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Cañada Maria José Ayora - - 2002
The technique of bead injection has been adapted for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to substantially improve precision, long term stability and sensitivity of SERS detection in analytical chemistry. For this purpose a fully automated flow system comprising a dedicated flow-cell has been developed and tested. With the developed flow-cell, ...
Loeckinger Alex - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that epinephrine administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation results in pulmonary gas exchange disturbances. It is uncertain how vasopressin affects gas exchange after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty domestic pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Animals were subjected to ventricular fibrillation and cardiopulmonary ...
Duncan Frances D - - 2002
The sealed subelytral cavity of many flightless beetle species is widely acknowledged to be an adaptation to water saving in arid-habitat species. However, this hypothesis relies on the acceptance of two largely untested assumptions: (i) that the movement of respiratory gases is unidirectional from anterior to posterior and (ii) that ...
Mei Renwei - - 2002
The present work investigates two approaches for force evaluation in the lattice Boltzmann equation: the momentum-exchange method and the stress-integration method on the surface of a body. The boundary condition for the particle distribution functions on curved geometries is handled with second-order accuracy based on our recent works [Mei et ...
Bjørnerud Atle - - 2002
Accurate knowledge of the relationship between contrast agent concentration and tissue relaxation is a critical requirement for quantitative assessment of tissue perfusion using contrast-enhanced MRI. In the present study, using a pig model, the relationship between steady-state blood concentration levels of an iron oxide nanoparticle with a hydrated diameter of ...
Danielson Constance F M - - 2002
Patients with sickle cell disease have abnormal red blood cells (RBCs). This can cause chronic hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusion leading to tissue hypoxemia and organ dysfunction. RBC exchange transfusion can, without increasing the whole-blood viscosity, quickly replace abnormal erythrocytes with normal and raise the hematocrit resulting in improved delivery of ...
Schmitz Anke - - 2002
The tracheal system of harvestmen consists of two stem tracheae, which give rise to higher order tracheae that supply the extremities and internal organs. In this study, we used stereological morphometric methods to investigate diffusing capacities of the walls ('lateral diffusing capacity') of the tracheae of adult males and females ...
Vrana Branislav - - 2002
The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but the potential effects of environmental variables affecting the accumulation of contaminants into SPMDs had not been characterized sufficiently, yet. To characterize the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the contaminant uptake kinetics, accumulation of pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers ...
Das D B - - 2002
The interfaces between free (e.g., groundwater) and porous (e.g., soil) flow zones in the subsurface represent important transition zones across which many important transfer/exchange processes occur. The understanding of these interactive phenomena and the way these regions behave in combination is, therefore, critical for management of subsurface water quality. Indispensable ...
Botzlar Andreas - - 2002
The development of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers has been propagated for replacement of the oxygen carrying properties of red blood cells for almost one century. Using a Clark-type multi-wire oxygen surface electrode and the dorsal skin fold chamber model of the awake Syrian golden hamster, local tissue pO(2) was analyzed in ...
Vicenzini Edoardo - - 2002
A 68-year-old woman was admitted for a subacute polyradiculoneuropathy and submitted to PE. A central right jugular venous access was placed after the third PE procedure due to a failing peripheral blood access. During the fourth PE, performed with a discontinuous-flow system (continuous-flow used for 3 procedures), she developed multiple ...
Maina J N - - 2002
Over its life, an organism's survival and success are determined by the inventory of vital adaptations that its progenitors have creatively appropriated, devised and harnessed along the evolutionary pathway. Such conserved attributes provide the armamentarium necessary for withstanding the adverse effects of natural selection. Refinements of the designs of the ...
Reid S A - - 2001
Research was undertaken to critically evaluate parasitological tests for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi in blood. The relative sensitivity of mouse inoculation (MI), the haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and a modified miniature anion-exchange centrifugation technique (MAECT) were compared using blood and buffy coat. The effect that storage of blood prior ...
Kingma J G JG - - 2001
Hemoglobin based oxygen-carrying solutions (HBOCs) as hemoglobin replacement therapeutics are being tested for clinical use. Some of these products are associated with elevations in both systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances but their effect on the distribution of blood flow to major organs in larger animals have not been extensively described. ...
Elci B A - - 2001
A recent paper by Hutchins and Acree (2000) has called attention to ground water sampling bias due to ambient (natural gradient-induced) flows in monitoring wells. Data collected with borehole flowmeters have shown that such ambient flows are ubiquitous in both confined and unconfined aquifers. Developed herein is a detailed three-dimensional ...
Striegel A M - - 2001
Band broadening in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) has an adverse effect upon calculated molecular mass averages, distributions, and dilute solution data generated using single- and multi-detector systems. In the past, the longitudinal diffusion contribution to band broadening in SEC has been considered negligible. This assumption has been investigated by using a ...
Morgan-Hughes N J - - 2001
Heat and moisture exchanging filters (HMEFs) can be blocked by secretions. We have studied HMEF performance under wet conditions to see which particular design features predispose to this complication. Dar Hygrobac-S (composite felt filter and cellulose exchanger), Dar Hygroster (composite pleated ceramic membrane and cellulose exchanger) and Pall BB22-15 (pleated ...
