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Aliabadi Hamidreza Montazeri - - 2005
The aim of this study was to assess the potential of polymeric micelles to modify the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of cyclosporine A (CsA). Drug-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) micellar solutions in isotonic medium were prepared and administered intravenously to healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood and tissues were harvested and assayed ...
Ozgüç Halil - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of 0.9% saline (SAL), 0.9% saline + sodium bicarbonate + mannitol (SAL/BIC/MAN), and hypertonic saline-dextran (HSD) on hemodynamic variables, tissue blood flow, and oxidant injuries in experimental traumatic rhabdomyolysis (TR) in rats subjected allogeneic muscle extract infusion. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, experimental. ...
Raghavan Ramakrishna - - 2006
We previously showed that nonlinear interactions between the two renal autoregulatory mechanics (tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic mechanism) were observed in the stop flow pressure (SFP) and whole kidney blood flow data from Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) using time-invariant bispectrum analysis (3, 4). No such nonlinear interactions were observed in either ...
Manekeller S - - 2005
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the recently proposed aerobic machine preservation with the noncolloidal HTK solution by comparison with the colloidal Belzer machine perfusion solution (MPS) after procurement of marginal kidneys from non-heart-beating donors. Kidneys were harvested 40 minutes after cardiac arrest in German Landrace pigs ...
Kripfgans Oliver D - - 2005
Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) has been introduced with the potential application of tumor treatment via occlusion and subsequent necrosis. New Zealand White rabbits were anesthetized, and their left kidney was externalized. An imaging array and single-element transducer were positioned in a tank with direct access to the kidney's vasculature and ...
Mathews William B - - 2005
PURPOSE: Imaging purine receptors and adenylate biodistribution in vivo may be of clinical importance not only for the investigation of normal adenylate metabolism but also in pathological conditions where adenylate uptake and/or release from certain tissues and organs may be altered, such as some types of cancer. In order to ...
Zhou Xiaolan - - 2005
The kidney plays a critical role in regulating the composition of the blood, including pH. The major buffer regulating pH of the blood is bicarbonate. Bicarbonate is freely filtered through the glomerulus and must be recovered from the primary filtrate to maintain appropriate buffering capacity and blood pH. In this ...
Kramer-Zucker Albrecht G AG Renal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, - - 2005
Cilia, as motile and sensory organelles, have been implicated in normal development, as well as diseases including cystic kidney disease, hydrocephalus and situs inversus. In kidney epithelia, cilia are proposed to be non-motile sensory organelles, while in the mouse node, two cilia populations, motile and non-motile have been proposed to ...
Yip Kay-Pong - - 2005
A nonobstructing optical method was developed to measure proximal tubular fluid reabsorption in rat nephron at 0.25 Hz. The effects of uncaging luminal nitric oxide (NO) on proximal tubular reabsorption were investigated with this method. Proximal fluid reabsorption rate was calculated as the difference of tubular flow measured simultaneously at ...
Pelaez Laura I - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Global renal haemodynamic responses to acute unilateral ureteral obstruction (AUUO) have been studied extensively in animals, yet little is known about the concurrent changes in haemodynamics and tubular fluid dynamics that occur within the distinct regions of the kidney during AUUO. The advent of electron beam computerized tomography (EBCT) ...
Pileggi P - - 2004
A man 24-year-old died suddenly while he was doing shopping. It was supposed that the death was caused by ictus or by cardiac pathology. During the autopsy, some biological samples were taken (hair, urine, blood and lachrymal liquid) for the toxicological analysis and also the heart, some fragments from the ...
Du Zhaopeng - - 2004
Normal variations in glomerular filtration induce proportional changes in proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption. This "glomerulotubular balance" derives from flow dependence of Na+ uptake across luminal cell membranes; however, the underlying physical mechanism is unknown. Our hypothesis is that flow-dependent reabsorption is an autoregulatory mechanism that is independent of neural and ...
