Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1090
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Schmidt W - - 2000
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a continuous infusion of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor amrinone on mucosal villus blood flow in a normotensive model of endotoxemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four anesthetized and ventilated rats underwent laparotomy, and an ileal portion was exteriorized and opened ...
Sielenkämper A W - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) protected against a decrease in gastric intramucosal pH, suggesting that TEA increased gut mucosal perfusion. The current study examines the effects of TEA on ileal mucosa using intravital microscopy in anesthetized rats. METHODS: Nineteen rats were equipped with epidural catheters, with ...
Paterson C A - - 2000
The precise factors and their relative contributions that lead to individual flow pulses across the pylorus during liquid gastric emptying remain unclear. Our objective was to determine the factors leading to individual flow pulses, their relative contributions and the role of the vagus nerve in their modulation. Proximal gastric tone ...
Mallinder P A - - 2000
Several methods are available to measure splanchnic blood flow and gut ischaemia. Tonometry is most practical for peri-operative use. Epidural blockade from T5 to T11 causes mesenteric arteriovenous vasodilation and may increase splanchnic blood flow. This study assesses the ability of tonometry to measure differential effects of opiate and epidural ...
Uusaro A - - 2000
Gastric mucosal-arterial PCO2 gradient (P(g-a)CO2) is used to assess splanchnic perfusion and oxygenation. We evaluated whether P(g-a)CO2 reflects whole body (Q) and splanchnic (Qsp) blood flow, oxygen delivery (DO2) and consumption (VO2) after coronary artery by pass graft (CABG) operation. Thirty patients received dobutamine or dopexamine to increase cardiac index, ...
Kumagai S - - 2000
A simple lung model (mucosal blood flow and metabolism model, MBM model) was developed to describe the uptake of organic solvents and investigate the role of mucosal blood flow and metabolism. The model separates the lung into four compartments, the peripheral bronchial tract (gas phase), the mucus layer lining the ...
Tavares I A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: In the stomach, constitutive cyclooxygenase (COX-1) synthesizes prostaglandins that maintain the integrity of the gastric mucosa, while their inhibition contributes to gastric mucosal damage. In contrast COX-2, an inducible enzyme, forms prostanoids involved in pain and inflammation. AIM: To compare prostaglandin synthesis inhibition by meloxicam, a selective COX-2 NSAID ...
Harada N - - 2000
Neutrophil elastase decreases production of PGI2 by cultured endothelial cells. Thus, neutrophil elastase may play an important role in gastric mucosal injury by decreasing the tissue level of PGI2, an important gastric cytoprotective substance. We examined whether activated neutrophils inhibit gastric PGI2 production in rats subjected to water-immersion restraint stress. ...
Sakka S G - - 2000
We studied global and splanchnic haemodynamics in patients with septic shock, while reducing norepinephrine doses by progressive fluid loading administration. Ten patients (six female, four male, aged 39-86 yr, mean 61 yr) were assessed using a transpulmonary thermo-dye dilution technique to measure cardiac output, intrathoracic blood volume and total blood ...
Kawano S - - 2000
The present article overviews the role of gastric mucosal blood flow (MBF) in gastric mucosal injury and protection. The MBF maintains the structure and function of the stomach and, thereby, is closely associated with the pathogenesis and the healing of gastrointestinal lesions. Gastric blood flow was regulated and modified by ...
van der Bijl P - - 2000
Continued interest in the various routes by which sumatriptan may be administered prompted us to investigate its passage through buccal mucosa. Because human buccal mucosa is scarce, we proposed using the relatively abundant vaginal mucosa, which has been shown to have comparable diffusion rates for a number of widely varying ...
Emmanuel A V - - 2000
BACKGROUND: In functional disorders it is unknown whether disturbed function is due to an intrinsic gut abnormality or altered extrinsic innervation. AIMS: To study whether measurement of mucosal blood flow could be used as a quantitative direct measure of gut extrinsic nerve autonomic activity in patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: ...
