. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cerebral blood flow-velocity (CBFV) and end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PETO2 and PETCO2) were measured in eleven trained, male apnoea divers (28±2 yr; 182±2 cm, 76±7 kg) during ...
Chikata Yusuke Y Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto, Tokushima, 770-8503 - - 2013
Delivering heated and humidified medical gas at 20 - 60 L/min, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) creates low level of PEEP, and ameliorates respiratory mechanics. It has become a common therapy for patients with respiratory failure. However, independent measurement of heat and humidity during HFNC and comparison of HFNC devices ...
Lin Chung-Hui - - 2013
Feline lower airway disease (FLAD) is a chronic respiratory disease of which there is a lack of information on functional assessment in current veterinary medicine. The purposes of this study were to investigate expiratory pattern and evaluate the diagnostic utility of functional parameters in cats with FLAD. Thirty-three client-owned cats ...
Hibbard Troy - - 2013
A device for measuring human breath ammonia was developed based on a single use, disposable, inkjet printed ammonia sensor fabricated using polyaniline nanoparticles. The device was optimised for sampling ammonia in human breath samples by addressing issues such as variations in breath sample volume, flow rate, sources of oral ammonia, ...
Rimpilä Ville - - 2013
Upper airway flow-limitation is often but not always associated with prolonged gradually increasing respiratory effort. We investigated the changes in transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (tcCO2) during episodes of upper airway flow limitation during sleep with or without respiratory effort response. Seventy-seven episodes of progressive flow-limitation were analyzed in 36 patients ...
Mahdavi Alireza - - 2013
The investigation of particle penetration through filtering facepiece respirators under cyclic flows is very necessary because cyclic flows represent actual breathing flow patterns. This article reports the development of a procedure to investigate the individual impact of breathing frequency and flow rate on the performance of N95 filtering facepiece respirators. ...
Gordon Dan - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reductions in blood volume and associated oxygen-carrying capacity on the incidence of plateau at [Formula: see text] 2max. Fifteen well-trained athletes (age 23.3 ± 4.5; mass 77.4 ± 13.1 kg, height 180.1 ± 6.0 cm) completed three incremental cycle tests to volitional exhaustion, of which the first ...
He Xinjian - - 2013
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of breathing frequency and flow rate on the total inward leakage (TIL) of an elastomeric half-mask donned on an advanced manikin headform and challenged with combustion aerosols. An elastomeric half-mask respirator equipped with P100 filters was donned on an advanced ...
Hundertmark-Zaušková A - - 2013
In cases of permanent immobility of both vocal folds patients have difficulties with breathing but rarely with voicing. However, clinical experience shows that the shape of the larynx (voice box) seems to have a significant influence on the degree of airflow and breathing pattern. In order to find an optimal ...
de Oliveira Pricila Mara Novais - - 2013
Although self-inflating bags are widely used for manual hyperinflation, they do not allow ventilation parameters to be set, such as pressure or volume. This study evaluated the ventilatory performance of neonatal and pediatric self-inflating bags from three manufacturers at different oxygen flow rates. Twenty-two physiotherapists were asked to manually hyperinflate ...
Righettoni M - - 2013
Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile compounds in the human breath and might be important for monitoring diabetic patients. Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-made, nanostructured, Si-doped WO3 sensing films was used to analyse the end tidal fraction of the breath (collected in Tedlar bags) from eight ...
Akçakaya Mehmet - - 2013
To investigate the efficacy of a novel respiratory motion scheme, where only the center of k-space is gated using respiratory navigators, versus a fully respiratory-gated acquisition for three-dimensional flow imaging. Three-dimensional flow images were acquired axially using a gradient echo sequence in a volume, covering the ascending and descending aorta, ...
Williams E M - - 2013
During resting tidal breathing the shape of the expiratory airflow waveform differs with age and respiratory disease. While most studies quantifying these changes report time or volume specific metrics, few have concentrated on waveform shape or area parameters. The aim of this study was to derive and compare the centroid ...
Bikov Andras - - 2013
Exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis for airway disease monitoring is promising. However, contrary to nitric oxide the method for exhaled breath collection has not yet been standardized and the effects of expiratory flow and breath-hold have not been sufficiently studied. These manoeuvres may also reveal the origin of ...
Prakash Kiran - - 2013
Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity to hypercapnia are associated with changes in systemic blood pressure (BP). These confounding BP-dependent changes in cerebral blood flow velocity cause misinterpretation of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) results. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between CVR assessed by breath holding and ...
