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Results 301 - 350 of 1548
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Friedman E A - - 2007
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a disorder characterized by episodic periods of vasoconstriction typically provoked by exposure to cold. Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors may improve digital blood flow and clinical symptoms in patients with RP, but the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the hypothesis that a PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, attenuates cold-induced ...
Rousseau A - - 2007
The mechanism by which hyperoxia decreases blood flow is still not understood. Hyperoxemia-induced vasoconstriction is known to occur in many organs, including brain and retina, skeletal muscle, and myocardium. Whether this also occurs in skin is unknown. This study was conducted in healthy volunteers exposed intermittently to 100% oxygen (F(I)O(2) ...
Childers Michael A - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In a recent case study, the use of a suction device to aid in port wine stain (PWS) laser treatments showed favorable results. It is our objective to further understand the mechanisms of vacuum-assisted laser therapy by analyzing the mechanical and optical changes of the skin and ...
Häfner Hans-Martin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Rhythmical changes in microvascular perfusion of the skin depend on various influences, which appear continuously but not in a predictable manner. For identifying and quantifying different physiological influences the authors used wavelet transformation, analyzing continuously and simultaneously measured data. METHODS: A total of 34 healthy volunteers were included in ...
Kato I - - 2007
In this study, it was shown that sodium dextran sulfate (DS), which is used as an antihyperlipoproteinemic and is clinically known for the improvement of the blood flow, accelerated nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Currently, the free radical NO is known to be an important ...
Noble J Gareth - - 2007
The premise of the current crossover, randomised, double-blinded and controlled study was to ascertain the physiologic effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound (US) upon cutaneous blood flow in humans as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Ten healthy volunteers (5 male, 5 female; aged 18 to 36 y) were assigned to ...
Klein-Weigel Peter - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Finger replantations after traumatic amputation are associated with good prognosis and acceptable functional results. However, cold sensitivity is a common and sometimes disabling sequelae after digital replantation. The exact causes of cold intolerance are still unclear; neural as well as vascular mechanisms have been discussed. We examined the macro- ...
Mayrovitz Harvey N - - 2007
Previous work offers conflicting evidence concerning whether basal skin blood flow (SBF) varies with the menstrual cycle. Our goal was to determine the extent of cycle-dependent changes in forearm SBF parameters and if they are linked to local tissue water content and arm volume changes. Both arms of 10 premenopausal ...
Kenefick Robert W - - 2007
Marathon races are performed over a broad range of environmental conditions. Hyperthermia is a primary challenge for runners in temperate and warm weather, but hypothermia can be a concern during cool-wet or cold conditions. Body temperature during the marathon is a balance between metabolic heat production and exchange with the ...
Petrofsky J - - 2007
Electrical stimulation has been used for exercise, healing wounds, relieving pain, and strengthening muscle. The assumption is that current will flow predictably between electrodes and, therefore, there will be predictability in the clinical response to electrical stimulation. This may not be the case. The present investigation shows that considerable channelling ...
Nilsen Kristian B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Stress is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain. We wanted to explore stress related physiology in healthy subjects in order to gain insight into mechanisms of pain development which may relate to the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal pain disorders. METHODS: Continuous blood pressure, heart rate, finger skin blood flow, respiration, ...
Ferreira Raquel A - - 2007
It is known that some blood-sucking insects have the ability to reach vessels under the host skin with their mouthparts to feed blood from inside them. However, the process by which they locate these vessels remains largely unknown. Less than 5% of the skin is occupied by blood vessels and ...
Tikuisis Peter - - 2007
A dynamic model of cheek cooling has been modified to account for increased skin blood circulation of individuals walking in cold wind. This was achieved by modelling the cold-induced vasodilation response to cold as a varying blood perfusion term, which provided a source of convective heat to the skin tissues ...
Daly C H - - 2006
The effect of pressure on the blood flow in skin is of considerable clinical interest. Methods are described for the estimation of skin blood flow from the disappearance rate of an injection of 133Xe in saline. The flow rate may be monitored for a period long enough to establish the ...
Petrofsky J - - 2006
Carbonized rubber electrodes were tested extensively when they were first developed 30 years ago, but modern carbonized rubber electrodes have not received the type of scrutiny that the first electrodes received. Modern electrodes differ from the original electrodes in that they come with a self-adhesive electrode gel called hydrogel as ...
Stewart C J - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) system is a new, non-invasive technique for rapidly and reproducibly measuring tissue perfusion. The high resolution and frame rate of the LSPI overcome many of the limitations of traditional laser Doppler imaging techniques. Therefore, LSPI is a useful means for evaluating blood flow ...
Barbanel J C - - 2006
The alteration of blood flow in the skin and subcutaneous tissue due to mechanical loading is of great importance in the prevention of decubitus ulcers. A technique is described for assessing changes in blood content optically. The results indicate that such changes occur after loading even though the deformation is ...
