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Results 301 - 350 of 396
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Hedrick M H - - 1993
Intensive management of the fetus is limited by our inability to achieve access to the fetal circulation. Using laparoscopic surgery, we can maintain long-term access to the fetal circulation by extra-amniotic catheterisation of chorionic vessels in third-trimester monkeys and early-gestation sheep. We can sample fetal blood, continuously measure blood pressure, ...
Harrison M R - - 1993
Our experimental and clinical experience with open fetal surgery has provided invaluable lessons regarding optimal maternal-fetal anesthesia, hysterotomy, fetal exposure techniques, fetal monitoring, reliable steps for in utero repair of life-threatening defects, and secure methods for uterine closure. Most importantly, open fetal surgery has been performed in both nonhuman primates ...
Jennings R W - - 1993
Diagnosis and treatment of fetal disease processes has advanced dramatically, but the ability to monitor the fetus in utero remains rudimentary. Open fetal operation provides a unique opportunity to correct life-threatening fetal abnormalities, but it also places the fetus at risk. Continuous intraoperative and post-operative fetal electrocardiographic monitoring may decrease ...
Estes J M - - 1992
In utero repair of several life-threatening malformations in the human fetus is now a clinical reality, yet fetal surgery still poses significant risks to both the mother and the unborn child. Preterm labor is a major problem and is directly related to the large hysterotomy required for fetal exposure. Endoscopic ...
Cetin I - - 1992
Eleven studies of fetal serine fluxes were performed in chronically catheterized fetal lambs by continuous infusion of [1-13C]- and [U-14C]serine into a fetal brachial vein. At tracer serine steady state, samples were collected from the fetal abdominal aorta, umbilical vein, fetal hepatic vein, and fetal femoral vein and from the ...
Umstad M - - 1992
Intrapartum vibroacoustic stimulation testing (VAST) had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 59.6% and a positive predictive value of 27.6% for the detection of fetal acidosis in this study of 60 cases. The use of VAST could significantly reduce the requirement for fetal capillary blood sampling. However, fetal scalp ...
Park Y C - - 1992
An efficient algorithm detecting the presence of a fetal QRS complex is presented. The proposed fetal QRS detection method computes the averaged magnitude of the difference between the fetal ECG signal and the reference signal to detect the fetal QRS event. The detected fetal QRS complexes are exponentially averaged to ...
van der Weyde M P - - 1992
Ritodrine infusion to fetal lambs causes numerous metabolic perturbations including hypoxemia. To investigate these changes further and to elucidate a mechanism for the development of hypoxemia, ritodrine was infused at rate of 2.6 micrograms/min into nine chronically catheterized fetal lambs for 8, 12 or 24 hr. Plasma levels of ritodrine ...
Merrill D C - - 1992
Fetal therapy continues to be an exciting yet controversial field. In utero treatment of a variety of fetal conditions is discussed: parvovirus B19 infection, fetal thyroid dysfunction, fetal ovarian cysts, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, and fetal hemolytic disease. Fetal surgery continues to be controversial. Despite considerable publicity, fetal surgery appears to ...
Morgan M A - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The null hypothesis of this study is that the fetal-pelvic index will not determine the presence or absence of fetal-pelvic disproportion in 137 nulliparous women at high risk for fetal-pelvic disproportion. STUDY DESIGN: This study was undertaken by comparing the blinded fetal-pelvic index values and two other methods of ...
Hueston W J - - 1991
Deciding when to intervene in a pregnancy can be a complicated problem. Several methods of antepartum fetal surveillance can be helpful in the assessment of fetal well-being. The nonstress test is an effective screening tool for fetal well-being. Newer techniques such as the biophysical profile, fetal vibroacoustic stimulation and Doppler ...
Kuwabara Y - - 1991
The development of fetal diagnostic techniques has facilitated the analysis of pathological conditions in abnormal fetuses. This has led to systematic fetal therapy for such diseases as fetal hydronephrosis and fetal struma. In this report, general characteristics and problems of fetal therapy are discussed and several representative diseases that have ...
Gardosi J O - - 1991
Application of pulse oximetry to intrapartum monitoring was investigated in 105 women. No adequate reading could be obtained in 44 cases. Two major sources of artifact, related to probe apposition and signal processing, were identified and excluded. The average arterial oxygen saturation from the fetal scalp was 82% (SD 6%), ...
