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Results 251 - 300 of 1161
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Braaksma M A - - 2001
Mild to moderate hypoxemia without major changes in pH and pCO(2) does not reduce fetal renal blood flow and fetal urine production rate. Other factors such as acidemia, hypercapnia or changes in lung liquid production or fetal swallowing are candidates for the reduced amniotic fluid in the growth retarded fetus. ...
Jenkin G - - 2001
The evaluation of the role of critical hypoxia in unexplained fetal death in utero has been hampered by the lack of a physiological marker. Here we report the novel observation that feto-placental hypoxemia is an acute trigger for increased activin secretion from the feto-placental unit in late pregnancy. Hypoxemia was ...
Ragavendra N - - 2001
A properly implanted and functioning placenta is essential for the normal outcome of pregnancy. As pregnancy advances, an increasing supply of maternal blood, which reaches the intervillous space of the placenta via the spiral arteries, is necessary for continued growth and development of the fetus. Presumably, deficient blood flow to ...
Schwab M - - 2001
Betamethasone has been used extensively to accelerate fetal lung maturation, yet little is known of its effects on neuronal morphogenesis in the developing fetus. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are a diverse family of cytoskeletal proteins that are important for brain development and the maintenance of neuroarchitecture. Vehicle (n = 7) or ...
Hromadníková I - - 2001
The purpose of our study was to identify paternal alleles in NRBC enriched from maternal peripheral blood for detection of the presence of foetal cells in the maternal circulation and to establish a reliable non-invasive method which should allow following genetic testing. For enrichment of foetal cells from peripheral maternal ...
Cosmi E V - - 2001
Important factors which may affect the fetal circulation are the fetal breathing movements (FBMs) and other movements adn the features of fetal circulation. Recent studies have demonstrated that FBMs are a normal phenomenon of intrauterine development and that there are two patterns of FBMs: (1) A predominant pattern of rapid, ...
Cetin I - - 2001
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is characterized by the failure of the fetus to grow at a normal rate in utero and is associated with a number of endocrine and metabolic changes. Our knowledge of the placental nutrient supply and the endocrine status of the fetal-placental unit during pregnancies involving IUGR ...
Fecteau K A - - 2001
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine whether there is a profile of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) concentrations in fetal bovine blood and tissues during pregnancy, parturition and the early neonatal period and (2) to determine whether 5-HT has a 'mitogenic' effect on cultured placentome cells in bovine. ...
Moon Paula F. - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Magnesium chloride-adenosine triphosphate (MgCl(2)-ATP), advocated as an adjunct treatment in shock resuscitation, might be useful for pregnant women who develop hypovolemia secondary to conditions such as placental abruption. The effects of this treatment on the fetus, however, have never been investigated. This study determined the direct, acute effects of ...
Saraçoglu F - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variations of nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in acute and chronic fetal hypoxia and to examine if it could be possible to establish a cutoff value for the number of NRBCs for prediction of fetal acidosis. METHOD: We prospectively studied 77 pregnant women. Patients were ...
Lima J O - - 2000
A major predictor of childhood atopy is the concentration of IgE in the cord blood, but whether the source of cord blood IgE is maternal or fetal remains unclear. We sought to determine the pattern of in situ IgE production during ontogeny. Ninety-seven fetal, 142 natal, and 96 childhood samples ...
Schwab M - - 2000
Glucocorticoid administration to women at risk of preterm delivery to accelerate fetal lung maturation has become standard practice. Antenatal glucocorticoids decrease the incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage as well as accelerating fetal lung maturation. Little is known regarding side effects on fetal cerebral function. Cortisol and synthetic glucocorticoids such as betamethasone ...
Kingdom J - - 2000
Co-ordinated development of the fetal villous tree of the placenta is necessary for continued fetal growth and well-being. Before fetal viability, blood vessel development within the developing immature intermediate villi (IIV) is characterized by branching angiogenesis, such that the placenta expands to produce 10-16 generations of stem villi. Once fetal ...
Lan J - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to devise a means to use laser-Doppler flowmetry to measure cerebral perfusion before birth. The method has not been used previously, largely because of intrauterine movement artifacts. To minimize movement artifacts, a probe holder was molded from epoxy putty to the contour of the ...
Robinson R - - 2000
Cocaine may cause stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and neurobehavioral abnormalities in fetuses, newborns, and adults, and there could be developmental and/or species differences in mechanisms for these cocaine-induced cerebrovascular effects. To evaluate developmental differences in responses to cocaine, we compared the cerebrovascular and metabolic responses to a 2 mg/kg iv ...
Waters J H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Cell salvage has been used in obstetrics to a limited degree because of a fear of amniotic fluid embolism. In this study, cell salvage was combined with blood filtration using a leukocyte depletion filter. A comparison of this washed, filtered product was then made with maternal central venous blood. ...
Gargas M L - - 2000
The solvents ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), at sufficiently high doses, are known to be rodent developmental toxicants, exerting their toxic effects through the action of their metabolite 2-ethoxyacetic acid (2-EAA). Thus risks associated with exposure to these compounds are best evaluated based ...