Itagaki Taiga - - 2013
Background:High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) creates positive oropharyngeal airway pressure and improves oxygenation. It remains unclear, however, whether HFNC improves thoraco-abdominal synchrony in patients with mild-to-moderate respiratory failure. Using respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP), we investigated the effects of HFNC on thoraco-abdominal synchrony.Methods:We studied 40 adult patients requiring oxygen therapy in ...
Adamama-Moraitou Kk - - 2013
Reference values for dogs regarding tidal breathing flow volume loop (TBFVL) parameters are scarce in the veterinary literature, so each new study requires a healthy reference population to be studied simultaneously with the diseased one. To establish reference values for TBFVL parameters in healthy dogs, to detect any potential variability ...
Perry Sarah A SA Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, - - 2013
We investigated the in vitro inspired dose and particle size distribution of albuterol delivered by a vibrating mesh nebulizer through the Vapotherm (Stevensville, MD) humidified high-flow nasal cannula system. Albuterol (2.5 mg/3 mL) was delivered by an Aeroneb Solo (Aerogen, Galway, Ireland) nebulizer that was connected via adaptor proximal to ...
Van den Bergh Omer - - 2013
This study examined the effect of anxiety on cerebral blood flow at different levels of pCO2 in healthy participants (N=29). Three types of breathing were used to manipulate pCO2 in a within-subject threat-of-shock paradigm: spontaneous breathing, CO2-inhalation and hyperventilation resulting in normo-, hyper- and hypocapnia. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was used ...
Brusasco Claudia - - 2013
Background:Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are commonly used in chronically tracheostomized spontaneously breathing patients to condition inhaled air maintaining lower airway functions and minimizing viscosity of secretions. Supplemental oxygen flow can be added to most HMEs designed for spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients.Aim of the Study:To test the efficiency of seven ...
Murias Juan M JM Canadian Centre for Activity and Aging, School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, - - 2013
During ramp incremental cycling exercise increases in pulmonary O2 uptake (Vo2p) are matched by a linear increase in systemic cardiac output (Q). However, it has been suggested that blood flow in the active muscle microvasculature does not display similar linearity in blood flow relative to metabolic demand. This study simultaneously ...
Kundra Pankaj - - 2013
Ineffective face mask seal is the most common cause for suboptimal pre-oxygenation. Room air entrainment can be more with vital capacity (VC) breaths when the mask is not a tight fit. This study was designed to compare 5 min tidal volume (TV) breathing and eight VC breaths in patients with ...
Mochalski Paweł - - 2013
Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) was used to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the blood and breath of healthy individuals. Blood and breath volatiles were pre-concentrated using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and needle trap devices (NTDs), respectively. The study involved a group of 28 healthy ...
Cross Troy J - - 2013
The effects of involuntary respiratory contractions on the cerebral blood flow response to maximal apnoea is presently unclear. We hypothesised that while respiratory contractions may augment left ventricular stroke volume, cardiac output and ultimately cerebral blood flow during the struggle phase, these contractions would simultaneously cause marked 'respiratory' variability in ...
Daley Monica A - - 2013
Locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC), phase-locking between breathing and stepping rhythms, occurs in many vertebrates. When quadrupedal mammals gallop, 1∶1 stride per breath coupling is necessitated by pronounced mechanical interactions between locomotion and ventilation. Humans show more flexibility in breathing patterns during locomotion, using LRC ratios of 2∶1, 2.5∶1, 3∶1, or 4∶1 ...
Melo Danielle de Lima E - - 2013
To compare the use of the Glatzel mirror and peak nasal inspiratory flow in the evaluation of mouth-breathing participants and to analyze the correlation between these instruments. Sixty-four children were evaluated - 32 mouth breathers and 32 nasal breathers; the children were aged 4 to 12 years. The mouth breathers ...
Tsuchiya Nanae - - 2012
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of interstitial pneumonia on pulmonary, systemic, and bronchopulmonary shunt flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phase-contrast flow measurements in the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk were performed during free breathing and inspiratory breath-holding by use of a 1.5 T MR scanner. The ...
Krasnikov Gennady V - - 2012
The effect of deep breathing controlled in both rate (0.25, 0.16, 0.1, 0.07, 0.05 and 0.03Hz) and amplitude on the heart rate variability (HRV) and respiration-dependent oscillations of forearm/finger skin blood flow (SBF) has been studied in 29 young healthy volunteers. The influence of sympathovagal balance on the respiratory sinus ...