Harrison M R - - 1991
The diagnosis and treatment of human fetal defects has evolved rapidly over the past decade due to improved fetal imaging techniques and better understanding of fetal pathophysiology derived from animal models. The detection of a fetal anomaly may now lead to a change in the timing of delivery, a change ...
Sawa R - - 1991
Adenosine is known to inhibit nonshivering thermogenesis in adult brown fat. These experiments were undertaken to test whether fetal adenosine, normally present in high concentrations, suppresses lipolysis in utero and then falls after birth, permitting thermogenesis to begin. To test this hypothesis, we measured fetal plasma adenosine concentration [ADO] using ...
Hepper P G - - 1990
The study of fetal behaviour may have important implications for the prenatal diagnosis of handicap. Since behaviour reflects the integrity of the fetal neural system the examination of fetal behaviour enables neurological assessment of the fetus. This paper discusses present methods of assessing fetal well-being and their shortfalls and then ...
Manning F A - - 1990
The cumulative experience with fetal biophysical profile scoring as a method for antepartum fetal risk assessment is now extensive. The cumulative data indicate that the method is sensitive for recognizing both the normal and compromised fetus. Moreover, the method appears to offer the advantage of grading various degrees of fetal ...
Nelson J M - - 1990
The development of fetal surgical techniques has made the antenatal correction of congenital defects possible. These techniques have evolved from trials with animal models, permitting increasingly sophisticated operations with low morbidity and mortality. Experimental models range from large animals offering longer gestations but with single pregnancies and high cost, to ...
Hill L M - - 1989
With the fetal stomach utilized as a general marker, targeted-imaging of the fetal abdomen was initiated to locate the pancreas. Overall, the pancreas was seen in 77 of 149 cases (51.7%). Menstrual age and the position of the fetus were significant factors in determining the frequency of pancreatic visualization.
Soothill P W - - 1989
Cordocentesis for prenatal diagnosis has allowed extensive progress in our knowledge of human fetal physiology. It is now being used to guide obstetric management of acquired fetal diseases (e.g., timing of delivery and intrauterine therapy). The most established indications are blood disorders (e.g., fetal anemia and thrombocytopenia) and further investigation ...
Reed K L - - 1989
The study of arrhythmias enables the clinician not only to treat and effectively prevent some types of fetal morbidity, but also to understand the normal human fetal physiology. It can be anticipated that the study of arrhythmias in the fetus will expand, if the work currently performed in the child ...
Johnson M D - - 1989
Fetal surgery, in utero, is now a viable option for some congenital conditions due to recent advances in ultrasound and microsurgical technology. Previous reports of anesthesia for such procedures have focused on spinal or epidural conduction techniques. General endotracheal anesthesia may have several advantages in this setting. In addition to ...
Neeper-Bradley T L - - 1989
Gravid Swiss Webster dams were injected via tail vein with a single (1.1, 2.2, or 3.3 mmol/kg) dose of ethyl carbamate (urethane) on days 13-17 of pregnancy. Relative sister chromatid exchange (SCE) responses in maternal bone marrow vs. individual fetal liver cells were assessed. In addition, in order to evaluate ...
Muller J - - 1988
The authors report a case of acute fetal distress after fetal blood sampling, performed for fetal karyotype because of a precocious and symmetrical fetal growth retardation without maternal hypertension or ultrasonographic evidence of fetal malformation. A cesarean section performed because of acute fetal distress showed the newborn to be hypotrophic, ...
Cabero L - - 1988
553 cases of intrapartum fetal acidosis (pH less than 7.25) were treated with a betamimetic agent (ritodrine 250-300 micrograms/min). In 403 cases (72.8%), an improvement of fetal pH greater than 0.05 pH U was observed. Improvement was comparable in cases where the cause of fetal distress was abnormal uterine activity ...
Morgan M A - - 1988
The fetal-pelvic index was recently introduced as an accurate method of prospectively identifying the presence or absence of fetal-pelvic disproportion. In that report the ability to detect fetal-pelvic disproportion in patients with macrosomic fetuses was not specifically addressed. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of three ...
Opitz J M - - 1988
It is postulated that, in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, independent mosaic pleiotropic action of the mutant gene on morphogenesis and histogenesis produces primary malformations of midline and nonmidline structures and dysplasias more or less highly predisposed to cancer development. However, in focal dermal hypoplasia and the Bartsocas-Papas syndrome, ...