Matsuda K - - 2001
It has been widely accepted that cytokines play important roles in the development of organ failure in various pathophysiological conditions of critically ill patients. Various new technologies, including continuous renal replacement therapy, have been developed for the removal of causative humoral mediators in sepsis or other critical conditions. Nonselective blood ...
Yumura S - - 2001
Myosin II is a major component of a contractile ring. To examine if myosin II turns over in contractile rings, fluorescence of GFP-myosin II expressed in Dictyostelium cells was bleached locally by laser illumination, and the recovery was monitored. The fluorescence recovered with a half time of 7.01 +/- 2.62 ...
Jacob C K - - 2001
The concept of removal of blood "blood letting" was practised in ancient times. In the last four decades plasmapheresis, plasma exchange, or apheresis as the modality of treatment of certain specific disorders has become available. This article is a review of the principles of plasmapheresis. The equipment needed, the technique ...
Nagayama J - - 2001
Highly toxic organochlorine chemicals such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (CoPCBs) were determined in the peripheral blood and sebum from the face of 16 "Yusho" patients of about 27 yr after the outbreak of Yusho accident, and 39 healthy Japanese people. The mean total ...
Schermuly R T - - 2001
Alveolar fibrin generation has been suggested to possess strong surfactant-inhibitory potency. In perfused rabbit lungs, fibrin formation in the alveolar space was induced by sequential ultrasonic aerosolization of fibrinogen and thrombin, and the efficacy of rescue administration of surfactant and urokinase was investigated. Ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) distribution was assessed by the ...
Zhou J - - 2001
The original well-mixed tissue model for the arterial spin tagging techniques is extended to a two-compartment model of restricted water exchange between microvascular (blood) and extravascular (tissue) space in the parenchyma. The microvascular compartment consists of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, with the blood/tissue water exchange taking place in the capillaries. ...
Miller T F - - 2001
Based on a physicochemical property profile, we tested the hypothesis that different perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids may have distinct effects on intrapulmonary PFC distribution, lung function, and PFC elimination kinetics during partial liquid ventilation (PLV). Young rabbits were studied in five groups [healthy, PLV with perflubron (PFB) or with perfluorodecalin (DEC); ...
Isbister J P - - 2001
During the last 30 years in vivo blood cell separation, generally referred to apheresis, has established a central role in both blood donor programmes and therapeutics. The technological advances in apheresis equipment has made procedures safer, faster and more effective. This article will review the use of apheresis in clinical ...
Hopkins S R - - 2001
Many vertebrate animals have superior tolerance to environmental hypoxia compared to humans. For example, turtles tolerate an environment of 100% N2 for several hours, without apparent ill effect. This hypoxia tolerance is not limited to heterotherms, as some species of marine mammals, such as the northern elephant seal, may voluntarily ...
Collin O - - 2000
Vasomotion is a rhythmical variation in arterial blood flow present in many different organs among them the rat testis. Vasomotion is suggested to play an important role for the transvascular fluid exchange and the exchange of nutrients over the capillary wall as well as the formation of interstitial fluid. The ...
Baldwin A L - - 2000
1. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated challenging the notion that the smallest blood vessels, the capillaries, are static, uniform, semipermeable pipes with no function except as a passive barrier marking the boundary between the vascular compartments from the tissue compartment. 2. Instead, capillaries are dynamic structures that participate ...
Pries A R - - 2000
The endothelial lining of blood vessels presents a large surface area for exchange of materials between blood and tissues, and is critically involved in many other processes such as regulation of blood flow, inflammatory responses and blood coagulation. It has long been known that the luminal surface of the endothelium ...
Ito E - - 2000
In the present study, the 'clockwork' hypothesis proposed by Schrödinger was examined from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. Firstly, noticing a unidirectional transfer of entropy in a heat engine, the logic was briefly explained about a close relation between this entropy transfer and an irreversible cycle performed by a working body. ...
Longo L D - - 2000
During the past century a number of investigators have contributed to an understanding of the regulation of uteroplacental blood flow and its influence on placental respiratory gas exchange and fetal oxygenation. Among these, Elizabeth M. Ramsey is noteworthy for her contributions to embryology and placental development. In addition, with several ...
Kozlova E K - - 2000
In our previous article (Am J Physiol Adv Physiol Educ 272: S26-S30, 1997) we proposed a model that permits analysis for the change of hemodynamics in vessels with local stenosis. This problem is connected with the blood-tissue metabolism. This article continues the classroom research on concepts related to blood flow ...
Edwards A - - 2000
Blood flow to the renal medulla is supplied through descending vasa recta (DVR), which are derived from the efferent arterioles of juxtamedullary glomeruli. In addition to their role as conduits for blood flow, it is accepted that the vasa recta are countercurrent exchangers. That process, however, involves events which are ...
