Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 633
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Dejong C H - - 1996
BACKGROUND: During liver failure, urea synthesis capacity is impaired. In this situation the most important alternative pathway for ammonia detoxification is the formation of glutamine from ammonia and glutamate. Information is lacking about the quantitative and qualitative role of kidney and brain in ammonia detoxification during liver failure. METHODS: This ...
Vallon V - - 1995
Nephron filtration rate (SNGFR) and proximal tubular reabsorption are coordinated by the processes of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and glomerulotubular balance (GTB). We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in TGF and GTB, by delivering the NO synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) into late proximal nephrons by micropuncture in Inactin-anesthetized euvolemic ...
Rao P V - - 1995
BACKGROUND: It is proposed that retrograde abdominal perfusion be used in combination with retrograde cerebral perfusion to provide total body visceral protection during aortic reconstruction; however, its physiologic effects remain unknown. METHODS: We compared the effect of superior vena caval perfusion alone with that of combined superior and inferior vena ...
Willinger C C - - 1995
Since it became evident that organ dysfunctions after acute hemolysis are not induced by hemoglobin per se, but by stroma-contaminated hemoglobin, solutions of ultrapure stroma-free hemoglobins were regarded to be possible substitutes for blood in transfusion medicine. We tested one of the recently developed modified bovine hemoglobins (Ultrapure polymerized bovine ...
Baines A D - - 1995
We compared the ability of human red blood cells (RBC) and a cell-free oxygen carrier to maintain isolated perfused kidney function under moderately hypoxic conditions. Recirculating perfusate was gassed initially with 93% air-7% CO2, and, after 30 min, the gas was changed to 12 O2-7 CO2-81% N2. Oxygen content of ...
Janssen W M - - 1995
A new technique for noninvasive measurement of intrarenal blood flow distribution over cortex and medulla is proposed. The technique involves analysis of 123I-labeled hippuran renography, according to a kinetic model that describes the flow of 123I-hippuran from the heart (input) through the renal cortex and medulla to the bladder (output). ...
Manohar M - - 1995
Using radionuclide-labeled 15-microm-diameter microspheres injected into the left ventricle, we examined blood flow to the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, kidneys, and various gastrointestinal tract tissues in 9 healthy horses while they were standing quietly (rest) and during exercise at 2 work intensities (8 and 1 m/s). Hemodynamic measurements were made ...
Carroll J F - - 1995
There is little information on changes in overall and regional hemodynamics in obesity-associated hypertension. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine alterations in overall and regional blood flows and resistances in adipose and nonadipose tissues in a new model of obesity-associated hypertension in rabbits. Sixteen female New Zealand ...
Greenfield S P - - 1995
95Niobium labeled radioactive microspheres were used to determine regional renal blood flows in a porcine model of chronic sterile vesicoureteral reflux. Unilateral vesicoureteral reflux was surgically created in 5 mini-pigs and regional renal blood flows were determined by microsphere injection 6 months later. The contralateral nonrefluxing kidney acted as a ...
Verkeste C M - - 1995
The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether placental blood flow (PBF) decreases or increases, in response to a fall or rise in mean arterial pressure (MAP), respectively, in an unanaesthetised animal model with a haemochorial placenta. Such a response would support the absence of autoregulation of placental ...
Ihara H - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus (FK506) is currently used as the primary immunosuppressant in clinical kidney transplantation in some centers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of this drug and to see if trough level, which has been used widely in therapeutic drug monitoring, can be used as an ...
Julia P - - 1995
Reperfusion is a critical phase of organ preservation. The purpose of this study was to develop a solution specifically for postischemic kidney reperfusion. Unilateral left normothermic kidney ischemia was induced for 60 minutes in two groups of micropigs. In group 1 (control pigs, n = 6) the kidney was reperfused ...
Mezzogiorno V - - 1995
This work documents the fundamental contribution to the knowledge of lungs and kidneys made by Marcello Malpighi. For the first time, in "De Pulmonibus", he described the pulmonary alveoli and the network of capillary perialveolar blood vessels, establishing definitively the existence of a communication between arteries and veins. Furthermore, he ...
