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Dada Oluwatosin O - - 2012
We present a design for a sheath-flow cuvette that uses a relatively inexpensive quartz cuvette. The cuvette has a high optical quality square flow chamber that is fused to quartz tubes at each end. PEEK/TEFZEL fittings hold and seal the quartz flow chamber without putting strain on the cuvette. The ...
Kur Joanna - - 2012
We review the cellular and physiological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of blood flow in the retina and choroid in health and disease. Due to the intrinsic light sensitivity of the retina and the direct visual accessibility of fundus blood vessels, the eye offers unique opportunities for the non-invasive investigation ...
Saygili Oguzhan - - 2012
PURPOSE: To investigate with color Doppler imaging the effects of phacoemulsification surgery under topical anesthesia on retrobulbar vessels hemodynamics. METHODS: In this prospective study, color Doppler imaging was used to measure the maximum (Vmax) and minimum flow velocity (Vmin) of the central retinal vein, and the Vmax and Vmin, pulsatility ...
Chen Tong - - 2012
An optical hot-wire flow sensing grid is presented using a single piece of self-heated optical fiber to perform distributed flow measurement. The flow-induced temperature loss profiles along the fiber are interrogated by the in-fiber Rayleigh backscattering, and spatially resolved in millimeter resolution using optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). The flow ...
Landa Gennady - - 2012
The Retinal Functional Imager (RFI) is a novel method for assessing retinal blood flow (RBF) velocity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate RBF velocities in normal human retinas using the RFI. RBF velocity measurements were performed in normal subjects using the RFI (Optical Imaging Ltd., Rehovot, Israel) at ...
Wright William S - - 2012
The aim of this study was to characterize the microvascular flow abnormalities and oxygenation changes that are present following six months of hyperglycemia in the diabetic Ins2(Akita) mouse. Previous studies have shown decreased retinal blood flow in the first several weeks of hyperglycemia in rodents, similar to the decreases seen ...
Heitmar Rebekka - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Retinal vessel oxygenation saturation measurements have been the focus of much attention in recent years as a potential diagnostic parameter in a number of ocular and systemic pathologies. This interest has been heightened by the ability to measure oxygen saturation in vivo using a photographic technique. METHODS: Retinal vessel ...
Zettergren Eric - - 2012
Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations in mice is important in many areas of preclinical biomedical research. Normally, this is done either by extraction and analysis of small blood samples or, more recently, by using microscopy-based in vivo fluorescence flow cytometry. We describe a new technological approach to this problem ...
Turner David A - - 2012
During high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, bias flow is the continuous flow of gas responsible for replenishing oxygen and removing CO(2) from the patient circuit. Bias flow is usually set at 20 L/min, but many patients require neuromuscular blockade at this flow rate. The need for neuromuscular blockade may be eliminated by ...
Ogundiyi Alex I - - 2012
This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of mange in sheep and goats in five local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in South Western Nigeria. A total of 4,973 sheep and 7,902 goats of West African Dwarf breeds were sampled of which only 4 (0.08%) of sheep ...
Dainty Tim C - - 2012
Toxicokinetic investigations are an essential component of nonclinical toxicology studies and generally rely on bioanalysis of plasma samples, which requires relatively large volumes of blood and, often, additional numbers of animals. Dried blood spot (DBS) analysis can substantially reduce the volume of blood needed and, therefore, presents a particular opportunity ...
Liu D - - 2012
The retinal arterial network structure can be altered by systemic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. In order to compare the energy requirement for maintaining retinal blood flow and vessel wall metabolism between normal and hypertensive subjects, 3D hypothetical models of a representative retinal arterial bifurcation were constructed based on ...
Filippidis A S - - 2012
Introduction: Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that facilitate water and small solute movement in tissues. Hydrocephalus is the major central nervous system disorder associated with defective cerebrospinal fluid turnover. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel located mainly at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) interfaces and is associated ...
Shi Lingling - - 2012
Deformation of a red blood cell (RBC) in bounded two-dimensional Poiseuille flows is studied by using an immersed boundary method (IBM). An elastic spring model is applied to simulate the skeleton structure of a RBC membrane. As a benchmarking test, the dynamical behavior of a single RBC under a simple ...
Boni Lorenzo - - 2012
Single ventricle congenital heart defects are usually palliated with the end result of a Fontan circulation. Despite improving results, this circulation is still associated with long-term failure. We previously developed an animal model of mechanical cavopulmonary circulation support that was successful in the acute and mid-term period. In the current ...
Werkmeister René M - - 2012
The present experiments were undertaken to evaluate the validity of absolute flow velocity measurements with a dual-beam bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system. The flow velocities of diluted milk through a glass capillary were measured at 30 different preset velocities in the range of 0.9 to 39.3 mm/s ...
Chang Zhi-Yang - - 2012
The aim of the study was to develop a high-content flow cytometric method for assessing the viability and damage of small, medium, and large retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-injury model. Retinal toxicity was induced in rats by intravitreal injection of NMDA and RGCs were retrogradely labeled with ...