Evans Roger G - - 2004
There is much evidence that the medullary circulation plays a key role in regulating renal salt and water handling and, accordingly, the long-term level of arterial pressure. It has also recently become clear that various regulatory factors can affect medullary blood flow (MBF) differently from cortical blood flow (CBF). It ...
Eley J G - - 2004
A delivery system consisting of the lipophilic fluorescent dye coumarin-6 embedded into polymer nanoparticles in a suppository base was formulated. Particle diameters of 400-1100 nm were produced by a salting-out method and measured by laser diffraction. Nanoparticles reach the systemic circulation via fenestrated capillaries or remain within rectal membranes to ...
Chang Isaac - - 2004
To evaluate the effect of vascular occlusion on the size of radiofrequency (RF) ablation lesions and to evaluate embolization as an occlusion method. The kidneys of six swine were surgically exposed. Fifteen RF ablation lesions were created in nine kidneys by using a 2-cm-tip single-needle ablation probe in varying conditions: ...
Porcella D B - - 2004
Museum and recent collections of raccoon hair were used to assess whether temporal or spatial trends existed in MMHg distributions in south Florida. The hypothesis that MMHg in raccoon hair had remained the same since 1947 could not be rejected. Some sampling regions showed increases while others did not. However, ...
Campbell Duncan J - - 2004
There is uncertainty about the contribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II formation, with recent studies suggesting that non-ACE enzymes may be the predominant pathway of angiotensin II formation in kidney, heart, and lung. To investigate the role of ACE in angiotensin II formation, we measured angiotensin I and ...
Levine David Z - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Intrarenal nitric oxide (NO) production and signaling effects are influenced by NaCl loading. To gain further insight into NO mechanisms we determined whether rat distal tubular fluid (DTF) [NO] and collected NO may acutely change when NaCl loop delivery is altered. METHODS: An NO microelectrode was used to measure ...
Cunha Elisabete M - - 2003
Contamination of the food chain by mercury is a major concern of Public Health of our day. Kidney and nervous system are the major targets of mercury toxicity in mammals. We show here that the detailed subcellular in vivo topography of microparticles of mercury in tissues can be achieved by ...
Pettersen E Fausa - - 2003
Using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) and flow cytometry, Atlantic salmon neutrophils and Ig+ cells in blood and head kidney were studied in under-yearling out-of-season (0+) smolts, and 2 and 4 weeks after transfer to seawater. The parr-smolt transformation was induced using a phase advanced simulated natural photoperiod regime, and sampling of ...
Gordon Isky - - 2003
Advances in imaging have resulted in higher-quality resolution. Techniques formerly considered to give pure anatomic information are now providing functional data, but the functions provided are not those typically measured in pathophysiologic terms. Instead, the data provided demand that we incorporate this new information into the understanding of the pathologic ...
Bader J A - - 2003
The early entry of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare and enhancement by abrasion was studied in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), using the polymerase chain reaction and a species-specific primer set for a bacterial 16S rRNA gene product. Evaluations were conducted following an abrasion bath immersion challenge with F. columnare. ...
Drummond Iain - - 2003
The kidney can be thought of as the pairing of two tubes: an epithelial tube (the nephron), carrying filtered blood and engaged in ion and water transport; and endothelial tubes (the blood vessels), delivering blood and carrying away recovered solute. The development of the nephron presents several interesting questions. How ...
Stebbins Charles L - - 2003
In conscious rats, we tested the hypothesis that prostaglandins attenuate regional vasoconstriction caused by acute infusion of angiotensin II. Mean arterial pressure, regional blood flow, and vascular conductance in response to 2-minute infusions of 0.05 or 1 microg/kg/min Ang II were assessed before and during indomethacin treatment (5 mg/kg). Effects ...
Karabulut N - - 2003
The flow pattern in intrarenal veins depends on renal parenchymal histology and cardiac physiology. The intrarenal venous impedance index obtained by Doppler ultrasound is related to compliance in vein, and can be helpful in the assessment of renal parenchymal compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether normal ...