Cevc Gregor - - 2007
We analysed quantitatively blood microvessels distribution in normal skin. We conclude that the segmental area of blood vessels peaks approximately 0.1 mm below the skin surface, where the upper cutaneous blood plexus resides. Total blood vessels area then decreases quasi-exponentially to a depth of approx. -0.75 mm, with a decay ...
Avitsian Rafi - - 2006
AIM: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is usually surgically created in a patient's upper extremity to provide adequate blood flow during haemodialysis. Blood flow distal to an AVF is altered and theoretically could change pulse oximetry (SpO2) reading, systemic blood pressure and skin temperature. The authors conducted a prospective case-control study to ...
Jacobi Ute - - 2006
Cutaneous characteristics, e.g., thickness of the SC and density of follicles, affect the penetration of topically applied substances. In the present study, the penetration of benzyl nicotinate, causing a vasodilation, was studied on three anatomic sites (forearm, forehead and calf) differing in their skin characteristics. Therefore, the blood flow of ...
Li Zengyong - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the blood oscillations in the skin over the ischial tuberosity (high-risk area for pressure ulcer) using spectral analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals based on wavelet transform. DESIGN: Wavelet analysis of skin blood oscillations in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied subjects. SETTING: Seating and ...
Abraham Michael H - - 2007
Data on distribution coefficients from blood or plasma to rat skin and rabbit skin have been compiled. From previous work on blood/plasma to brain or to muscle it is apparent that distributions from blood and plasma can be combined, and we show that it is possible to combine data on ...
Lindgren Margareta - - 2006
Non blanchable erythema, i.e. stage I pressure ulcer, is common in patients in acute and geriatric care and in nursing homes. Research has shown that this type of lesions is prone to develop into more severe pressure ulcers. The peripheral skin blood perfusion is of major importance for the development ...
McCord Gregg R - - 2006
The specific mechanisms by which skin blood flow increases in response to a rise in core body temperature via cutaneous active vasodilation are poorly understood. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway contributes to active vasodilation during whole body heat stress (protocol 1; ...
Nunes Lázaro Alessandro S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The authors tested the effect of blood sampling (skin versus venous puncture) on some biochemical and hematological blood parameters in athletes to answer whether skin puncture could be used as a substitute for venous puncture. DESIGN: Comparative study of 2 methods of blood samples collection. SETTING: The blood was ...
Rossi M - - 2006
Skin blood flow oscillation, the so called flowmotion, is a consequence of the arteriolar diameter oscillations, i.e. vasomotion, and it is thought to play a critical role in favoring the optimal distribution of blood flow in the skin microvascular bed. Investigation of skin blood flowmotion, using spectral analysis of the ...
Sukstanskii Alexander L - - 2006
The balance between metabolic heat production, heat removal by blood flow, and heat conductance defines local temperature distribution in a living tissue. Disproportional local increases in blood flow as compared with oxygen consumption during functional brain activity disturb this balance, leading to temperature changes. In this article we have developed ...
van Werkhoven Michiel Adriaan - - 2006
Barth Syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked recessive disorder that results in abnormal metabolism of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin (CL). CLs are decreased and monolysocardiolipins (MLCLs), intermediates in CL metabolism, are increased in a variety of tissues. Measurement of decreased CL levels in skin fibroblasts has previously been proposed as a ...
Nagashima Kei - - 2006
Homeothermic animals regulate body temperature by autonomic and behavioral thermoeffector responses. The regulation is conducted mainly in the brain. Especially, the preoptic area (PO) in the hypothalamus plays a key role. The PO has abundant warm-sensitive neurons, sending excitatory signals to the brain regions involved in heat loss mechanisms, and ...
Evans Sydney M - - 2006
The oxygen status of skin is a controversial topic. Skin is radiosensitive, suggesting it is well-oxygenated. However, it can be further sensitized with nitroimidazole drugs, implying that it is partially hypoxic. Skin oxygen levels are difficult to measure with either electrodes or the hypoxia-monitoring agent (3)H-misonidazole. For the latter, binding ...
Oskarsson E - - 2007
The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate intramuscular microcirculation in extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Ten patients with unilateral epicondylitis, mean duration of symptoms of 39 (12-96) months participated. The diagnosis was based on clinical examination and none was under treatment for the ...
Changizi Mark A - - 2006
We investigate the hypothesis that colour vision in primates was selected for discriminating the spectral modulations on the skin of conspecifics, presumably for the purpose of discriminating emotional states, socio-sexual signals and threat displays. Here we show that, consistent with this hypothesis, there are two dimensions of skin spectral modulations, ...
Wellhöner P - - 2006
The present study aimed to evaluate adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) by means of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) in humans. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) and straining known to affect epidermal blood flow through the autonomic nervous system were performed in 11 lean and 11 obese female volunteers. ATBF changes were ...