Medcalf Robert L - - 2012
Nature has provided a vast array of bioactive compounds that have been exploited for either diagnostic or therapeutic use. The field of thrombosis and haemostasis in particular has enjoyed much benefit from compounds derived from nature, notably from snakes and blood-feeding animals. Indeed, the likelihood that blood-feeding animals would harbour ...
Zhong Zhangyi - - 2012
We investigated the effect of localized visual stimulation on human retinal blood velocity using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). To measure the blood velocity response, the AOSLO scanning raster was moved over the target arteries and red blood cell velocity was measured. Localized visual stimuli were delivered by ...
Andersson A - - 2011
BACKGROUND: /st>Microcirculatory and mitochondrial dysfunction are important factors in the development of septic shock. In this study, we investigated the effects of fluid resuscitated endotoxaemic shock and norepinephrine treatment on intestinal microcirculation and mitochondrial function in sheep. METHODS: /st>Eight anaesthetized sheep received an i.v. infusion of endotoxin. After 24 h, ...
Hlawatsch Marcel - - 2011
A new type of glyph is introduced to visualize unsteady flow with static images, allowing easier analysis of time-dependent phenomena compared to animated visualization. Adopting the visual metaphor of radar displays, this glyph represents flow directions by angles and time by radius in spherical coordinates. Dense seeding of flow radar ...
Schultz Jason C - - 2011
Sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation consists of active compression-decompression, an impedance threshold device, abdominal binding, and large intravenous doses of sodium nitroprusside. We hypothesize that sodium nitroprusside-enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation will significantly increase carotid blood flow and return of spontaneous circulation compared to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ...
Whitmore Robert G - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Despite the morbidity and mortality of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the average volume of a typical hemorrhage is not well defined. Animal models of SAH often do not accurately mimic the human disease process. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to estimate the average SAH volume, allowing standardization of ...
Senosy Ws - - 2011
Seventy pluriparous high-yielding cows were used to investigate the impact of metabolic traits and body condition score (BCS) during early lactation on subclinical endometritis diagnosed at weeks 5, 6 and 7 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were collected from animals with no peripartum problems from the second (W2) to seventh (W7) ...
Ianson Debby - - 2011
Zooplankton in the ocean respond to visual and hydro-mechanical cues such as small-scale shear in turbulent flow. In addition, they form strong aggregations where currents intersect sloping bottoms. Strong and predictable tidal currents over a sill in Knight Inlet, Canada, make it an ideal location to investigate biological behaviour in ...
Ferrari Livia - - 2011
Pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI) methods have significantly expanded the stimulation repertoire available to preclinical fMRI research, by allowing to selectively probe the activity of specific brain circuitries and neurotransmitter systems. However, the application of phMRI to animal models is constrained by a number of experimental factors. Firstly, in order ...
Chapman Jason W - - 2011
For organisms that fly or swim, movement results from the combined effects of the moving medium - air or water - and the organism's own locomotion. For larger organisms, propulsion contributes significantly to progress but the flow usually still provides significant opposition or assistance, or produces lateral displacement ('drift'). Animals ...
Yamamoto Seiichi - - 2011
In quantitative measurements of small animal PET studies, blood sampling is limited due to the small amounts of blood such animals can provide. In addition, injection doses are quite limited. In this situation, a high-sensitivity well counter would be useful for reducing the amount of the blood sample needed from ...
Courtiol Emmanuelle - - 2011
Is faster or stronger sniffing important for the olfactory system? Odorant molecules are captured by sniffing. The features of sniffing constrain both the temporality and intensity of the input to the olfactory structures. In this context, it is clear that variations in both the sniff frequency and flow rate have ...
Mihara Makoto - - 2011
BACKGROUNDUterus transplantation may be the only theoretical option for some women, for example, those with congenital uterine infertility or who have undergone hysterectomy. In this study, we evaluated the intra- and post-operative blood flow conditions of vascular anastomosed regions and the blood-perfused area of the transplanted uterus in a cynomolgus ...
Schultz Jason - - 2012
To describe a new method of CPR that optimizes vital organ perfusion pressures and carotid blood flow. We tested the hypothesis that a combination of high dose sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as well as non-invasive devices and techniques known independently to enhance circulation would significantly improve carotid blood flow (CBF) and ...
Ando Yusuke - - 2011
The TinyPump is an extracorporeal, magnetically driven centrifugal blood pump with its impeller suspended magnetically and hydrodynamically to provide short-term mechanical circulatory support for children and infants. We have previously demonstrated that the in vivo experiments of the experimental TinyPump showed acceptable stable performance at pump flows averaging around 1.0 L/min ...
Gong Wanfeng - - 2011
: Resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock with isotonic crystalloids has been shown to activate polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Although hypertonic saline (HTS) can reduce PMN activation and interactions with endothelial cells (EC) in systemic microvascular beds, no data exist demonstrating that the same occurs in the unique blood-brain barrier microcirculation. We hypothesized ...