Lewis Russell J - - 2003
During the investigation of fatal aviation accidents, postmortem samples from the pilots/co-pilots are submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological analysis. Although therapeutic levels for most drugs are typically reported in the scientific literature for blood and plasma, blood specimens are received in ...
Smithies Oliver - - 2003
Current interpretations of kidney function in terms of a coarse filter followed by a fine filter have difficulty explaining why the glomerulus does not clog. I propose, as an alternative, a semiquantitative hypothesis that assumes that the size-selective property of the glomerulus is a consequence of the limited fraction of ...
Hegarty Nicholas J - - 2003
PURPOSE: Unilateral ureteral obstruction results in decreased blood flow and tissue loss in the obstructed kidney. This condition is compensated by increased perfusion and trophic changes in the contralateral kidney. Vascular mediators' effects are central to these changes and of these mediators endothelin is the most potent vasoconstrictor known. We ...
Shadkchan Y Y Department of Human Microbiology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, - - 2003
In our previous research we studied the efficacy of amphotericin B (AMB)-Intralipid (AMB-IL) admixtures in the treatment of experimental systemic candidosis in naïve and compromised mice. In this study we evaluated the levels of AMB in blood and several organs (kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs and heart) at different times after ...
Donnelly Sandra - - 2003
The normal hematocrit is not a random number, but one that maximizes oxygen delivery. While the feedback loop wherein tissue oxygen pressure determines the production of erythropoietin, which further drives the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow, explains how the hematocrit is generated, it does not speak ...
Kiesewetter Dale O - - 2003
Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a clinically important chemotherapeutic agent. We describe the synthesis of fluoro-, bromo-, and iodopaclitaxel and their [(18)F]fluoro-, [(76)Br]bromo-, and [(124)I]iodo- analogues. [(18)F]Fluoropaclitaxel shows high uptake and rapid clearance from tissues in rats. Preadministration of paclitaxel in normal rats significantly increases (p < 0.005) retention of [(18)F]fluoropaclitaxel and ...
Ji Haiwang - - 2002
The therapeutic effects in treating the intermediate and late rheumatoid arthritis by supplementing the kidney and invigorating blood circulation were observed. In the 43 cases of the treatment group, No. 2 Qu Feng Shi Ling capsules and Fenbid were prescribed, while in the 39 cases of the control group Lei ...
Tanner George A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that often leads to end-stage renal disease. The basis for this decline in GFR is poorly understood. METHODS: Glomeruli in heterozygous Han:SPRD rats with ADPKD and their normal litter mates were studied by ...
Oliver Jeremy J - - 2002
1. To determine whether differential release of products of arachidonic acid metabolism, via the cyclo-oxygenase pathway, underlies the diversity of responses of regional kidney perfusion to vasoactive agents, we tested the effects of intravenous indomethacin on responses to renal arterial bolus doses of vasoactive agents in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rabbits. 2. Total ...
Watanabe Satoshi - - 2002
Bromate, an inorganic oxyhalide disinfection by-product, is known to cause kidney damage, haemolysis and methaemoglobinemia. In potassium bromate (KBrO3)-treated mice (1.2 mmol/kg), elevation of methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentration in blood was observed simultaneously with an elevation of the NO concentration and attenuation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Renal oxidative stress and ...
Tsuruoka Shuichi - - 2002
BACKGROUND: We have recently developed a unique hybrid artificial kidney, where the proximal tubular cell line, over-expressing multidrug resistance protein, MDR-1 (PCTL-MDR), was cultured on hollow fibers. While this module efficiently removed digoxin in vitro, its efficacy in vivo remained to be determined. METHODS: The system was scaled up by ...
Capasso Giovambattista - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Inulin remains the gold standard for measurements of fluid reabsorption (Jv) and single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) in micropuncture experiments. However, the method used to measure cold inulin in nanoliter samples is time-consuming, while the use of radiolabeled inulin is disadvantaged by possible radioactive contamination, disposal of radioactive ...