Zeiler M - - 1995
Urinary endothelin-1 excretion (uET-1/min) has been reported to be elevated under cyclosporin A (CsA) therapy in kidney transplant recipients (KR). The possible flow-dependence of uET-1/min was not considered. Therefore, we studied the effect of water diuresis on uET-1/min in KR 1 year after transplantation and used kidney donors (KD) as ...
Kairemo K J - - 1994
Iridium-191m (191mIr, t1/2 = 4.96 sec), an ultra-short lived tracer, has turned out to be suitable for gamma imaging. It can be obtained in high yields from an 191Os/191mIr-generator with a low 191Os breakthrough. In this study the blood flow in the carotid and kidney arteries was studied in rabbits ...
Yu G L - - 1994
The pressure wave of the abdominal aorta and the flow wave of the renal artery were recorded simultaneously from a rat. The impedance of a kidney system that is derived by dividing the pressure of the corresponding frequency by that of the flow was studied in six rats. The data ...
Drumond M C - - 1994
Previous studies have established that in a variety of human glomerulopathies the reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is due to a marked lowering of the ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf). To identify the factors which lower Kf, we measured the filtering surface area per glomerulus, filtration slit frequency, basement membrane thickness, and ...
Ercan M T - - 1994
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the accumulation of 99Tcm-glutathione (GSH) in experimental abscesses. The biodistribution of 99Tcm-GSH was determined in mice with turpentine-induced abscesses in comparison with 99Tcm-human immunoglobulin (HIG) at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h. Arthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of ovalbumin in the ...
Xu L X - - 1994
Corrosion casts of the plastic (Mercox Cl-2B) filled pig kidney cortex vasculature were sliced either parallel or perpendicular to the kidney surface. Scanning electron microscopy photographs were taken of the casts. Montages of the photographs were analyzed using a digitizing tablet and microcomputer-based software. For vessels having diameters larger than ...
Richet G C - - 1994
It was towards the end of the 18th century that a curiosity arose about what controlled the flow of urine. It was noted that though a patient's kidneys might be destroyed, the flow of urine continued until death. This puzzling phenomenon might have been understood had Ségalas's and Wöhler's observations ...
Abdelhamid A M - - 1994
Aflatoxin caused some reduction in moisture contents of chest and liver, lipids of thigh and blood, blood glucose, muscular protein and GOT in liver. It led also to increase of moisture contents of thigh and kidneys; chest lipids; blood cholesterol; protein of liver, kidneys and blood and blood creatinine. The ...
Gottschalk C W - - 1994
The overall structural organization of the kidney, its vasculature and its excretory units, the nephrons, was the subject of intense study and disagreement for hundreds of years. In 1783, Schumlansky received a doctoral degree with the dissertation De structura renum, in which he presented a detailed and comprehensive description of ...
Dawson P - - 1994
One of the oldest questions in radiology, "what is the nephrogram?", has been approached in a novel manner using dynamic bolus contrast enhanced computed tomography to monitor the arrival and distribution of contrast agent in the normal kidney. A modification of a mathematical technique first developed for applications in positron ...
Arany E - - 1993
Most insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in blood is found in complex with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). An additional association of IGFBP-3 with an acid-labile subunit is thought to severely limit its ability to cross the vascular endothelium. However, it is not clear whether IGFBP-3 which is not complexed to acid-labile ...
Moon M H - - 1993
The applicability of field-low fractionation (FFF) to the characterization of liposomes is discussed and theoretically described. Because of fundamental differences in their driving forces, sedimentation FFF and flow FFF measure different vesicle properties. Sedimentation FFF, although used previously to measure vesicle sizes and size distributions, is fundamentally a technique that ...
