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Ates U - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate acute effects of cigarette smoking on fetal hemodynamics. METHOD: Sixty seven women between 32nd to 40th weeks of gestation were evaluated. Maternal blood pressure and heart rate, fetal heart rate (FHR) tracing, umbilical and fetal middle cerebral arterial (MCA) color Doppler measurements were evaluated. Pre- and postsmoking ...
Erkinaro T - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recent studies support the use of alpha-agonists during regional anaesthesia in uncomplicated term pregnancies. We hypothesized that ephedrine and phenylephrine, administered for maternal hypotension following fetal hypoxaemia, are equal in respect of fetal outcome. METHODS: At 117-132 days gestation, chronically instrumented, anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated ewes were randomized to ...
Brace Robert A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that amniotic fluid volume is regulated by the rate of intramembranous absorption of amniotic fluid into fetal blood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the simultaneous intramembranous solute and water fluxes to gain insight into the intramembranous transport and amniotic fluid volume regulatory ...
Fujimori K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) to support fetal oxygenation in utero. METHODS: An ECMO system with a centrifugal pump was applied to ten chronically instrumented fetal lambs, at 126 or 127 days of gestation. Blood was obtained ...
Khong T Yee - - 2004
The juxtaposition of the maternal and fetal circulations allows optimal physiological exchange between mother and fetus. Extravillous trophoblast infiltrating into the placental bed transforms the small calibre spiral arteries into large calibre uteroplacental arteries. The absence of these physiological changes, coupled with other lesions such as acute atherosis, results in ...
Wada Seiji - - 2004
A fetal diagnostic method that is without risk to the embryo has been long awaited in the field of gene diagnosis. Establishment of non-invasive fetal diagnosis using maternal peripheral blood will greatly contribute to perinatal medical care. The lectin method that we have studied and developed selectively recovers nucleated red ...
Ley David - - 2004
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a recognized risk factor for neurologic deficits later in life. Abnormal fetal blood flow in the presence of fetal growth retardation helps to distinguish true fetal growth impairment from small but normally grown infants. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of IUGR with ...
Rychik J - - 2004
The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion ...
Harrington K - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of fetal aortic time-domain measurement of volume flow (using color velocity imaging quantification (CVI-Q)) in predicting the severity of fetal anemia. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study, in which 24 pregnant women with suspected fetal anemia due to rising anti-red blood cell antibody titers ...
Miglino M A - - 2004
The placental vasculature of five hystricomorph rodents was examined by latex injection of the blood vessels, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. The pattern of branching of the vessels is described at the level of fine structure. The placenta is divided into lobes separated by interlobular trophoblast. Fetal ...
Quaedackers Josine S - - 2004
Asphyxia in utero in pre-term fetuses is associated with evolving hypoperfusion of the gut after the insult. We examined the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in mediating this secondary hypoperfusion. Gut blood flow changes were also assessed during postasphyxial seizures. Preterm fetal sheep at 70% of gestation (103-104 ...
Hernandez-Andrade E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of fractional moving blood volume (FMBV) estimation in the fetal lung using power Doppler ultrasound (PDU). METHODS: The lung blood perfusion of 20 normally grown singleton fetuses at 32-35 weeks of gestation was evaluated by two experienced observers using PDU. Each observer recorded two consecutive ...
Hernandez-Andrade E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare fractional moving blood volume (FMBV) estimation using power Doppler ultrasound (PDU) with blood flow estimation using radioactive microspheres (RMS) for evaluation of fetal organ blood perfusion. METHODS: Blood flow was measured in the adrenal gland of nine exteriorized fetal lambs. Five fetal lambs underwent total umbilical cord ...
Boito S M E - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of plasma volume expansion (PVE) followed by intravenous dihydralazine (DH) administration on maternal whole blood viscosity (WBV) and hematocrit, uteroplacental and fetoplacental downstream impedance and umbilical venous (UV) volume flow in pre-eclampsia. METHODS: In 13 pre-eclamptic women maternal and fetal hemodynamics were established by means ...
Egberts J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of measurements of percentage fetal hemoglobin (HbF) using the blood analyzer ABL 735 and to compare the results with the HbF measurements using the Biorad-Variant (the gold standard). METHODS: The percentage of HbF in fetal blood, obtained during intrauterine transfusions or from the umbilical cord ...
Thompson O - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood-volume flow-rate measurement in the fetal descending thoracic aorta using a non-invasive, non-Doppler, ultrasound technique. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Volume flow measurements were obtained from the descending thoracic aorta in 59 human fetuses between 20 and 40 weeks' gestation. These were uncomplicated pregnancies that ...
Banerjee Kaberi - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence and detect the volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) during first-trimester abortion with the Kleihauer-Betke test (KBT) and rise in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). STUDY DESIGN: Blood samples were drawn immediately before and after first-trimester termination of pregnancy in 48 women. AFP was estimated using an ...
