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Results 201 - 250 of 973
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Rodd Helen D - - 2003
This study sought to explore the anatomical relationships between peptidergic nerves and blood vessels within human primary and permanent teeth. Extracted primary and permanent molars (n = 120) were split longitudinally, placed in Zamboni's fixative and the coronal pulps were processed for indirect immunofluorescence. Ten-micrometre-thick serial frozen pulp sections were ...
Erdos Benedek - - 2003
It is a well-known phenomenon that cerebral blood flow is coupled to neural activation induced by non-noxious somatosensory stimulation. However, basic questions related to pain-induced cerebral blood flow changes remain unanswered. In the present study, the sciatic nerve of anesthetized rats was subjected to electric stimulation with noxious and non-noxious ...
Buerk Donald G - - 2003
We report the first dynamic measurements of tissue nitric oxide (NO) during functional activation of rat somatosensory cortex by electrical forepaw stimulation. Cortical tissue NO was measured electrochemically with rapid-responding recessed microelectrodes (tips <10 microm). Simultaneous blood flow measurements were made by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). NO immediately increased, reaching a ...
Hida Shinichi - - 2003
STUDY DESIGN: Nerve root blood flow was intraoperatively measured before and after discectomy for lumbar disc herniation and compared with clinical features. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between nerve root blood flow changes and symptoms associated with lumbar disc herniation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several authors have reported that recovery ...
Chamot Stéphane R - - 2003
A fundus camera-based phosphorometer to noninvasively and quasicontinuously measure the blood partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2,blood)) in the microvasculature of the pig optic nerve using the principle of the phosphorescence quenching by O(2) is described. A porphyrin dye is injected into the venous circulation and the decay of its phosphorescence ...
Dezawa Akira - - 2002
STUDY DESIGN: Assessment of qualitative and quantitative changes in the microcirculation of nerve roots, such as the diameter of blood vessels and the low rate of erythrocytes, was observed during lumbar interbody fusion. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain changes in the microcirculation of nerve roots before and after retraction during lumbar interbody ...
Tubbs R Shane - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Cadaveric studies of the blood supply to the human cervical sympathetic chain and ganglia are lacking in the English literature. This study seeks to elucidate the gross blood supply of the cervical sympathetic chain so as to avoid surgical disruption of these vessels and thus decrease the risk of ...
Izumi Hiroshi - - 2002
We measured the changes in lower lip blood flow and systemic arterial blood pressure evoked by lingual nerve or trigeminal spinal nucleus (Vsp) stimulation to gain an insight into the brainstem integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic responses to nociceptive stimulation. We used artificially ventilated, cervically vago-sympathectomized cats deeply anesthetized with ...
Zubairy A I - - 2002
All invasive procedures carry some degree of risk of damage to the normal structures in the proximity of the region where the procedure is performed. The risk is, however, minimal for venous cannulation. A case is reported of an injury to the anterior interosseus nerve sustained during venepunture for routine ...
Palmer Greta M - - 2002
It has been proposed that epinephrine prolongs lidocaine nerve blockade duration by exerting a local vasoconstrictive effect on tissues at the injection site, slowing lidocaine's local clearance. However, previous studies have failed to demonstrate consistent effects of lidocaine and epinephrine, injected alone and in combination, on vascular tone or regional ...
Buerk Donald G - - 2002
Blood flow studies in the brain, heart, and other organs suggest that there could be interaction between nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine. This possibility was investigated in the optic nerve head (ONH) during photic stimulation of the dark-adapted cat eye. Functional activation of ONH blood flow was measured by laser ...
Xu Qing-Gui - - 2002
Neuromas are generally considered to be swollen uniform collections of uncontrolled aberrantly sprouting axons. In early experimental neuromas, there are substantial rises in local blood flow associated with their formation, but human studies of chronic lesions have suggested that neuromas develop ischemia and become impediments to regeneration. The issue is ...