Sigmon D H - - 1993
In two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertension, blood flow is reduced to the clipped but not to the nonclipped kidney, despite elevated angiotensin II. To determine possible interactions between endothelium-derived nitric oxide and angiotensin, we studied bilateral renal blood flow using radioactive microspheres in anesthetized 2K1C hypertensive rats 4 weeks ...
Guan F Y - - 1993
One day in July 1991, 78 people became victims of accidental alimentary intoxication in a factory in Hebei Province, China. Related samples, including rodenticide bait, the artificial carbonic kidneys used for the treatment of the victims, and the victims' blood, were analyzed by GC/MS. Tetramine [80-12-6], a highly toxic rodenticide, ...
Glenny R W - - 1993
Estimations of dog lung, pig heart, and pig kidney regional perfusion by use of fluorescent-labeled microspheres were compared with measurements obtained with standard radiolabeled microspheres. Pairs of radio- and fluorescent-labeled microspheres (15 microns diam, 6 colors) were injected into a central vein of a supine anesthetized dog and the left ...
Morsing P - - 1993
Cell-cell contact between the macula densa and the glomerular arterioles is is thought to provide the information pathway for the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. When concentrations of sodium and chloride in the macula densa segment are increased, a signal is transmitted through the extraglomerular mesangium to contract the afferent arteriole. ...
Inada Y - - 1993
We administered non-radioactive coloured microspheres (NRACM) to measure the regional tissue blood flow (RTBF) of eight axial pattern flaps and four kidneys in four rabbits using four repeated injections into each animal. As a control, we used radioactive microspheres (RAM) for six kidneys in three rabbits. There were no significant ...
Smedley G - - 1993
A laser Doppler instrument has been developed to measure the blood flow in single vessels for the study of the dynamics of local control mechanisms. A commercial blood perfusion monitor, designed to measure blood perfusion in a vascular field containing many randomly oriented blood vessels, was modified to perform measurements ...
Burka L T - - 1993
Saligenin cyclic o-tolyl phosphate (SCOTP) has been proposed as the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), a neurotoxic organophosphate. TOCP is also toxic to the testis and SCOTP mimics some of this toxicity. The stability of SCOTP in vivo and its uptake by selected tissues has been measured. Total radioactivity ...
Odden J P - - 1993
Using the isotope-labelled microsphere method, blood flow to the brain, the heart and the kidneys were studied in newborn piglets during nimodipine infusion. Twenty piglets were studied in two different groups. Group 1 (n = 8) was kept normoxic and given a continuous nimodipine infusion (15 micrograms/kg/min). Group 2 (n ...
Song S H - - 1992
This experiment involved 12 rabbits of both sexes, weighing 2.1 kg. After anesthesia, the kidneys were exposed, isolated and cannulated in the renal artery, ureter and sometimes in the vein as well. The kidney were perfused through the renal artery with Krebs-Henseleit solution, which were then filtered to be free ...
Karasawa Y - - 1992
1. Measurements were made in situ to determine the occurrence of intraportally infused urea-15N in ureteral urine of the fowl. 2. Of the total amount of infused urea-15N, 15% was excreted intact into the urine (90% of urinary total 15N) whereas 9% remained unchanged in the blood (78% of blood ...
Schwab A J - - 1992
The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat is formed in vivo in liver and kidney by esterolysis of the antihypertensive drug enalapril. To gain insight into the renal elimination of enalaprilat, we carried out multiple-indicator dilution experiments in the isolated perfused rat kidney. Kidneys were perfused single pass with an amino acid-supplemented ...
Lundgren Y - - 1992
The utero-placental blood flow was investigated in anaesthetized normotensive pregnant rabbits after repeated administration of a high dose of the antihypertensive calcium antagonist felodipine and in untreated controls. By means of the microsphere technique blood flow was also determined in the lungs, skin, intestine, skeletal muscle and kidneys during chloralose ...
Millis R M - - 1992
Use of synthetic oxygen transport media offers the potential advantages of reducing requirements for coadministration of blood products and oxygen at the scene of mass casualty situations. Previous studies have shown perfusions of isolated kidneys with stroma-free hemoglobin (SFH) to be physiological while those with Fluosol-DA (20% FDA) have been ...
