Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1090
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Pallotta N - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the patterns of antral contractility and pylorus opening and closure in relation to transpyloric flow of a nutrient liquid meal. METHODS: Ultrasound images of the antro-pyloro-duodenal tract were continuously tape-recorded in healthy volunteers for 1 h postprandially and were reviewed twice later by ...
Akiyama S - - 1998
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Since 1993, we have performed preoperative embolization therapy (PET) in an attempt to augment the blood flow of the gastric tube and prevent anastomotic leakage after esophageal resection. The clinical effects and complications associated with PET are reported. METHODS: The femoral artery was punctured and the left ...
Väisänen O - - 1998
Inadequate splanchnic tissue perfusion is relatively common during and after aortic surgery. We hypothesized that vasodilation caused by thoracic epidural analgesia improves splanchnic blood flow and tissue perfusion after aortic surgery. In this prospective, randomized, controlled study, we studied 20 patients undergoing elective aortic-femoral or aortic-iliac reconstruction surgery. Gastric and ...
Atuma C - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori may interfere with gastroduodenal protective mechanisms. Such effects could be due to a direct interaction with gastric epithelial cells but also to the action of a wide range of secreted and membrane-bound virulence factors. Our aim was to study the acute effects of water extracts produced from ...
Vecht J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Dumping occurs in about 10% of patients after gastric surgery. It has been suggested that early dumping is associated with an abnormal increase in postprandial splanchnic flow, but data from controlled studies are lacking. Therefore we have studied basal and postprandial superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow in patients ...
Liu W - - 1998
Activated neutrophils play an important role in tissue injury by releasing various inflammatory mediators capable of damaging endothelial cells. To investigate whether neutrophil elastase (NE) is involved in stress-induced gastric mucosal injury, we examined the effects of 2 NE inhibitors (ONO-5046 and L-658 758) as well as nitrogen mustard-induced leukocytopenia ...
Korenaga D - - 1998
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anastomotic leakage after esophageal surgery is still the main reason for post-operative morbidity and mortality. We developed a reliable procedure for evaluating blood supply to the gastric tube after esophageal reconstruction. METHODOLOGY: After construction of the gastric tube, tissue blood flow was measured intra-operatively at the anastomotic sites using ...
Ruffolo D C - - 1998
Perfusion status of the critically ill and injured has, in the past, been assessed by indices such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and urine output. These indices represent global perfusion and may not reflect regional blood-flow abnormalities. These hypoperfused regions may lead to organ failure and subsequent death. The ...
Eleftheriadis E - - 1998
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric mucosal blood flow estimation in humans is obtained through an endoscope and the time of measurement lasts only a few minutes. Thinking that long-term monitoring of mucosal perfusion would be a significant contribution to the study of gastric physiology, we registered gastric mucosal blood flow continuously for 24 ...
Kelly D - - 1998
In the rat, indomethacin causes jejunal villous shortening, microvascular distortion, and blood stasis prior to ulceration. The beta3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316,243 (CL) prevents both the early histological changes and ulceration. To test the hypothesis that the beta3-adrenoceptor agonist CL316,243 exerts its protective effect by prevention and/or reversal of blood flow changes ...
Boyle N H - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The ability of the new techniques of scanning laser Doppler flowmetry and recirculating gas tonometry to measure changes in gastric serosal and mucosal blood flow respectively during oesophageal resection was assessed. METHODS: Changes in regional and total gastric blood flow were assessed in 16 patients undergoing oesophagectomy at three ...
Hersch M - - 1998
Gut mucosal hypoperfusion plays a major role in the pathogenesis of ongoing sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Traditionally, therapy included increasing systemic flow, thus secondarily augmenting blood flow to the gut. Direct manipulation of the gut mucosal microcirculation avoiding systemic effects, i.e., selective gut microcirculatory control (SGMC), has not ...
Nada Y - - 1998
This study examined the effects of early burn wound excision on gastric blood flow and on morphologic changes in mucosal vessels. Wistar rats were given a 30% total body surface area burn and divided into four groups, consisting of control animals (group 1), animals with burn injury without and with ...