Sundin Lena - - 2002
Inspection of the dorsal end of fish gills reveals an impressive set of nerve trunks, connecting the gills to the brain. These trunks are branches of cranial nerves VII (the facial) and especially IX (the glossopharyngeal) and X (the vagus). The nerve trunks carry a variety of nervous pathways to ...
Sekiguchi Miho - - 2002
STUDY DESIGN: An analysis of nerve vascular changes in nerve roots induced by serotonin in chronically compressed nerve roots. OBJECTIVES: To assess the hypotheses that serotonin might have a vasoconstrictive effect in chronically compressed nerve roots. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor is involved in serotonin-induced activation or ...
Andrew D - - 2002
Single nerve fibres innervating tooth pulp were isolated from filaments dissected from the inferior alveolar nerve in 17 anaesthetized cats. The fibres were studied to determine whether electrical stimulation of single units produced detectable changes in pulpal blood flow. Single pulpal nerve fibres were electrically stimulated at just above their ...
Vanderthommen Marc - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, with a high spatial resolution, the blood flow variations in human skeletal muscle during neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES) and hence to gain better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle spatial recruitment during NMES. DESIGN: One thigh was submitted to 3 stimulation bouts of different durations (S1=4min, S2=8min, ...
Lagi Alfonso - - 2002
Continuous recording of mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MCBFV) by Doppler ultrasound allows detection of low-frequency (LF) oscillations, which reflect sympathetic activity in the cerebral circulation. To establish whether the sympathetic drive to the cerebral circulation is altered in patients with compensated cirrhosis, and, if so, where alterations take place, ...
Melrose James - - 2002
STUDY DESIGN: Nerves and blood vessel distribution in discs were localized immunohistochemically and correlated with the proteoglycan contents of normal and degenerate disc tissues. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate whether nerve and blood vessel ingrowth was associated with depletion of disc proteoglycans and degenerative ...
Yamaguchi Shinjiro - - 2002
The effects of electrical stimulation of the dorsal skin area on the mesenteric arterioles were investigated in anesthetized rats by the use of an intravital microscope-television system. Changes in the diameter of the mesenteric precapillary arterioles (10-40 microm in diameter) were measured with an image processor. Blood flow velocity in ...
Janssen Ben J A - - 2002
Control of blood pressure and of blood flow is essential for maintenance of homeostasis. The hemodynamic state is adjusted by intrinsic, neural, and hormonal mechanisms to optimize adaptation to internal and environmental challenges. In the last decade, many studies showed that modification of the mouse genome may alter the capacity ...
Gazelius B - - 2002
BACKGROUND: During endoscopic transthoracic sympathicotomy (ETS) in patients with hyperhidrosis it is useful to assess the effect of surgery peroperatively. However, the autonomic system is affected in various ways by different anesthetic agents. In the present study, the effect of ETS during either isoflurane or propofol anesthesia was evaluated by ...
Perlmutter J S - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) provides remarkable relief of tremor in the limbs contralateral to the side of the brain stimulated. The benefits have been sufficiently dramatic that this is now an accepted clinical treatment of essential as well ...
Kihara Mikihiro - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Aging impacts microvessels in a number of tissue beds. Vasopressin acts as a vasoconstrictor in most blood vessels but may also cause vasodilation. We evaluated the role of aging and vasopressin in the regulation of nerve blood flow (NBF) in rat peripheral nerve. METHODS: We undertook a dose-response study ...
Hofman S - - 2002
Pulpal blood flow (PBF) changes have been monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry on rat mandibular incisors. Electrical stimulation (10 sec, 50 microA, 2 ms, 20 Hz) of one incisor induced a blood flow decrease followed by a blood flow increase. The effect of intravenous administration of antagonists of ionotropic glutamate ...
Chamot Stéphane R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of isovolumic hemodilution on the tissue oxygenation of the optic nerve head (ONH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 9 miniature pigs (6 - 12 kg), hemodilution was performed by replacing 100 - 140 ml of blood by an equivalent volume of 6 % hydroxyethyl starch in ...