Schmidt M - - 2004
Surgical intervention in general anesthesia (GA) of the cow in late gestation is a stressful condition for both mother and fetus, potentially leading to premature delivery or fetal death. The present study hypothesized that fetal catheterization at days 246-253 (90% of gestation) is done with less physical and metabolic stress ...
Boito S M E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between umbilical venous (UV) volume flow and fetal behavioral states 1F (quiet sleep) and 2F (active sleep) in normal pregnancies at 36-40 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Fetal behavioral states were established in 17 normal pregnancies by means of combined assessment of fetal heart rate patterns ...
Ley David - - 2004
Type and duration of fetal asphyxial insult affect the distribution of blood flow to the heart and brain. The purpose of this study was to describe dynamic and quantitative changes in regional myocardial and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during fetal asphyxia induced by total occlusion of the umbilical cord. Eleven ...
Weksler N - - 2004
Abruptio placentae occurred in a 29 years old woman following a vasovagal episode. Her medical history was free from all the commonly accepted risk factors for abruption. We speculate that the restoration of placental blood flow caused a sudden increase in uteroplacental blood pressure, and induces rupture of some vessels, ...
Talbert D - - 2004
The placenta can be severely infarcted and yet return well oxygenated blood in spite of the potential shunt paths produced. Optimisation of oxygen transport by some form of local flow matching has been suggested, either via a direct action of hypoxia on subchorial vessels, or indirectly by syncytiotrophoblastic metabolic products. ...
Shah Neil K - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Raised middle cerebral artery (MCA) Doppler velocity has been shown to be highly predictive of moderate to severe fetal anaemia. We present two false-positive cases of raised MCA Doppler velocity in non-immune hydropic fetuses. METHODS: In both cases, routine investigations for fetal hydrops, as well as detailed ultrasound scanning ...
Kutzler Michelle A MA Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-4802, USA. - - 2004
Glucocorticoid administration to women in premature labor significantly decreases preterm infant morbidity and mortality. Fetal exposure to maternally administered glucocorticoids in late gestation causes fetal hypertension. We determined the effects of a single course (4 injections at 12-hr intervals) of dexamethasone (DM; 2 mg, a weight-adjusted dose equivalent to one-third ...
Jensen Ellen - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to test the hypotheses that disruption of maternal adrenal secretion in late pregnancy requires fetal adaptations in order to maintain fetal blood volume and fetal viability. METHODS: Pregnant ewes were adrenalectomized at approximately 112 days, and cortisol and aldosterone were replaced to either normal pregnant ...
Siristatidis Charalambos - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate fetal circulation at different stages of hypoxia during labor, and to study blood flow alterations in the brain and peripheral tissues, through simultaneous use of three non-invasive techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety two pregnant women between 38 and 41 weeks of gestation, comparable for maternal age and ...
Jansson Tomas - - 2003
Perfusion estimation of the fetal lung is an important predictor of its maturity and function after birth. Ultrasound (US) power Doppler has previously been used to assess the perfusion of the fetal lung, based on the mean pixel intensity (MPI) over a region-of-interest (ROI). The drawback is that the MPI ...
Choe Regine - - 2003
The feasibility of transabdominal near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for detecting and quantifying fetal hypoxia in utero is demonstrated in a pregnant ewe model. A frequency domain NIR spectroscopy probe, consisting of two detectors and six sources operating at three wavelengths (675, 786, and 830 nm), was placed on the maternal abdomen ...
Moll Waldemar - - 2003
In the course of hemochorial placentation, trophoblast cells build a most conductive placental stream bed for maternal blood with intramural foetal capillaries. The stream bed is adapted to the maternal vascular system, causing local increase in flow and shear stress. Subsequently, local maternal microvascular system vanishes. The remaining upstream arteries, ...
Christensen B - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of various molecular forms of hemoglobin as markers for fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs). METHODS: The presence of epsilon and gamma globin positive NRBCs was investigated in pure fetal blood and in blood from pregnant women before and after chorion biopsy. Maternal samples were ...
Chang Chiung-Hsin - - 2003
Early identification of the abnormal fetal brain vascularization and blood flow is very important, because the deficient perfusion of the fetal brain may be related to a poor prognosis of the central nervous system (CNS) development. To assess the fetal brain vascularization and the blood flow in normal gestation, we ...
Peebles Donald M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of intravenous lipopolysaccharide on systemic and cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation in the preterm ovine fetus. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Research centre for perinatal brain injury. SAMPLE: Nine fetal sheep at circa 93 days of gestation (0.65). METHODS: Fetal sheep were chronically instrumented with arterial ...
Biankin Sandra A - - 2003
AIMS: Fetal blood cells enter the maternal circulation in up to 95% of pregnancies, but usually in minute volumes. Haemodynamically significant fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) is a much rarer event reported in approximately 1 in 2800 pregnancies. Most of the literature on this phenomenon emphasises the clinical aspects, and there is ...
