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Postigo Lucrecia - - 2009
Fetal growth is decreased at high altitude (> 2700 m). We hypothesized that variation in fetal O(2) delivery might account for both the altitude effect and the relative preservation of fetal growth in multigenerational natives to high altitude. Participants were 168 women of European or Andean ancestry living at 3600 ...
Miller Suzanne L - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether the type-5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil citrate (Viagra; Pfizer, New York, NY) could increase uterine blood flow in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), thereby improving fetal oxygenation and well being. STUDY DESIGN: In fetal sheep, we induced IUGR at 105-110 days (0.7 gestation) using single umbilical artery ...
Turner Anita J - - 2008
To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the neonatal increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal function studies (whole kidney and micropuncture) were carried out in anesthesized fetal sheep (133-140 days gestation; term = 150 days) and lambs (12-18 days). Fetuses were delivered and placed in a water bath (39.5 degrees ...
Julian Colleen Glyde - - 2008
Reduced uteroplacental blood flow is hypothesized to play a key role in altitude-associated fetal growth restriction. It is unknown whether reduced blood flow is a cause or consequence of reduced fetal size. We asked whether determinants of uteroplacental blood flow were altered prior to reduced fetal growth and whether vasoactive ...
Larsen Rune - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The clearance of D+ red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation in D- individuals mediated by passively administered anti-D occurs by opsonization with the antibody and subsequent removal in the spleen. Few data exist on the kinetics of clearance of large volumes of D+ RBCs from the maternal circulation ...
Pasman Suzanne A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that unconjugated bilirubin is equally distributed over the albumin molecules present in fetal blood and amniotic fluid in Rhesus (Rh) immunization. METHODS: Molar concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin and albumin were measured in fetal blood and amniotic fluid samples, obtained before the first intrauterine transfusion in ...
Wang J Y - - 2008
The cellular mechanisms of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) are poorly understood and there is little information on the onset of blindness and neurological degeneration. Here we define the relationship between oxidative stress and LHON pathogenicity at the cellular level. Venous blood was obtained from 14 patients with LHON, 21 ...
Navankasattusas Sutip S Program in Human Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, - - 2008
There is emerging evidence that the canonical neural guidance factor netrin can also direct the growth of blood vessels. We deleted the gene encoding UNC5B, a receptor for the netrin family of guidance molecules, specifically within the embryonic endothelium of mice. The result is a profound structural and functional deficiency ...
Degani S - - 2008
Antenatal intrauterine cerebrovascular events were found to play an important role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage. Changes in placental vascular resistance, cardiac contractibility, vessel compliance, and blood viscosity alter the normal dynamics of fetal cerebral circulation. The circulatory mechanisms described in animal fetuses also operate in the human ...
Kitano Yoshihiro - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Fetal extralobar pulmonary sequestration (EPS) is sometimes complicated by a massive pleural effusion, leading to tension hydrothorax and fetal hydrops. The goal of this study was to examine sonographic signs of venous obstruction in fetal EPS with or without pleural effusion. METHODS: Records of fetal ultrasound from 6 patients ...
Bakker Petra C A M - - 2008
AIM: The aim of this review is to provide more insight in the fetal mechanisms as a response to uterine contractions and to emphasize the importance of correct assessment of uterine activity (UA) patterns during labor. STUDY RESULTS: UA causes a decreased flow through the uterine artery. In the healthy ...
Wei Bin - - 2008
Several major vascular tissues, such as the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region (AGM), yolk sac, and fetal liver have been confirmed to possess hematopoietic function. Recently, the placenta has been demonstrated as another hematopoietic organ. However, it is not conclusive whether the placenta possesses hematopoietic ability. Therefore, we undertook a series of experiments ...
Saber A - - 2008
The donkey placenta is diffuse and epitheliochorial with numerous microplacentomes consisting of a fetal microcotyledonary and a maternal microcaruncular part. The microplacentomal vasculature during the last third of pregnancy has been investigated by light microscopy in comparison to scanning electron microscopy of the materno-fetal contact surface and corrosion casts of ...
Kwon K H - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To increase the yield of fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) from maternal blood using a discontinuous Percoll gradient and to determine the effects of osmolality on NRBC yield. METHODS: Fetal NRBCs were isolated from combined umbilical cord blood and adult female blood, or from maternal blood using single ...
Bleul U - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine whether blood gas variables in fetal capillary blood during the last 30 min of stage II labor can be used to diagnose fetal asphyxia. Twenty-five newborn calves were used to investigate the correlation between capillary blood gas values obtained from the dorsolateral ...
Picklesimer Amy H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify physiologic determinants of the peak systolic blood flow velocity (PSV) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the human fetus. STUDY DESIGN: MCA PSV was measured with pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound in human fetuses who underwent cordocentesis. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood ...
Baker R Scott - - 2007
Worsening fetal gas exchange is the hallmark of frequently observed placental dysfunction after fetal bypass. Several factors influence this pathophysiology, but the optimal prime constituents for fetal bypass have yet to be defined. Calcium and sodium bicarbonate are frequently added to prime solutions for adjustments toward physiologic values. We examined ...