Mann W J - - 2002
Surgical treatment of lesions of the skull base carries significant risk to the functioning of the cerebral hemispheres, the brain stem and the cranial nerves. This risk is due both, to problems associated with maintaining an adequate blood flow while exposing and removing the tumor and to direct or indirect ...
Koss Michael C - - 2002
A new technique using ultrasonic flowmetry was developed in order to directly measure blood flow in the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) of anesthetized cats. Basal LPCA blood flow averaged about 0.6 ml/min and was stable over the experimental period. Electrical stimulation of the cervical preganglionic cervical sympathetic nerve produced ...
Talman William T - - 2002
Autoregulation maintains cerebral blood flow near basal levels as blood pressure increases, but vasodilation, breakthrough, occurs when hypertension exceeds the autoregulatory range. Loss of breakthrough after transection of baroreceptor nerves suggests that breakthrough is neurally mediated. We hypothesize that central baroreflex interruption will likewise prevent breakthrough. In treated rats, injections ...
Shishido Hiroaki - - 2002
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental physiologic and histologic study of dexamethasone effects on peripheral nerves. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effect of topically applied 0.4% dexamethasone on acute changes in nerve blood flow and subsequent histologic changes in rat sciatic nerve fibers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Dexamethasone is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used ...
Aggarwal Anuradha - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Although it is established that heightened sympathetic drive exists in congestive heart failure (CHF), the reflex processes by which this may occur and the sites in the central nervous system that may be responsible for mediating this process are not yet fully elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients with ...
Ngai Al C - - 2002
Pial arterioles supplying the hindlimb somatosensory cortex dilate in response to contralateral sciatic nerve stimulation. The mechanism of this pial vasodilation is not well understood. One possibility is that vasoactive metabolites released during brain activation may diffuse to subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to dilate pial vessels. To test this hypothesis, ...
Driscoll Peter J - - 2002
Using an animal model, the in vivo visco-elastic properties of peripheral nerve in continuity were examined. The nerves were stretched by either 1 cm - Group A (8.8% strain) or 2 cm - Group B (16.1% strain). At constant strain, the stress-relaxation curves were plotted. Maximal relaxation was observed in ...
Hijmering Michel L - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate whether increased sympathetic outflow may interfere with flow-mediated dilation (FMD). BACKGROUND: Endothelial function, assessed as FMD, is frequently used as an intermediate end point in intervention studies. Many disease states with increased sympathetic tone are also characterized by endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent ...
Sasano T - - 2002
It has been shown earlier that electrical stimulation of the distal cut end of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) in the cat evokes three different patterns of pulpal blood-flow (PBF) response in the ipsilateral mandibular canine tooth (a decrease, a biphasic response, or an increase). The response to a given ...
Zochodne Douglas W - - 2002
Vasa nervorum, the vascular supply to peripheral nerve trunks, and their associated cell bodies in ganglia have unique anatomical and physiological characteristics. Several different experimental approaches toward understanding the changes in vase nervorum following injury and disease have been used. Quantative techniques most widely employed have been microelectrode hydrogen clearance ...
Tsuru Hiromichi - - 2002
Maintenance of blood pressure is mostly dependent on sympathetic "tone", and the sympathetic nerve innervates the entire vascular bed, excepting the capillaries. Although norepinephrine (NE) is the principal neurotransmitter released upon sympathetic nerve stimulation, neuropeptide Y and ATP are cotransmitters in various vascular tissues. In addition, dopamine and epinephrine, as ...
Litscher G - - 2002
Laserneedles represent a new non-invasive optical stimulation method which is described for the first time in this paper. We investigated 27 healthy volunteers (mean age+/-SD: 25.15+/-4.12 years; range: 21-38 years; 14 female, 13 male) in a randomised cross-over trial to study differences between laserneedle acupuncture and manual needle acupuncture in ...