Federspiel W J - - 2000
Intravenous oxygenation represents a potential respiratory support modality for patients with acute respiratory failure or with acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory conditions. Our group has been developing an intravenous oxygenator, the IMO, which uses a constrained fiber bundle and a rapidly pulsating balloon within the fiber bundle. Balloon pulsation drives ...
Dorman S E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is an increasingly recognized parasitic infection with manifestations that range from a subclinical or mild flu-like illness to life-threatening disease. Risk factors that may be associated with a more severe clinical course include immunosuppression, splenectomy, and advanced age. The most effective chemotherapeutic regimen, clindamycin plus quinine, is sometimes ...
Zhu L - - 2000
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the capacity of the heat loss from the carotid artery in the human neck and thus, to provide indirect evidence of the existence of selective brain cooling in humans during hyperthermia. A theoretical model is developed to describe the effects of blood ...
Hout M S - - 2000
The exchange rate of CO2 in artificial lungs depends on the sweep gas flow rate. Control of the amount of CO2 removed by an artificial lung requires quantitative knowledge of the flow dependence. A simple model of the dependence of CO2 exchange on sweep gas flow rate in artificial lungs ...
Tsuchida E - - 2000
Human serum albumin (HSA) incorporating synthetic hemes, the tetrakis(o-pivalamido)phenylporphinatoiron(II) derivative (FeP), is an artificial hemoprotein (HSA-FeP) which is able to reversibly bind and release dioxygen under physiological conditions (in aqueous media, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) like hemoglobin and myoglobin. Physiological responses to exchange transfusion with HSA-FeP solution [[HSA], 5 ...
Bocci V - - 1999
We investigated whether exposure of blood ex-vivo to oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) through a gas exchanger is feasible and practical. We first evaluated the classical dialysis-type technique but we soon realized that semipermeable membranes are unsuitable because they are hydrophilic and vulnerable to O3. We therefore adopted a system with hydrophobic O3-resistant ...
Tufts B L - - 1999
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in blood and other tissues and red blood cell (rbc) anion exchange were measured in the mud puppy, Necturus maculosus, in order to gain insight into the strategy for CO2 transport used by these neotenic salamanders and to further explore evolutionary relationships between rbc CA activity ...
Lipfert B - - 1999
Because of their oxygen binding capacity, cell-free hemoglobin solutions are promising blood substitutes. However, their clinical use has so far been limited by toxic side effects on liver and kidney until ultrapurification and chemical modifications have been established in the production process of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. The present study has ...
Hammerman C - - 1999
In utero, the ductus arteriosus shunts deoxygenated blood away from the pulmonary artery and towards the placental circulation where foetal gas exchange occurs. As a result of an intricately intertwined network of both physiological and biochemical changes, this vessel constricts rapidly after birth. Deoxygenated blood is diverted away from the ...
Stegmayr B - - 1999
During sepsis there is an increase in the plasma content of several compounds, e.g., bacterial toxins, cytokines, cell debris, free hemoglobin and myoglobin. In blood, these compounds activate various cascade systems, which in large amounts or in more vulnerable patients lead to a disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC) with multiorgan dysfunction ...
Lombardi M - - 1999
A simple two-compartment model was used to study the effects of water exchange on the signal produced by an inversion recovery prepared rapid gradient-echo sequence during the first passage of a low dose of an intravascular contrast agent. Water exchange at intermediate rates of exchange (1-10 Hz) between the vascular ...
Keogh B F - - 1999
Intravascular gas exchange, in which miniaturized hollow fibre oxygenators are inserted into the caval veins, has been proposed as a simpler and safer alternative to extracorporeal support in severe respiratory failure. One such device, the IVOX (intravascular oxygenator), has undergone clinical trials (160 implants) and, despite individual benefits, was found ...
Laosombat V - - 1999
We report, herein, an infant who is twin A of a dizygotic twin, with premature birth and both twins having hemoglobin (Hb) E heterozygosity. Twin A who had Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) developed neonatal jaundice at the age of 2 days and needed phototherapy at the age of 3 days. ...
Abdala N - - 1999
We performed a study to determine the duration of survival of HIV-1 in syringes typically used by injectors of illicit drugs (IDUs). We describe the effectiveness of a microculture assay in detecting viable virus in volumes of blood typical of those commonly found inside used syringes. Using this assay and ...
Gulprasutdilog S - - 1999
Malaria associated with complications or a fatal outcome is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The mortality due to this disease is parallel to the degree of parasitemia. Successful use of exchange blood transfusion as a therapeutic adjunct for this infection was reported. The rationale for this form of therapy is based ...
Benders M J - - 1999
Changes in brain perfusion (using ultrasonic-determined changes in carotid artery blood flow: Qcar) and electrocortical brain activity (ECBA, obtained by a Lectromed cerebral function monitor) were studied during exchange transfusion using the push-pull method in the newborn lamb. Changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), Qcar, heart rate (HR), and ...
Elad D - - 1999
The human respiratory system is an 'open' organ, which is designed to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the circulating blood and the external environment. This gas exchange is successfully accomplished via a set of transport phenomena comprised of oscillatory air flow, heat and water vapor exchange, mucus transport and ...
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