Abe Y - - 2000
To examine the mechanism of stress ulcers and the relation between endothelium derived relaxing factor (EDRF)/NO and gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF), we used an isolated perfused rat stomach model and studied the effects of an autonomic nerve activator, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) synthesis, and an EDRF/NO inhibitor on gastric ...
Schilling M K - - 2000
Premalignant lesions of the gastroesophageal junction are treated conservatively or by antireflux surgical procedures. We describe a novel technique that replaces the distal esophagus after resection of the gastroesophageal junction. After resection of the gastroesophageal junction, 16 pigs were divided into two groups. In group 1 (n = 9) the ...
Atuma C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that water extracts from Helicobacter pylori reduce gastric mucosal blood flow by approximately 15%. It has also been suggested that H. pylori can inhibit endogenous nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. Our aim was to examine whether the reduction in blood flow induced by H. pylori is ...
Krzymowski T - - 1999
Signaling and priming pheromones play an important role in intraspecies behavioral and sexual interactions and in the control of reproduction. It is generally accepted that pheromones act by stimulating the dendritic receptors in the mucus-imbedded cilia of olfactory neurons massed in the olfactory epithelium. The boar pheromone androstenol, known to ...
Hoffmann P - - 1999
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Non-mitogenic biological activity such as modulation of mucosal blood flow is suspected to convey the protective effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vivo. The aims of our present study were to determine the effects of EGF on colonic mucosal blood flow and injury induced hyperaemia in rats. DESIGN/METHODS: ...
Cervin A - - 1999
The aim of this study was to examine dose-dependent effects of intranasal application of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on nasal mucosal blood flow, blood content, and intranasal nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and blood content by rhinomanometry. Mucosal biopsies were taken for investigation ...
Jakob S M - - 1999
When venous oxygen saturation increases as a result of increased blood flow, changes in venous blood PCO2 and carbon dioxide content may differ because of the Haldane effect. The Haldane effect may also explain increases in gastric mucosal-arterial PCO2 gradient despite major increases in splanchnic blood flow. We re-analysed data ...
Bocquillon N - - 1999
To determine if gastric intramucosal pH changes during weaning from mechanical ventilation are related to gastric mucosal blood flow modifications, we studied 16 ventilator-supported patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who tolerated a 2-h trial of spontaneous breathing with pressure support ventilation and were successfully extubated and 11 patients ...
Mayer K - - 1999
Decreased capillary flow and heterogeneity of microvascular perfusion are hallmarks of septic circulatory disturbances, and the gastrointestinal mucosa is considered to be particularly prone to such abnormalities. We investigated the impact of Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA), a medically relevant pore-forming bacterial toxin, on the mucosal microvasculature in a constant-flow blood-perfused ...
Meier-Hellmann A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of dopexamine on splanchnic blood flow and splanchnic oxygen uptake in septic patients. DESIGN: A prospective, controlled trial. SETTING: A ten-bed intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twelve patients with severe sepsis (according to the criteria of the 1992 American College of ...
Filaretova L - - 1999
Our previous investigations demonstrated that glucocorticoids released in response to stress protect gastric mucosa against stress-induced ulceration. This study was designed to determine whether gastric microcirculation is involved in the mechanism of gastroprotective glucocorticoid action. For this we evaluated the effects of deficiency of glucocorticoid production during 3 hr water-restraint ...
Schilling M K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Tumour vascularisation is a determinant of the development of metastases. AIMS: To measure blood flow in normal stomach and gastric adenocarcinomas by laser Doppler flowmetry and correlate blood flow with vascularisation after immunohistochemical staining of resected specimens for CD31 and von Willebrand factor. PATIENTS: Twenty two undergoing resection for ...
Ma L - - 1999
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Apoptosis is a common mechanism for the regulation of cell loss. It is associated with both tissue atrophy and metaplasia. Cigarette smoking has tremendous adverse effects on the stomach and also increases the risk of gastric cancer. This action may be through the change in apoptosis in the stomach. ...