Kearns Melissa J - - 2002
We examined the roles of information from optic flow and body senses (eg vestibular and proprioceptive information) for path integration, using a triangle completion task in a virtual environment. In two experiments, the contribution of optic flow was isolated by using a joystick control. Five circular arenas were used for ...
Koga Kei - - 2002
We studied blood flow in the canine sciatic nerve using a laser Doppler flowmeter. Blood flow was measured in 20 hind limbs of ten adult dogs at varying angles of hip flexion, hip rotation and knee flexion. Blood flow decreased as flexion and internal rotation of the hip increased and ...
Baciu I - - 2003
The research activity upon erythropoiesis regulation carried out by the team in the Physiology Department and in the Institute of Medical Research of the Romanian Academy in Cluj-Napoca developed continuously after 1950. Our studies contributed to the isolation, identification and characterization of erythropoietin (Epo) and also to a better understanding ...
Matsukawa Kanji - - 2002
Recently we have studied the direct vasomotor response of the hindlimb extramuscular large arteries (internal diameter, 500-1400 microm) and intramuscular small arteries (internal diameter, 50-500 microm) of in vivo thick skeletal muscle during activation of sympathetic cholinergic nerve in anesthetized cats. The hypothalamic defense area was electrically stimulated so as ...
Sériès F - - 2002
Upper airway (UA) dynamics can be evaluated during wakefulness by using electrical phrenic nerve stimulation (EPNS) applied at end-expiration during exclusive nasal breathing by dissociating twitch flow and phasic activation of UA muscles. This technique can be used to quantify the influence of nonphasic electromyographic (EMG) activity on UA dynamics. ...
van Denderen J C - - 2001
Detailed quantitative studies have demonstrated a topographical heterogeneity of nerve fibre densities in the cerebral arteries at the base of the brain as well as local changes in ageing and Alzheimer's patients. In this study, we test the hypothesis that local patterns of innervation are influenced by changes in flow ...
Höke A - - 2001
The long-term relationship between the peripheral nerve trunk and its vascular supply, the vasa nervorum, has not been considered in the context of denervation and regeneration. While the microvessels of peripheral nerve are not thought to influence Wallerian degeneration itself, in this work we explored how vasa nervorum respond to ...
Soejima O - - 2001
Eight consecutive median nerves in eight patients with clinical carpal tunnel syndrome were prospectively examined by non-contact laser Doppler flowmetry before and after undergoing carpal tunnel release. Before performing carpal tunnel release, the difference in the median nerve blood flow between the values at the distal and proximal portions to ...
Kopacz D J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The addition of clonidine to local anesthetics has been shown to prolong both peripheral and central neuraxial local anesthetic blocks. Whether clonidine prolongs local anesthetic block by a pharmacokinetic effect or a pharmacodynamic effect is unclear. By directly measuring lidocaine tissue concentrations at the site of injection in the ...
Kemppainen P - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether parasympathetic cholinergic pathways are involved in the regulation of orofacial blood flow. The effect of atropin (1 mg, iv.) on blood flow responses in the lower lip, nose and hand during painful tooth stimulation was studied in healthy human subjects (n=8). ...
Verdickt G M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes occur in pulpal blood flow when capsaicin is applied to the adjacent gingival or alveolar mucosa in human beings. STUDY DESIGN: Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure changes in pulpal blood flow (PBF) after applying capsaicin to adjacent ...
Onda A - - 2001
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of lidocaine on nucleus pulposus-induced pathophysiologic changes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of lidocaine on blood flow in the hind paws and endoneurial fluid pressure in the dorsal root ganglia in a rat model of herniated nucleus pulposus, and ...
Hayreh S S - - 2001
In the recent past there has been great interest in the blood supply of the optic nerve head (ONH), how to evaluate ONH blood flow, and what factors influence it, in health and disease. This is because evidence has progressively accumulated that there is vascular insufficiency in the ONH in ...
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