Garnier Yves - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Antenatal infections are associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Systemic application of endotoxins to the fetus results in an increase in placental vascular resistance and chronic reduction in umbilical blood flow. We studied morphological alterations of the placenta in response to fetal inflammation in the ...
Tomimatsu Takuji - - 2007
The authors test the null hypothesis that maternal caffeine administration will not significantly alter fetal cerebral oxygenation. The authors measured fetal arterial blood gases, cortical tissue O(2) tension (tPO(2)), sagittal sinus blood gases, and laser Doppler cerebral blood flow in response to a 30-minute caffeine infusion (400 mg intravenously) into ...
Leavitt Benjamin G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of placental drainage of fetal blood at the time of cesarean delivery on the incidence of feto-maternal transfusion. METHODS: This randomized trial includes 86 gravid women who underwent cesarean delivery. Forty-four women were assigned to the placental drainage group and 42 to the no-drainage group. ...
Mao C - - 2007
Have you felt frustration when fetal blood is needed for your studies in rats, or have you been concerned about fetal rat "blood" collected from decapitation? The traditional approach has been to collect fetal blood from decapitation of fetuses. The new method of collecting fetal blood is from the fetal ...
Power Gordon G - - 2007
The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin results in the production of nitric oxide and methemoglobin, a reaction recently proposed as an important oxygen-sensitive source of vasoactive nitric oxide during hypoxic and anoxic stress, with several animal studies suggesting that nitrite may have therapeutic potential. Accumulation of toxic levels of methemoglobin ...
Denomme Gregory A - - 2007
Blood group genotyping using DNA extracted from fetal tissue is useful to identify fetuses at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to maternal red cell alloantibodies. Four considerations are important for fetal blood group genotyping. First, paternal heterozygosity must be established, including tests that evaluate ...
Fernandes Bernard J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Assessing the number of fetal cells in the maternal circulation quantifies the volume of feto-maternal hemorrhage, enhancing the ability to provide effective prevention of Rhesus (Rh) allommunization and appropriate fetal surveillance in cases of significant feto-maternal hemorrhage. METHODS: Having developed a standard curve with maternal samples spiked with known ...
Pereira Janet Carvalho - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This is a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and accuracy of the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, for early detection of fetuses at risk for hemolytic disease, in the population living in Portugal, and to characterize the RhD-negative individuals at serologic and molecular level. METHODS: 2030 uncultured ...
Bowen Scott E - - 2007
Inhalation of organic solvents is a persistent form of drug abuse with particular concern being the abuse of inhalants by women of child-bearing age. While studies have begun assessing postnatal outcomes of offspring exposed prenatally to inhalants, relatively little is known about the distribution of toluene in blood and body ...
Wilson Megan J - - 2007
Multigenerational (Andean) compared with shorter-term (European) high-altitude residents exhibit less hypoxia-associated reductions in birth weight. Because differences in arterial O(2) content are not responsible, we asked whether greater pregnancy-associated increases in uterine artery (UA) blood flow and O(2) delivery were involved. Serial studies were conducted in 42 Andean and 26 ...
Tideman E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a recognized risk factor for neurological deficits later in life. Abnormal fetal blood flow in the presence of IUGR helps to distinguish fetuses with true growth impairment from those that are small but normally grown. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of IUGR ...
Parnell Scott E - - 2007
Cerebral hypoxia has been proposed as a mechanism by which prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in children, but no study had tested this hypothesis using a chronic exposure model that mimicks a common human exposure pattern. Pregnant sheep were exposed to ethanol, 0.75 or 1.75 g ...
Erdem Gulnur - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Hydrocephalus is an important etiological factor in neurological decline. With the advent of fetal ultrasound, fetal hydrocephalus is now more frequently detected than in the past. Ultrasonography (USG) provides information on general morphology, but microstructural changes that may play a prognostic role are beyond the resolution of that technique. ...
Llanos Aníbal J - - 2007
Compared with lowland species, fetal life for mammalian species whose mothers live in high altitude is demanding. For instance, fetal llamas have to cope with the low fetal arterial PO2 of all species, but also the likely superimposition of hypoxia as a result of the decreased oxygen environment in which ...
Pijnenborg R - - 2007
In his major work "Zoonomia", Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) devoted one chapter to the placenta, in which the new knowledge of the recently discovered element oxygen was applied to the functioning of this organ. He considered the "cavities" or "lacunae" in the placenta as the main areas for oxygenation of the ...
Hutanu Catalina - - 2007
Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) maturation is developmentally regulated and differs between vascular beds. The maturation and contribution of VSM function to tissue blood flow and blood pressure regulation during early gestation are unknown. The carotid artery (CA) contributes to fetal cerebral blood flow regulation and well being. We studied CA ...
Hernandez-Andrade E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To standardize the evaluation of regional fetal brain blood perfusion, using power Doppler ultrasound (PDU) to estimate the fractional moving blood volume (FMBV) and to evaluate the reproducibility of this estimation. METHODS: Brain blood perfusion was evaluated in 35 normally grown fetuses at 28-30 weeks of gestation, using PDU. ...