Campbell M E - - 1999
AIM: To determine the correlation between gastric intramucosal pH and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow in newborn piglets. METHODS: Fourteen newborn piglets were randomly assigned to either a control or to an epinephrine group which received 0,1,2,4,0 microg/kg/min of epinephrine for 60 minutes, each dose. Gastric tonometry was performed, SMA ...
Guzman J A - - 1999
The effects of hypocapnia [arterial PCO(2) (Pa(CO(2))) 15 Torr] on splanchnic hemodynamics and gut mucosal-arterial P(CO(2)) were studied in seven anesthetized ventilated dogs. Ileal mucosal and serosal blood flow were estimated by using laser Doppler flowmetry, mucosal PCO(2) was measured continuously by using capnometric recirculating gas tonometry, and serosal surface ...
Seto Y - - 1999
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A fundamental experiment was undertaken with reference to local resection with lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. The intramural blood supply network of the stomach wall, about which no reports have previously appeared, was surgically investigated. METHODOLOGY: Five pigs were used. The left gastric and the right gastroepiploic vessels and their ...
Harada N - - 1999
We investigated whether, in rats, gastric prostacyclin (PGI2) prevented gastric mucosal injury that was induced by water-immersion restraint stress by inhibiting leukocyte activation. Gastric levels of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, a stable metabolite of PGI2, increased transiently 30 min after stress, followed by a decrease to below the baseline 6-8 h after stress. ...
Guslandi M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Elderly subjects are more prone to develop gastric injury, but human data on the state of mucosal protective mechanisms are scarce. The aim of the study was to assess gastric mucus and bicarbonate secretion as well as local microcirculation in elderly patients. METHODS: Fasting gastric juice was collected in ...
Emmanuel A V - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Gut mucosal blood flow measurement is used to study a variety of disorders and possibly extrinsic neural function. AIMS: To determine optimal measurement criteria and validate this technique as a measure of level of activity of extrinsic autonomic gut innervation. METHODS: In 26 healthy volunteers a laser Doppler mucosal ...
Döner F - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Acute maxillary sinusitis is one of the most common diseases in human. Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) produced also physiologically in the body, are normally neutralised by antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). Infection is one of the causes of increased ROMs production. The most important mechanism of tissue ...
Schmidt W - - 1999
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on mucosal villous blood flow in a normotensive model of endotoxemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two anesthetized rats were laparotomized, and a jejunal portion was exteriorized and opened by an antimesenteric incision. The jejunal segment was ...
Boyle N H - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Ischemia from tissue hypoperfusion in the gastric tube after esophagectomy is believed to contribute significantly to postoperative complications associated with anastomotic failure. This study assessed the ability of the new technique of laser Doppler flowmetry to measure differential levels of blood flow in human gastric tubes during esophagectomy. STUDY ...
Guo X - - 1999
Cigarette smoking and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with gastroduodenal ulcers. The present study aimed to clarify the ulcerogenic mechanisms of passive cigarette smoking on gastrointestinal damage induced by indomethacin in fasted or in fasted and refed rats. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke (0%, 1%, 2%, or ...
Sandborn W J - - 1999
Smoking is protective against developing ulcerative colitis. Nicotine may be the cause of this protective effect. Controlled trials have demonstrated efficacy of transdermal nicotine for active ulcerative colitis. Side effects observed with transdermal nicotine include contact dermatitis, nausea, and lightheadedness. Topical administration of nicotine to the colon reduces nicotine blood ...
Kubba A K - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The somatostatin analogue, octreotide is valuable in the management of variceal bleeding, and it has been suggested that it may stop peptic ulcer hemorrhage by reducing gastroduodenal blood flow or increasing intragastric pH. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intravenous octreotide infusion on gastroduodenal ...
Matsuzaki Y - - 1999
BACKGROUND: A prospective study on the vasodilatory effect of prostaglandin E1 on blood flow to the gastric tube after esophagectomy is reported. METHODS: Twelve patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were enrolled in this study. In all patients, the esophagogastrostomy was performed in the cervical region, and the ...