Gembruch U - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To report on flow changes in fetal arterial, venous and coronary vessels during bradycardia following cordocentesis. Changes in the fetal circulation in response to acute challenges are incompletely understood. METHODS: Fetal blood sampling was performed at 29 + 4 weeks for chromosome analysis in a fetus with multiple malformations ...
Whitecar P W - - 2000
Published reports, case studies, and articles from the English language regarding ultrasonographic detection of fetal anemia in red blood cell alloimmunization were obtained from a MEDLINE search from 1966 to November 1999 using the keywords Rh disease, hemolytic disease of the newborn, ultrasound, and Doppler flow studies and combinations thereof. ...
Smits G - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To increase the yield of fetal erythroblasts from the blood of pregnant women by optimising and simplifying the enrichment procedure. METHODS: By using an experimental system whereby cord blood was mixed with normal adult blood, we evaluated the recovery of fetal erythroblasts using different single or double percoll density ...
Reynolds J D - - 2000
This study tested the hypothesis that a pathophysiologic insult to the fetus that decreases pH (umbilical cord occlusion) produces an increase in physiologically active (i.e., ionized) magnesium concentration. Preterm pregnant sheep (n = 7) were instrumented with maternal and fetal catheters and an inflatable vascular occluder was placed around the ...
Bobby P D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a prolonged period of asphyxia on skin blood flow, a potential indicator of fetal cardiovascular responses to asphyxia, in the chronically catheterized fetal lamb. METHODS: Eight chronically instrumented pregnant ewes were studied at 118 +/- 1 days' gestation. After a control period, fetal acid-base ...
Yang Y H - - 2000
Fetal nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) are rare in maternal circulation, but their presence constitutes a potential source of non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis. This study was undertaken to establish a non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis method using isolated fetal nRBCs. A multi-step method including triple density gradient and magnetic activated cell ...
Manninen T - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Both paracervical block (PCB) and epidural analgesia are sometimes associated with hemodynamic effects potentially harmful to the well-being of the fetus. Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that PCB would have a more profound effect on maternal and fetal blood flow than epidural analgesia. METHODS: Forty-four healthy ...
Samura O - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to improve recovery of fetal nucleated erythrocytes (NRBCs) from maternal blood for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 27 women who had just undergone pregnancy termination at 6 to 23 weeks. Samples were split and mononuclear cells were isolated using Histopaque ...
Matsumoto L C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Although the fetus normally swallows large volumes of amniotic fluid each day, it is unclear whether amniotic fluid volume increases after fetal esophageal obstruction or whether fetal urine production changes. Our objective was to determine the effects of fetal esophageal ligation on amniotic fluid volume and urinary flow rate ...
Murata T - - 2000
Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been used to measure flow in various organs of the adult, but has not been applied to the mammalian fetus. The purpose of this study was to apply LDF to measure cerebral blood flow of the fetal sheep and to assess the possible errors and ...
Pafumi C - - 2000
The aim of this work was to test fetal stem cells (FSC) number modification in relation to clamping time and newborn effect. The results show that a fast sample, between 20 and 40 seconds, from umbilical cord after fetus birth and before placental detachment assured a greater quantity of blood ...
Schultz C - - 2000
The objective of this study was to investigate the maturational changes of lymphocyte surface antigens during ontogeny from fetuses to adults using the proven whole blood lysis technique. Two-color flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte surface markers was performed on 20 fetal blood samples obtained by cordocentesis, 70 cord blood and ...
Avent N D - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prenatal determination of fetal blood group status by molecular techniques has been used in the clinical management of alloimmunised pregnancies for seven years, in particular for the definition of fetal Rh D, c and E, K, Fya and Jka status. This has arisen in response to ...
Brinkman J F - - 2000
Doppler ultrasonography is a widely used technique for determination of the fetal blood flow pattern. Determination of the waveform qualities was done manually, with considerable inter- and intraobserver variations. In order to limit the variations and the time-consuming data entry, a Fetal Blood Flow Analysis software program was developed to ...
Suzuki S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Fetal brain temperature has been found to decrease during hypoxia, strongly suggesting a reduction in cerebral O2 consumption and increases in cerebral blood flow. These responses may protect the brain in part against hypoxic injury. This study was undertaken to examine whether these compensatory mechanisms are lost during fetal ...
Bennet L - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine superior mesenteric artery blood flow changes during and after an asphyxial insult in utero in chronically instrumented unanaesthetised premature fetal sheep. METHODS: Fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation (103 to 104 days) underwent 25 minutes of complete umbilical cord occlusion (n = ...
Herrera E A - - 2000
The fetal llama has a marked increase in the peripheral vascular resistance and no augmentation of brain blood flow during hypoxemia. In spite of the substantial plasma arginine-vasopressin (AVP) increase during hypoxemia, up to 8 times greater than in fetal sheep, there are no changes of carotid and femoral blood ...