Sueters M - - 2003
Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can cause severe anemia in the fetus. Untreated, this may cause hydrops or even fetal death. However, correct diagnosis of FMH followed by blood transfusion can prevent these life-threatening consequences. We describe two cases in which fetal anemia was suspected because of maternal reporting of decreased or ...
Su Zhaokang - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To study the hormonal and metabolic responses of fetal lamb during cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Six pregnant ewes underwent fetal cardiopulmonary bypasses with artificial oxygenators and roller pumps for 30 minutes, which maintained the blood gas value at the fetal physiological level. The fetal blood pressure, heart rate, pH value ...
Chihara Hiromitsu - - 2003
This study was undertaken to measure the effects of mild hypothermia on cerebral blood flow and metabolism and cardiovascular responses to hypoxia in the fetal sheep. Near-term fetal sheep were chronically instrumented with laser Doppler flowmetry in the parietal cortex for measurement of relative changes in cerebral blood flow, as ...
Coumans A B C - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The role of nitric oxide in control of fetal cardiovascular functions and of cerebral blood flow during normoxia and acute hypoxia is only partially known. We studied the effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on the distribution of cardiac output in preterm sheep using N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). METHODS: ...
Buhimschi Irina A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress occurs when the production of damaging free radicals and other oxidative molecules exceeds the capacity of the body's antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress is implicated in diseases that are associated with prematurity (such as retinopathy, cerebral palsy, intraventricular hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis). Nonenzymatic antioxidant reserve is the first ...
Carbonne Bruno - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare the predictive value of intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry to that of fetal scalp blood pH for an abnormal neonatal outcome in the case of thick meconium. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective multicenter observational study was performed from June 1994 to November 1995. Fetal oxygen saturation was monitored using ...
Allen W R - - 2003
The gross and microscopic development of the zonary endotheliochorial placenta in the African elephant was studied in 22 gravid uteri that ranged in gestational stage from 0.5 to 20.6 months. The conceptus only ever occupies one horn of the uterus and is associated with 2-5 large corpora lutea that persist ...
Chang Chiung-Hsin - - 2003
Fetal liver blood flow is very important for fetal hemodynamics. To assess the development of fetal liver vascularization and blood flow in normal gestation, we measured the fetal liver vascularization and blood flow in normal fetuses using the three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler ultrasound (US) and quantitative 3-D power Doppler histogram ...
Ott W J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of blood flow (S/D) ratios in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) to predict the occurrence of central nervous system (CNS) complications (bleeding and/or ischemia) in the neonate, and compare MCA flow to other tests of fetal well-being. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, observational, ...
Dalitz P - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Endotoxin causes hypoxemia and white matter injury in the preterm ovine fetus. Because cerebral hypoxia could contribute to brain injury, our objective was to determine the effects of endotoxin on regional cerebral oxygen (O(2)) delivery. To investigate causes of fetal hypoxemia, we also measured placental blood flow. METHODS: We ...
Chang Chiung-Hsin - - 2003
Renal blood flow is very important to fetal hemodynamics. To assess the development of fetal renal vascularization and blood flow in normal gestation, we measured the fetal renal vascularization and blood flow in healthy fetuses using three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler sonography and quantitative 3-D power Doppler histogram analysis. This study ...
Tolcos Mary - - 2003
Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the fetal brainstem is relatively spared, compared to other brain regions, from hypoxia-induced damage. We have used established experimental models of acute and chronic intrauterine compromise in sheep to mimic conditions that can arise in human pregnancy. The acute insult was 12 ...
Ruskamp J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: During fetal life, the parallel position of the two cardiac ventricles confers a special status to the aortic isthmus. Flow through the isthmus reflects the balance between the performances of the two ventricles and their respective peripheral impedances. This study proposes a fetal aortic isthmus flow velocity index and ...
Dukler Doron - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare test characteristics of ultrasound and Doppler parameters in the prediction of fetal anemia in alloimmunized pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective cohort study, 16 nonhydropic fetuses with red blood cell alloimmunization were evaluated with ultrasound and Doppler imaging. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak ...
Ferber Asaf - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fetal heart rate patterns and fetal nucleated red blood cell counts. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected prospectively from March through September 2000. Umbilical cord blood was used for nucleated red blood cell analysis. The fetal heart rate pattern ...
Skinner Juliet - - 2003
We investigated whether fetal DNA from the maternal blood can be used to diagnose abnormalities of chromosomes 13, 16, 18 and 21 in spontaneous miscarriage. Venous blood was obtained from 50 women with a diagnosis of spontaneous miscarriage. The evacuated products of the uterus were also sampled. DNA was extracted ...
Crochetière Chantal - - 2003
Obstetric hemorrhage is still a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Prevention, early recognition, and prompt intervention are the keys to minimizing complications. Resuscitation can be inadequate because of under-estimation of blood loss and misleading maternal response. A young woman may maintain a normal blood pressure until sudden and ...
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