Garibotto Giacomo - - 2002
To evaluate the role of blood cells in interorgan amino acid transport and in the estimates of regional protein turnover, we studied the effects of plasma vs. whole blood sampling on regional leucine kinetics in postabsorptive humans. Studies were carried out by combining the arteriovenous difference technique with the measurement ...
Setoyama Kentaro - - 2002
Milrinone, a therapeutic agent for acute congestive heart failure, has both inotropic and vasodilatory effects, but investigations of these effects of milrinone were almost all conducted under normoxia, and few reports have investigated how milrinone affects the hemodynamics and redistribution of regional blood flow under severe hypoxia. By using colored ...
Arnaud Françoise G - - 2002
Cryopreservation of solid organs might be possible using a mixture of cell-permeable agents, cryoprotectants (CPA), which are designed to completely preclude ice crystal formation during cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The effects of a specific prototype solution (VS4) were evaluated by normothermic blood perfusion in vitro. Rabbit kidneys were divided into ...
Bateman Grant A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive uropathy in the early stages can be difficult to diagnose using either standard sonography or the arterial resistive index. We tested the hypothesis that acute obstruction of the renal collecting system reduces the intraparenchymal renal compliance, which affects the intraparenchymal venous blood flow to a greater degree than ...
Blanc Stéphane - - 2002
Rat tail suspension is commonly used to mimic human physiology in space. However, energy metabolism adaptation and related autonomic responses are unknown. To give new insights in energy homeostasis, we determined total energy expenditure (TEE) and blood flow redistribution in thermoregulatory organs during suspension using two control groups of animals ...
Rutherfurd Kay J - - 2002
Felinine is a unique sulfur-containing amino acid found in the urine of domestic cats and select members of the Felidae family. Research over the past 50 years has led to the conclusion that felinine must be synthesized in the kidney, as free felinine is not present in the blood or ...
Fitzgerald J - - 2001
PURPOSE: In the early stage of unilateral ureteral obstruction total renal blood flow increases but medullary blood flow decreases, exacerbating medullary tissue hypoxia. We examined the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a product of a hypoxia sensitive gene, in the cortex and medulla in dogs with unilateral ureteral obstruction ...
Souza Dos Santos R A - - 2001
The heptapeptide angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is currently considered one of the biologically active end products of the renin-angiotensin system. The formation of Ang-(1-7) by pathways independent of Ang II generation, the selectivity of its actions, and its peculiar property of exhibiting effects that are partially opposite of those of the parent ...
Kohn M C - - 2001
The earliest physiological models of 1,3-butadiene disposition reproduced uptake of the gas from closed chambers but over-predicted steady-state circulating concentrations of the mutagenic intermediates 1,2-epoxybut-3-ene and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane. A preliminary model based on the observation of a transient complex between cytochrome P450 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane ...
Duckworth A J - - 2001
For many years there was a general belief that the enzyme renin, having been secreted into the circulation by the kidney in response to appropriate stimuli, initially generates the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I in the bloodstream. This is then converted to the biologically active octapeptide angiotensin II by angiotensin converting ...
Satish Nair P - - 2001
Cadmium transfer from M. edulis L. blood plasma to tissues was investigated in relation to its chemical speciation in the blood. 109Cd was injected into the posterior adductor muscle along with synthetic chelators oxine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA). Chelator concentrations were chosen to bind up from 0 ...
Correia A G - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: We tested whether vasoconstriction of juxtamedullary glomerular arterioles contributes to vasopressin V1 -receptor-mediated reductions in medullary perfusion (MBF). DESIGN AND METHODS: The left kidney of pentobarbitone anaesthetized rabbits was denervated, a perivascular flow probe placed around the renal artery and laser-Doppler flow probes positioned in the inner medulla and ...
Hallemeesch M M - - 2001
A method was developed to measure metabolic fluxes across either portally-drained viscera (PDV) and liver or kidney and hindquarter (HQ) in anesthetized mice. The method includes a primed-constant infusion of ketamine-medetomidine anaesthesia to stabilize the mice for the surgical procedures. For measurement of metabolic fluxes across PDV and liver, blood ...
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