Gupta R - - 1998
Endoscopic laser Doppler velocimetry is a simple non-invasive method to measure gastric mucosal blood flow. The present study is an attempt to determine a correlation, if any, between gastric mucosal blood flow and the hepatic perfusion index in patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy and their relationship to the severity of ...
Keyser E J - - 1998
A healthy 45-year-old woman with a previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass presented with the signs, symptoms and blood analysis results consistent with acute pancreatitis. She was initially treated nonoperatively and subsequently went into circulatory shock. Computerized tomographic scan and exploratory laparotomy revealed a volvulus of the afferent jejunal limb with secondary ...
Hausken T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: By means of duplex sonography, gastric emptying can be related to antral motor activity. The aim of this study was to examine gastric emptying in relation to antral contractions during and immediately after ingestion of a liquid meal in healthy subjects and to study the effect of glyceryl trinitrate ...
Mathis C - - 1998
Erythromycin increases gastric emptying but the characteristics of transpyloric flow and the contribution of pyloric resistance to the mechanisms of increased flow are unknown. Transpyloric outflow and gastroduodenal pressures were studied in eight anaesthetized pigs during intravenous infusion of erythromycin (10 mg kg-1). Erythromycin increased emptying of saline through an ...
Kelly D A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Oral indomethacin causes villous shortening, microvascular damage, and distortion, which might induce mucosal ischaemia and necrosis. AIMS: In order to determine the early events in indomethacin induced jejunal injury we examined the temporal relations between morphological damage and changes in villous blood flow following indomethacin. METHODS: In anaesthetised rats, ...
Kang J Y - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and capsaicin protect against experimental gastric mucosal injury. Capsaicin exerts its gastroprotective effect by stimulating afferent neurones leading to release of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) which causes gastric hyperaemia. EGF also causes gastric hyperaemia but whether it acts via capsaicin sensitive neurones is unknown. ...
Ichinohe T - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare the effects of nitrous oxide (N2O), isoflurane (ISO), fentanyl (FENT), and propofol (PROP) on the tongue mucosal blood flow (TMBF) in rabbits. STUDY DESIGN: TMBF was measured with a laser Doppler flow meter before and after the administration of 50% N2O ...
Laine L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The effect of blood on rapid urease tests is uncertain. We assessed the effect of soaking gastric biopsy specimens in blood on the results of both agar gel (CLOtest) and strip (Pyloritek) rapid urease tests. METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing endoscopy had four adjacent biopsy specimens taken from normal ...
Mathis C - - 1998
Erythromycin overcomes postvagotomy gastroparesia in patients without a distal stomach and functional pylorus. We investigate the role of the vagus in gastric emptying increased by erythromycin, using a model that preserves the physiology of the distal stomach and pylorus. The effects of erythromycin lactobionate (10 mg/kg) on transpyloric flow pattern ...
Döbrönte Z - - 1998
Methods for proper measurement of gastric mucosal blood flow (MBF) in animal experiments or in clinical studies are critically reviewed. It can be stated that none of the techniques hitherto published fulfill all the criteria for proper measurement of the mucosal blood flow and concomitant acid production in the stomach. ...
Ma L - - 1998
Epidemiologic studies have shown that cigarette smoking is closely related to peptic ulcer disease. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoking adversely affects gastric mucosa have been suggested and elucidated. This article reviews some of the mechanisms involved in cigarette smoking-related gastric ulceration and healing. Experimental findings suggest that cigarette smoking ...
Terada N - - 1998
The thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, ramatroban (BAY u 3405), was orally administered for 4 weeks at a daily dose of 150 mg (b.i.d.) to 10 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis who had a positive reaction to house dust challenge on nasal mucosa. Nasal cavity volume and minimum cross-sectional area were ...