Palazzo Paola - - 2012
Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVR) represents the capability of cerebral vessels to modify their caliber in response to a stimulus. Impaired CVR is associated with an increased risk for ischemic events in patients with carotid disease. Endothelial dysfunction is considered an important pathogenic factor for atherosclerosis and can be noninvasively assessed ...
Shalom Eran - - 2012
Changes in finger tissue blood volume (TBV) measured by light transmission and in laser Doppler flow (LDF) were obtained during long breathing (of 12 s period) and associated with the respiratory phases, inspiration and expiration. For fifteen out of sixteen subjects TBV and LDF started to decrease 0-2 s after ...
Fujii Naoto - - 2012
Hypocapnia attenuates the sweat response normally seen in hyperthermic resting subjects, but its effect on the blood flow response in their nonglabrous skin under the same hyperthermic conditions remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether hypocapnia induced by voluntary hyperventilation affects the blood flow response to heat stress ...
Muir Eric R ER Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, - - 2012
To investigate ocular blood flow and visual function in the Ins2(Akita) diabetic retinopathy mouse model at early and late time points after onset of hyperglycemia. Mice heterozygous for the Ins2(Akita) mutation, which become hyperglycemic at approximately 4 weeks old, were studied at 2.5 and 7.5 months of age, with age-matched ...
Burgansky-Eliash Zvia - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The Retinal Function Imager (RFI) (Optical Imaging Ltd., Rehovot, Israel) measures retinal blood flow velocity non-invasively. The authors studied the reproducibility of these measurements and assessed the effect of physiological components on them. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Sixty-seven individuals with no retinal pathology were recruited. Velocity reproducibility was verified by ...
Mac Aodha Oisin - - 2012
We present a supervised learning based method to estimate a per-pixel confidence for optical flow vectors. Regions of low texture and pixels close to occlusion boundaries are known to be difficult for optical flow algorithms. Using a spatiotemporal feature vector, we estimate if a flow algorithm is likely to fail ...
Parry David - - 2012
Optic flow on the retina creates a perception of a person's movement relative to their surroundings. This study investigated the effect of optic flow on perceived exertion during cycling. Fifteen participants completed a 20-km reference cycling time trail in the fastest possible time followed by three randomly counterbalanced 20-km cycling ...
Furukawa Hiromitsu - - 2012
Retinal oximetry of capillaries was performed for early detection of retinal vascular abnormalities, which are caused predominantly by complications of systemic circulatory diseases. As the conventional method for determining absorbance is not applicable to capillaries, multicomponent analysis was used to estimate the absorbance spectra of the retinal blood vessels. In ...
Klettner Alexa - - 2012
To investigate the compatibility of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and bevacizumab in vitro because during surgery, rtPA or rtPA-induced plasmin may cleave and inactivate bevacizumab. To simulate the intraoperative range of mixing ratios of rtPA, bevacizumab, and subretinal blood, we calculated the volumes of 12 submacular hemorrhages (SHs) with ...
Kawai Motofumi - - 2012
PURPOSE: Our aim was to evaluate the effects of topical carteolol on retinal arterial blood flow (RBF) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Sixteen patients received carteolol topically for 90 days. Changes in RBF in the major retinal artery were evaluated using laser Doppler velocimetry at baseline and after 30, ...
Bettermann Kerstin - - 2012
The cerebral microvasculature cannot be easily studied non-invasively. Because the retina and brain share embryological, anatomical and physiological similarities, studies of retinal blood vessels may prove to be useful as a surrogate marker for cerebrovascular disease. In epidemiological studies abnormal retinal arteriovenous ratios (AVRs) predict the risk of stroke and ...
Pilch Matthäus - - 2012
The correct segmentation of blood vessels in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images may be an important requirement for the analysis of intra-retinal layer thickness in human retinal diseases. We developed a shape model based procedure for the automatic segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral domain (SD)-OCT scans acquired with ...
Shibata Maho - - 2012
To investigate the involvement of glial cells in the autoregulation of optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow in response to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Rabbit eyes were treated with an intravitreal injection of l-2-aminoadipic acid (LAA), a gliotoxic compound. Twenty-four hours after the injection IOP was artificially elevated from a ...
Dada Oluwatosin O - - 2012
We present a design for a sheath-flow cuvette that uses a relatively inexpensive quartz cuvette. The cuvette has a high optical quality square flow chamber that is fused to quartz tubes at each end. PEEK/TEFZEL fittings hold and seal the quartz flow chamber without putting strain on the cuvette. The ...
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