Bazzu Gianfranco - - 2011
Microdialysis is an extensively used technique for both in vivo and in vitro experiments, applicable to animal and human studies. In neurosciences, the in vivo microdialysis is usually performed to follow changes in the extracellular levels of substances and to monitor neurotransmitters release in the brain of freely moving animals. ...
Ditto Blaine - - 2011
A recent theory proposes that emotional fainting developed from an earlier adaptive characteristic, fainting in response to hemorrhage. Despite potential loss of consciousness, a dramatic decrease in blood pressure improves chances of survival in animals with severe wounds by reducing blood loss and facilitating clotting. Humans may have developed the ...
Meurs K M - - 2011
Background: Identification of the bacterial organism in dogs with endocarditis is challenging. Human studies have reported the utility of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify and identify bacterial nucleic acid from infected valvular tissue and blood. Hypothesis/Objectives: We hypothesized that PCR using primers designed to amplify the bacterial 16s ...
Ennis Kathleen - - 2011
Determination of oxidative metabolism in the brain using in vivo ¹³C NMR spectroscopy (¹³C MRS) typically requires repeated blood sampling throughout the study to measure blood glucose concentration and fractional enrichment (input function). However, drawing blood from small animals, such as young rats, placed deep inside the magnet is technically ...
Das Amaresh - - 2011
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of pigs. Early detection of the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in infected animals and routine surveillance is important for a rapid response and control of an outbreak of CSF. The current study investigated whole blood as a clinical specimen for ...
Frias Rafael - - 2011
(51)Chromium-labeled ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) is the gold standard probe for assessing intestinal permeability (IP) in dogs, but exposure to radioactivity is a disadvantage. Iohexol is a safe contrast medium commonly used for medical imaging purposes and has been successfully applied more recently for the assessment of IP in animal ...
Kirichuck V F - - 2011
We studied the influence of preventive irradiation with terahertz electromagnetic waves at frequencies corresponding to nitric oxide emission and absorption molecular spectrum (150,176-150,664 GHz) on hemodynamic parameters in arteries of albino rats upon acute immobilization stress. We showed that exposure to the specified frequencies can produce adaptogenic effect manifesting in ...
Godinho-Cunha Luís F - - 2011
Transfusion therapy is a major resource that can improve the patient's capability to overcome the underlying disease. However, the effects of whole blood infusion, and how they affect the patient's outcome, are not yet clear. For this study, a protocol was developed in order to monitor a group of 15 ...
Gay Andre N - - 2011
A major objective of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) research is to devise a noninvasive method of early detection. We hypothesized that abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (A-NIRS) readings will identify impending NEC in a large animal model. Piglets were prematurely delivered and received parenteral nutrition followed by enteral feedings. Serial A-NIRS readings were ...
Duris Kamil K Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, - - 2011
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether sampling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via the cisterna magna and of blood via the heart affects brain water content in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model. Twenty-nine animals were divided into four groups: sham-operated group with sampling of CSF and blood ...
Zhu Hua - - 2011
The aim of this study was to establish and validate a clinically relevant model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) via injection of autologous blood into the brains of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Eight male cynomolgus macaques received 1.5mL of fresh anticoagulated autologous femoral artery blood into the inner side of the ...
Yudovsky Dmitry - - 2011
A previously developed inverse method was applied to in vivo normal-hemispherical spectral reflectance measurements taken on the inner and outer forearm as well as the forehead of healthy white Caucasian and black African subjects. The inverse method was used to determine the thickness and melanin concentration in the epidermis, dermal ...
Burnett Josephine Ec - - 2011
At present it is necessary to use animals to generate toxicokinetic data as part of preclinical safety studies. However, ethical standards require animal use to be carefully monitored and the principles of the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement, to be considered and applied. Use of dried blood spot (DBS) samples, ...
Wang Mei M Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, - - 2011
The neuroprotective benefit of intra-operative anesthetics is widely described and routinely aimed to invoke electroencephalographic (EEG) silence in anticipation of transient cerebral ischemia. Previous rat survival studies have questioned an additional benefit from achieving EEG silence during transient global cerebral hypoperfusion. Surgical preparation on twelve New Zealand white rabbits under ...
Yu W-T - - 2011
Visible light is a treatment option for segmental vitiligo (SV), and visible light-induced repigmentation is associated with normalization of sympathetic dysfunction. Currently, it is difficult to predict individual patients' response to visible light therapy. To test whether cutaneous blood flow can serve as a response predictor for visible light on ...
Gibb Herman - - 2011
This study evaluates biomarkers of mercury exposure among residents of Horlivka, a city in eastern Ukraine located in an area with geologic and industrial sources of environmental mercury, and residents of Artemivsk, a nearby comparison city outside the mercury-enriched area. Samples of urine, blood, hair, and nails were collected from ...
Lim K J - - 2012
To determine the frequency of intratumoural flow and peritumoural hepatofugal portal flow using colour Doppler sonography (CDS) on hepatic haemangiomas with arterioportal shunt (APS), and to investigate possible factors that may affect the capability of CDS to depict such findings. The study included 45 patients (35 men, 10 women; mean ...
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