Stott W T - - 1998
The potential oral toxicity of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) has been evaluated in a number of dietary toxicity studies. The relatively high vapor pressure of 1,3-D, its short half-life in drinking water, and its reactivity with constituents of feed necessitated the use of a microencapsulated formulation (starch-sucrose shell) of 1,3-D in these ...
Morris G P - - 1998
We tested the hypothesis that rapidly developing gastric cytoprotection produced by topical application of exogenous compounds is a result of increased gastric mucosal fluid secretion. Ex vivo gastric chambers were prepared in rats which were subsequently exposed topically to one of the prostaglandin (PG) E1 analogues misoprostol or rioprostil, PGE2, ...
Gannon P J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of changes from nasal to tracheal respiration on maxillary sinus mucosal blood flow in rabbits with unobstructed sinus ostia. DESIGN: Animals underwent tracheotomy with a T tube and then a small window of intact maxillary sinus mucosa was exposed. Mucosal blood flow was recorded during ...
Schilling M K - - 1997
In this experimental study we measured microcirculatory and anatomic differences among a newly developed technique of gastroplasty--fundus rotation gastroplasty (FRG)--and conventional (CG) and reversed (RG) gastric tubes as substitutes for the thoracic and cervical esophagus. After transhiatal esophageal resection, 36 large white pigs were randomly assigned to have an FRG, ...
Kim Y D - - 1997
We evaluated the distribution of nitric oxide (NO) in the rat nasal mucosa using nicotineamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase histochemistry. The NADPH-diaphorase positive nerve fibers in the nasal mucosa were observed around blood vessels and submucosal glands and in sphenopalatine ganglions. Strong positive reactions for NADPH-diaphorase were observed in ganglions ...
Méndez A - - 1997
We compared changes in gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and left gastric artery blood flow (LGABF) in response to pharmacological, physiological, and pathological stimuli. GMBF and LGABF were measured by the hydrogen gas clearance and perivascular ultrasonic transit time techniques, respectively, under baseline conditions and following intravenous infusion of vasopressin ...
Fukui S - - 1997
As we consider succinic acid to be an exacerbating factor in ulcerative colitis, we investigated its influence on rat colonic mucosa in terms of mucosal blood flow and superoxide generation. We measured mucosal blood flow by the hydrogen gas clearance method and superoxide generation by the chemiluminescence method, and observed ...
Ovrebø K K - - 1997
Glutathione has been studied as a possible mediator in gastric mucosal protection and healing, but its extracellular function is not fully understood. This study evaluates blood flow changes in normal gastric mucosa secondary to glutathione modulation under stable central hemodynamic conditions. Thiol substances were quantified by reverse-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography ...
Koike M - - 1997
CONCLUSION: This study showed that the splenic vein (SV) plays a major role in maintaining gastric blood flow after ligature of peripyloric vessels in the dog. Therefore, SV preservation or alternative venous drainage may be recommended to maintain sufficient gastric blood flow in pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD). BACKGROUND: In PPPD, we ...
Nagahata Y - - 1997
We investigated the response of gastric vessels to prostaglandin (PG) E2 after intra-duodenal release of bile in rats with obstructive jaundice. The animals were divided in four groups according to duration of bile duct obstruction (BDO): control and 1 week (W), 2W, and 3W groups. Prolonged BDO decreased gastric mucosal ...
Oberhuber G - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Blood group Lewis(b) antigens mediate Helicobacter pylori attachment to gastric mucosa with attachment being particularly strong in subjects with ABH blood group O. AIMS: To determine whether H pylori colonisation or the occurrence of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas might be related to gastric Lewis(b) expression or ...
Tanaka S - - 1997
Exogenously administered trefoil peptides are gastroprotective in rat injury models. We hypothesized that trefoil-associated gastroprotection occurred by decreasing the rate of proton permeation through mucus. Gastric surface cell intracellular pH and mucus gel thickness were measured by in vivo microscopy. Gastric mucosal blood flow was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. The ...