Schmidt S - - 2000
The objective of this study was the evaluation of intrapartum pulse oximetry as an indicator of fetal distress and the condition of the newborn during clinical routine surveillance in an University Perinatal Center. Between 1998 and 1999 pulse oximetry (SpO2) was used additionally to routine fetal monitoring by electronic fetal ...
Prinzen F W - - 2000
The art and science of the use of deposition markers for the estimation of blood flow distributions throughout the body and within organs is reviewed. Development of diffusible tracer techniques started 50 years ago. Twenty years later, radioactive 15 micron microspheres became the standard marker. Early studies on small animals, ...
Newman J P - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to investigate metabolic and hemodynamic responses in two fetal tissues, hindlimb muscle and brain, to an episode of acute moderate asphyxia. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure changes in total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) and the redox state of cytochrome oxidase (COX) simultaneously in the ...
Moon P F - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Even though magnesium sulfate is commonly prescribed for women with preeclampsia as prophylaxis against seizure and for women with preterm labor as a tocolytic agent there is limited information about its effects on the fetus. It is of particular concern that women with preeclampsia or in premature labor are ...
Greene K R - - 1999
The use of fetal blood sampling has been advocated widely to improve the specificity of fetal heart rate monitoring, but it remains a clinically unpopular procedure. This article considers its physiologic rationale and evidence base. It includes descriptions of the technique with suggestions for improved clinical interpretation and discusses the ...
Stevens A D - - 1999
The effects of intravenous (i.v.) infusions of 62.5 microg/h of angiotensin II (Ang II) on maternal arterial pressure (MMAP), cardiac output (CO), and uteroplacental blood flow (UPF) were studied in 11 chronically catheterized pregnant ewes and their fetuses. Over the first 4 h of infusion, MMAP (p < 0.01) increased ...
van Cappellen A M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The relationship among decreased fetal arterial oxygen saturation, the subsequent systemic metabolic acidosis, and changes in cerebral metabolite concentrations in the fetal lamb brain was investigated by means of quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal hypoxia was induced in 6 fetal lambs by gradual reduction of the ...
Tong H - - 1999
Previous studies by us and others have demonstrated that PGE(2) and thromboxane (Tx) B(2) are produced in the fetal and neonatal brain during cerebral hypoperfusion. The present study was to test the hypotheses that indomethacin would alter the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to reduced cerebral perfusion pressure in late-gestation ...
Abramowicz J S - - 1999
PURPOSE: Our objective was to demonstrate sonographically the flow distribution in the circulation of human placentae as well as the sensitivity of the human fetal capillary bed to vasoconstriction and dilatation. METHODS: Five human full-term placental lobules were maintained in vitro with fetal and maternal flow. Commercial ultrasound scanners were ...
Teixeira J M - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the fetal hemodynamic response to the acute stress of invasive procedures. STUDY DESIGN: The middle cerebral artery pulsatility index was measured by Doppler ultrasonography before and after 136 invasive procedures (fetal blood sampling, transfusion, shunt insertion, tissue biopsy, and ovarian cyst aspiration). The response of ...
Sepulveda W - - 1999
The haemoglobin alkaline denaturation test was routinely performed in 183 fetal blood samples obtained by cordocentesis for prenatal karyotyping by adding 0.1 ml of the blood into a glass test tube containing 5 ml of water and 0.3 ml of 10 per cent KOH as the alkali reagent. The mixture ...
Ecker J L - - 1999
Several techniques may be used to evaluate fetal acid-base status during the ante- and intrapartum periods. Percutaneous blood sampling (cordocentesis) may be used to measure standard blood-gas parameters while the fetus is still in utero, but because of the risks associated with such procedures and the limited clinical utility of ...
Jó┼║wik M - - 1999
The uteroplacental tissues are a principal site of ammonia production for the conceptus. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the composition of maternal amino acid (AA) infusate on uteroplacental ammonia production. Seven pregnant ewes (126 +/- 1. 4 days gestation) were infused through the maternal ...
Schneider T J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of placental transfer of the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor ridogrel in the pregnant ewe and to determine its effect on prostanoid levels in the ewe and fetal lamb, on uterine contractility and on maternal and fetal hemodynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Five chronically instrumented pregnant ewes at 122 ...
Chen W H - - 1999
BACKGROUND: To assess fetal hemodynamic changes before and during active labor, either spontaneous or prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-induced labor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective longitudinal study and a cohort of 49 healthy women at 37-41+ weeks gestation without signs of fetal distress was investigated until in labor. One group ...
Puddy V - - 1999
We report the first case of mosaic trisomy 21 with non-immune hydrops fetalis and bilateral chylothoraces. Prenatal fetal blood karyotype analysis of 15 fetal cells revealed a 46,XX karyotype. Aggressive prenatal management, including fetal thoracocentesis and pleuro-amniotic shunt, was performed. A clinical phenotype of Down syndrome was apparent after the ...
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