Mazanec K - - 1992
A patient receiving haemodialysis for 15 years developed systemic amyloidosis of beta 2 microglobulin type. Noticeable deposits of amyloid were present in the myocardium, intervertebral discs, joint cartilages and tendons. Less conspicuous amounts were present in blood vessel walls in the lungs, liver, adrenal glands and brain, and within the ...
Schwochau K - - 1992
[99Tc(phen)3]Cl2 was synthesized by reduction of pertechnetate with sodium borohydride in the presence of an excess of 1,10-phenanthroline and characterized by FAB mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and i.r./vis/u.v. spectrophotometry. For biodistribution evaluation in mice [99mTc(phen)3]Cl2 could be obtained in a radiochemical purity of 92.5% using a similar procedure. The ...
Armstrong R - - 1992
Measurements of urinary proteins, blood and urinary cadmium, and in vivo kidney and liver cadmium have been made for a group of workers at several times between 1981 and 1990. The possibility of the introduction of measurement artifacts due to the use of different in vivo measurement systems has been ...
Sands J M - - 1992
Water homeostasis is regulated in large part by the proper operation of the urinary concentrating mechanism. In the renal inner medulla, urea recycling from the inner medullary collecting duct to the inner medullary interstitium is thought to be essential for the production of a concentrated urine; however, it has not ...
Labarrere C A - - 1992
The thromboresistance of endothelium is maintained as long as natural anticoagulant pathways are functionally present on endothelial plasma membranes. The principal anticoagulant pathways in human hearts and kidneys are thrombomodulin (TM) and heparan sulfate proteoglycan-antithrombin III (HSPG-ATIII). The downregulation of TM or the loss of ATIII is associated with fibrin ...
Nielsen K - - 1992
Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81.2%, range 70-90%, P less than 0.001). In only six ...
Kishimoto T - - 1992
The effect of ciclosporin (CS) on cardiac output (CO) and regional blood flow was studied using the microsphere method in heminephrectomized rats with and without renal arterial clamping prior to the administration of CS. The effect of a calcium (Ca) channel blocker, verapamil, was also examined on CS-induced nephropathy. CS ...
Baruffaldi A - - 1992
A simple technique is described for increasing the number of mitoses in circulating blood and in the kidney of teleost fish. This method employed phytohaemagglutinin-P solution, a T-like cell mitogen, which was injected (1 mg/100 g body wt) intraperitoneally, and 53 h later many blasts suitable for karyological studies, blocked ...
Flamion B - - 1991
We have developed a new application of the fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) technique for instantaneous measurement of volume flow rates at any axial position along isolated perfused kidney tubules. The method requires fast data acquisition of emitted fluorescence through a photomultiplier (time resolution, 0.5 ms) coupled with differential interference contrast ...
Olof P - - 1991
The distribution of blood flow in the rat kidney after 60 minutes of renal ischemia was studied by single-fiber laser-Doppler flowmetry. Blood flow in superficial cortex and inner medulla was measured with a probe directed towards the kidney surface and exposed papilla, respectively. Outer medullary blood flow was measured with ...
Galla J H - - 1991
The systemic and renal adaptations for the maintenance and correction of metabolic alkalosis generated by chloride depletion (CDA) are the focus of this review. The hypothesis that extracellular fluid (ECF) volume expansion is essential for the correction of CDA is refuted, while the concept that Cl- repletion is necessary and ...
Abraham J S - - 1991
Cyclosporine causes intrarenal vasoconstriction, which may account for its nephrotoxic effects. In this study we investigated the role of endogenous prostaglandins and angiotensin II in cyclosporine-induced intrarenal vasoconstriction. Split hydronephrotic kidneys in decerebrate rats (n = 16) were suspended in an environmentally controlled tissue bath. Interlobular, afferent, and efferent arteriolar ...
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