Pavlov V V - - 2006
Although the success of compliant walls in mimicking dolphin skin is well known, the drag-reducing properties of a dolphin's skin are still unclear. Moreover, little is known about the relation between the 3D structure of the skin and the local flow conditions. To study the role of a dolphin's skin ...
Degroot David W - - 2007
Aged humans often exhibit an impaired defense of core temperature during cold stress. However, research documenting this response has typically used small subject samples and strong cold stimuli. The purpose of this study was to determine the responses of young and older subjects, matched for anthropometric characteristics, during mild cold ...
Hodges Gary J - - 2006
Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) declines in response to local cooling (LC). Previous work indicates that at least part of the vasoconstrictor response to LC may be through an inhibitory effect on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In this study we further tested that notion. A total of eight (6 male, ...
von Kügelgen Ivar - - 2006
The mechanisms underlying the reduction in cutaneous blood flow in response to cooling are only partially understood. A study published in this issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology now provides evidence for the involvement of excitatory P2-receptors located at sympathetic axon terminals in the cooling-induced vasoconstriction in the skin. ...
Winter G D - - 2006
The domestic pig is the preferred animal for studying the effects of environmental factors on skin and wound because its integument is more like that of man than any other. The three factors that most drastically affect the pattern, speed and quality of healing are dehydration of exposed tissues, the ...
Styles S J - - 2006
To develop a new noninvasive technique to measure vulval blood flow changes during sexual arousal; 18 healthy volunteers between the age of 20 and 33 years were studied. Each subject underwent two experimental sessions at least 2 weeks apart to coincide with the proliferative and luteal phases of her menstrual ...
Suschek Christoph V - - 2006
There are enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms that generate NO* from nitrite in blood, stomach, saliva, urine and skin. In blood vessels, nitrite-derived NO* can provide protection via compensatory vasodilation during hypoxia, and in various body fluids it may have antibacterial activity. In the skin, nitrite-derived NO* may contribute to skin ...
Martanto Wijaya - - 2006
Previous work has shown that infusion flow rates can be increased by an order of magnitude by partially retracting microneedles after insertion into the skin. This study sought to determine the mechanism by which retraction increases fluid infusion by piercing human cadaver skin with single microneedles, fixing the skin after ...
Hsieh Ching-Hua - - 2006
When the fingers are immersed in water digital blood flow is reduced and the skin wrinkles, suggesting that vasoconstriction plays a role. However, is wrinkling due to sympathetic activation or some intrinsic property of the skin? To define the role of autonomic innervation in skin wrinkling we measured changes in ...
Shrikhande Gautam - - 2006
To examine the effect of a 12-week daily treatment with 160 mg of valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, on the microcirculation and macrocirculation of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) and healthy subjects. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Thirteen T2DM with no severe complications and 13 ...
Yu Shi-Yau - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Insufficient microcirculation of skin leads to acute and chronic tissue ischemia in cases of trauma, reconstructive surgery, diabetes mellitus and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The autonomic nervous system and nitric oxide (NO) play important roles in maintaining blood perfusion of the skin. Far-infrared (FIR) therapy provides low energy of ...
Smith David - - 2006
The ingestion of relatively large doses of the vitamin niacin by healthy volunteers results in a reddening of the skin, a skin 'flush'. Thus, we have carried out a study of the breath metabolites of two healthy volunteers following (i) the ingestion of 200 mg of immediate-release niacin, (ii) as ...
Ke Ya-Ching - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Closed-circuit anesthesia (CCA) has been suggested to provide better hemodynamic stability, but the relative contribution of CCA to the control of blood flow in microcirculation is not defined. It is hypothesized that isoflurane-based CCA provides a favorable skin blood flow mediating via lesser circulatory response to surgical stimulation. This ...
Huss-Marp J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies indicate environmental pollutants to be involved in the increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. In human exposure studies, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been shown to cause exacerbations of allergic asthma whereas, no data concerning atopic eczema (AE) are available. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of ...
Lee Chih-Hung - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of linear polarized light irradiation near the stellate ganglion area on cutaneous blood flow in fingers of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. BACKGROUND DATA: Sympathetic overactivity is known to be present in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. Recently introduced ...
Ohtani Maki - - 2007
We report an autopsy case of a man who suffered accidental chemical burns following exposure to 60% hydrofluoric acid. The extent of the burns covered about 30% of his body surface, and cardiopulmonary arrest occurred about 30min after the exposure. At autopsy, the skin of the affected area showed greenish ...
Gooding Kim M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Maximum skin hyperaemia (MH) induced by heating skin to > or = 42 degrees C is impaired in individuals at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interpretation of these findings is hampered by the lack of clarity of the mechanisms involved in the attainment of MH. METHODS: MH was ...
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