Fischer H - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Gastric adaptation to aspirin is well-documented. However, the mechanisms underlying the reduction of aspirin-induced mucosal damage despite continued ingestion of the drug remain poorly understood. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers who received aspirin 1 g b.d. for 14 days were compared with eight placebo-dosed controls. Gastroscopy with mucosal biopsy was ...
Forsgren K - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To study the circulatory integrity of the sinus mucosa following surgery, the vascular anatomy, blood flow, and vasoconstrictor response of the regenerated microcirculatory network were analyzed. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-six New Zealand White rabbits were operated on unilaterally with either a modified radical operation (MRO) or middle meatal antrostomy (MMA), ...
Homma Y - - 1999
We have investigated the relationship between oral mucosal blood flow and plasma epinephrine concentration, and the effects of conscious sedation vs general anaesthesia on haemodynamic responses after submucosal epinephrine injection in 14 subjects. The same seven patients were studied both as controls and after sedation. For sedation, midazolam i.v. was ...
Masuko E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Portal hypertensive gastropathy causes some gastric mucosal microcirculatory disorders in cirrhotic patients, but the nature of the rheologic dysfunction in the gastric microcirculation remains to be clarified. METHODS: To examine the rheologic properties of the gastric microcirculation, we subjected 112 cirrhotic patients and 51 control subjects to endoscopic laser ...
Appleyard C B - - 1999
This study tested the hypothesis that altered colonic blood flow may contribute to tissue damage during the development of colitis in the rabbit. This was achieved by using radioactive microspheres to measure colonic blood flow at various times after colitis induction with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Significant colonic damage occurred 6 ...
Madorin W S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Injury to the small intestine is thought to play a crucial role in the development and propagation of sepsis. Cellular hypoxia, caused by hypoperfusion, may result in increased mucosal permeability, thus allowing the translocation of bacteria and endotoxin to the circulation. The purpose of this study was to assess ...
Forse R A - - 1999
Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is increasing in incidence. The primary treatment is surgical resection, which is associated with considerable risk of anastomotic dehiscence and stricture. Decreased blood flow has been suggested as one of the factors contributing to these anastomotic failures. Our hypothesis was that anastomotic blood flow was decreased ...
Jaffe P D - - 1999
The distribution and redistribution of venlafaxine were investigated in two overdoses and several cases involving the therapeutic use of venlafaxine. Blood, liver, bile vitreous humor, urine and gastric contents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Blood concentrations of venlafaxine in the two overdose cases were 53 ...
Noi O - - 1999
The effects of glycerol on cochlear blood flow and serum osmotic pressure were studied in healthy guinea pigs. Laser Doppler flowmetry of cochlear blood flow after the esophageal-gastric administration of 50% glycerol demonstrated a greater increase in blood flow for a longer time than with the intravenous infusion of 50% ...
Bergasa N V - - 1999
The existence of an opioid central pathway that may regulate bile secretion was explored by studying the effect of the intracisternal (i.c.) administration of the opiate D-Ala2-Met-enkephalinamide (DAME) on bile secretion in anesthetized male rats. The i.c. administration of DAME was associated with a dose-related decrease in bile flow that ...
Wu D C - - 1999
Duodenal ulcer (DU) is frequently accompanied by Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and associated with the imbalance of aggressive factors and defensive factors. To investigate the possible relationship between Hp and regional gastric blood flow, 26 endoscopically proved DU (scar stage) and Hp infection patients were included and received triple therapy ...
Sahin M - - 1999
Octreotide (Sandostatin 201-995) has an inhibitory effect on gastric, intestinal, and pancreatic secretions and hepatic and splachnic blood flow. We examined the effects of octreotide on bile flow and bile components in 10 patients with T-tube choledochostomy. A Fogarty balloon catheter was inserted distal to the T-tube of these patients ...
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