Mose Tina - - 2007
The transplacental passage of monomethylphtalate (mMP) and mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (mEHP) was studied using an ex vivo placental perfusion model with simultaneous perfusion of fetal and maternal circulation in a single cotyledon. Umbilical cord blood and placental tissue collected both before and after perfusion were also analyzed. Placentas were obtained ...
Tomimatsu Takuji - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that supplemental CO2 can enhance the effect of maternal oxygen administration on fetal cerebral oxygenation. STUDY DESIGN: In near-term fetal sheep (n = 6), we instrumented the cerebral cortex with tissue PO2-laser Doppler flow probes, and placed arterial catheters. Following a 30-minute control period, the ...
Gordon Zoya - - 2007
Fetal development depends on adequate exchange of materials between the fetus and maternal circulatory systems, which requires optimal distribution of blood vessels over the chorionic plate to ensure perfusion of the whole placental volume. Based on a previous investigation of the architecture of the chorionic vessels in the human placenta, ...
Oepkes D - - 2007
Microcystic or solid-looking fetal lung lesions associated with hydrops are associated with a high mortality rate. The most common of these lesions are microcystic congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations and pulmonary sequestrations (PS). Performing open fetal surgery by hysterotomy and lobectomy has, until now, been the only therapeutic option available following ...
Cruz J R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between maternal mortality and availability of blood for transfusion at the country level in Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHOD: The association of blood availability with maternal mortality, expressed either as national maternal mortality ratio or proportion of maternal deaths due to hemorrhage, in selected ...
Shetty S - - 2007
Prenatal diagnosis is the generally accepted option for genetic disorders including haemophilias and other bleeding disorders. Cord blood analysis between 17.4 and 20.6 weeks of gestation was performed in 172 confirmed carriers belonging to families of haemophilia A, haemophilia B, von Willebrand disease (VWD), factor VII and X deficiency; 133 ...
Hamada Yoshio - - 2007
We have previously reported that a mutation in the ankyrin repeats of mouse Notch2 results in embryonic lethality by embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5), showing developmental retardation at E10.5. This indicated that Notch2 plays an essential role in postimplantation development in mice. Here, we demonstrate that whole embryo culture can circumvent ...
Cernichiari E - - 2007
Several biological media have been used as indicators of the fetal body burden of methylmercury and the levels in the primary target tissue, the developing brain. These media include maternal hair and blood. The relative merits of these media will be considered both with regard to current knowledge of the ...
D'Souza Edna - - 2007
Prenatal diagnosis is an option for couples at risk of having a child affected with hemoglobinopathies. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and cordocentesis are accurate but a finite risk of fetal loss exists. A non invasive, risk free strategy that has emerged is isolation of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood. Enrichment ...
Dziegiel Morten Hanefeld - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent developments in the area of detection of fetomaternal hemorrhage by flow cytometry. RECENT FINDINGS: Maternal red blood cell chimerism is readily detectable by flow cytometry. Fetal and maternal red blood cells differ in their content of ...
Mose Tina - - 2007
Fetal exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse reproductive effects, including cryptorchidism and decreased semen quality. Information about human placental transfer is needed to qualify the hypotheses. A dual recirculating placenta perfusion system to monitor concentrations of eight phthalate monoesters in fetal and maternal perfusates was established. In addition ...
Zhong Xiao Yan - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Fetal cells in maternal blood still present an enticing alternative for the development of a safe and efficacious non-invasive method for prenatal diagnosis. However, most enrichment methods are very tedious and have failed to realise this long sought after goal. We developed a simple, robust TaqMan real-time PCR assay ...
Oepkes Dick - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Pregnancies complicated by Rh alloimmunization have been evaluated with the use of serial invasive amniocentesis to determine bilirubin levels by measuring in the amniotic fluid the change in optical density at a wavelength of 450 nm (DeltaOD450); however, this procedure carries risks. Noninvasive Doppler ultrasonographic measurement of the peak ...
Salihagić-Kadić Aida - - 2006
Fetal hypoxia is one of the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. One of the most severe sequels of fetal hypoxic insult is the development of perinatal brain lesions resulting in a spectrum of neurological disabilities, from minor cerebral disorders to cerebral palsy. One of the most important fetal ...
Ngan Kee Warwick D - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Historically, ephedrine has been recommended as the best vasopressor in obstetrics because animal studies showed it caused less reduction in uterine blood flow compared with alpha-agonists. Recent clinical evidence, however, suggests that this is not as important as initially thought. This review evaluates current data with a ...
Denbow Mark L - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To investigate anatomical and physiological determinants of inter-fetal transfusion along arterio-arterial (AA) anastomoses in monochorionic placentae. METHODS: A computer model of chorionic arterial vasculature was constructed in QuickBASIC using data collected from experimentation and the published literature. After validating the model, the influence of various physiological and anatomical variables ...
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