Ohta Y - - 1997
The relationship between the changes of active oxygen metabolism and blood flow and the formation, progression, and recovery of lesions was examined in the gastric mucosa of rats treated once with compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator. Gastric mucosal lesions appeared 0.5 hr after compound 48/80 treatment, became worst at ...
Battal M N - - 1997
Stress ulcers still have a high mortality in critically burned patients and the pathophysiology remains relatively unknown. Impaired gastric mucosal perfusion is one of the factors contributing to gastric mucosal ulceration. Burn injury causes thrombosis and vascular occlusion by increasing the blood viscosity, resulting in decreased organ perfusion. Reduced blood ...
Konturek P C - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Melatonin, a pineal hormone that is biosynthesized from L-tryptophan, is known to scavenge oxygen free radicals and to be present in the gut, but little is known about the role of this hormone and its precursor, L-tryptophan, in protecting the gastric mucosa from damage accompanied by increase in the ...
Guslandi M - - 1997
Smoking promotes an increase in both the incidence and the recurrence of duodenal ulcers, but the mechanisms responsible for its adverse effects on the duodenal mucosa are still poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on duodenal blood flow. In ...
Trauner M - - 1997
Nitric oxide (NO) modulates several metabolic functions in hepatocytes, but the role of NO in bile secretion has not been clearly defined. In the present study, we examined the effects of NO on bile flow and biliary HC03- and glutathione excretion in the isolated perfused rat liver and assessed the ...
Sato Y - - 1997
Measurement of gastric wall PCO2 (PgCO2) by tonometric method has emerged as an attractive option for estimating visceral perfusion during circulatory shock. However, gastric acid secretion obfuscates the tonometric measurement. We, therefore, investigated the option of measuring PCO2 in the esophagus to minimize these restraints. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in ...
Minami T - - 1997
Gastric intramucosal bleeding in portal hypertensive gastropathy was investigated in terms of gastric mucosal microcirculation, coagulation-fibrinolysis factors, and local fibrinolysis in patients with liver cirrhosis. The gastric mucosa was examined by endoscopy, and the patients were classified into two groups with or without bleeding. Gastric mucosal blood flow was measured ...
Weck M - - 1997
Our objective was to investigate the relationship between gastric emptying and mesenteric blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients with (CAN+) and without (CAN-) cardiac autonomic neuropathy. CAN was determined by a series of cardiovascular reflex tests and power spectral analysis of heart rate variations (HRV) using a computerized system. ...
Taranto D - - 1997
Focal blood perfusion was measured, by means of a laser-Doppler technique, in the gastric upper body of 70 patients with liver cirrhosis and of 33 noncirrhotic controls. Perfusion was found to be lower in patients with pink mosaic-like pattern as compared to controls (p < 0.001). On the contrary, patients ...
Bhat R - - 1997
We studied the maturational changes in bile composition, bile flow and choleretic effects of sodium taurocholate and secretin in preterm (160 +/- 2 days, n = 4, group I), term (184 +/- 2 days, n = 4, group II), 7-day postnatal age (n = 5, group III) and 60-day-old (n ...
Nevière R - - 1996
To test the hypothesis whether or not dobutamine or dopamine infusion increases gastric mucosal perfusion, a prospective randomized crossover trial was conducted on 10 septic patients in the intensive care unit of a university hospital. Systemic hemodynamic, oxygen transport, and gastric perfusion assessed by gastric intramucosal pH and laser Doppler ...
Anthony A - - 1996
The beta 3-adrenoceptor is now a recognized sub-type of beta-adrenoceptor and is the principle adrenoceptor responsible for lipolysis in rat adipocytes. The receptor is also found in the gastrointestinal tract where beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists are both spasmolytic and potent inhibitors of experimental non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric and small intestinal ...
Hisanaga Y - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent cytoprotective substance of gastric mucosa. FK506, an immunosuppressive drug, shows anti-gastric ulcer effects equivalent to famotidine, an H2 blocker, in rats. This study was designed to evaluate the cytoprotective mechanism of FK506 on gastric mucosa in relation to the changes in NO synthase ...
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