Cugini P - - 1988
With technological progress, blood pressure monitoring has become a procedure largely applied in medical practice but not adequately systematized under a biostatistical viewpoint. This paper shows the complexity and importance of the biomathematical approach and its clinical implications in preeclamptic pregnancy. Data series were analyzed by means of noninferential and ...
Leiser R - - 1988
The microvascular architecture of the pig placenta was studied by serial semithin histological sections for light microscopy, which were compared with scanning electron microscopy of artificially exposed materno-fetal contact surfaces as well as of vessel casts prepared from the maternal, fetal, and combined maternal and fetal sides. The superficial reliefs ...
Mitchell M D - - 1987
The formation of arachidonate lipoxygenase products by uterine and intrauterine tissues of sheep in the last third of gestation has been evaluated. Maternal and fetal cotyledon, myometrium and fetal membrane exhibited evidence of arachidonate 5-, 12-, and 15- lipoxygenase activities. The major lipoxygenase product formed by fetal membrane and fetal ...
Milley J R - - 1987
The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rate of fetal protein synthesis decreases during fetal hypoxia. Catheters were inserted into 13 sheep fetuses under maternal spinal and local fetal anesthesia. Five days after surgery, an infusion of L-[1-14C]tyrosine (0.05-0.25 muCi/min) was begun. Measurements were first ...
Vintzileos A M - - 1987
The value of the fetal biophysical profile in determining fetal well-being has been well documented. The increasing clinical use of the fetal biophysical profile, however, has led to the recognition of frequent errors in the interpretation and application of this modality. These errors may result in unnecessary interventions or adverse ...
Pic P - - 1986
Decapitation performed at days 17-18 leads to a drastic drop (82%) in blood TSH of 19 and 21-day-old rat fetuses below the mother's level. 125I-TSH injected at 21 days into the mother's bloodstream is not found in fetal blood. The fetal hypophysis is the main source of fetal plasmatic TSH.
Yano F - - 1986
It is often impossible to determine the presence of the fetal QRS waves from leads on the maternal abdomen because the amplitude is small or noise interferes. Yet, clinically, confirmation is highly necessary. Clinicians face a great difficulty when the fetal QRS waves are not identifiable: when, for example, they ...
Bowen L W - - 1986
The purpose of this study was to determine if interpretation of fetal scalp pH values would be enhanced by concurrent measurement of maternal venous pH. The last fetal capillary pH obtained before delivery was compared with simultaneous maternal-fetal pH difference as predictors of neonatal outcome assessed by five-minute Apgar scores. ...
Ponto J A - - 1986
Fetal dose estimates from Tc-99m MAA and Tc-99m DTPA aerosol were calculated using two methods. These calculations show that the average fetal dose decreases as gestational age (or fetal size) increases. Although the resultant dose estimates exceed those previously reported by severalfold, the risk to mother and fetus from undiagnosed ...
Murray H G - - 1986
The fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) has been recorded from 155 women in labor using a fetal scalp electrode and a minicomputerized enhanced averaging technique. Fetal hypoxia, acidosis, and stress have been diagnosed by analysis of blood from the fetal scalp, and post delivery from full gas analysis from blood taken from ...
Huikeshoven F J - - 1985
To better understand the fetal circulation and its regulation we constructed a dynamic model of fetal circulation as a transport system. The fetal vascular system is divided into 16 compartments which incorporate the peculiarities of the fetal circulation that produce a difference in oxygen concentration in blood supplying the upper ...
Philipps A F - - 1985
Hyperglycemia in fetal sheep has been shown to increase the fetal metabolic rate. Fetal venous glucose infusion was performed in eight late gestation, chronically catheterized fetal lambs to assess any changes in substrate uptake by the ovine uterus and conceptus. Fetal glucose infusion (11.9 +/- 0.6 mg glucose X kg-1 ...
Philipps A F - - 1985
Maternal or fetal substrate infusions into chronically catheterized fetal lambs have recently been performed in order to examine the effects of excessive fetal substrate presentation on fetal metabolism and metabolic rate. The degree of maternal hyperglycemia in this animal model has been shown to relate to the degree of fetal ...
Moore E S - - 1985
During intrauterine life, fetal mineral accretion depends on active transfer from mother to fetus by the placenta. To evaluate the role of fetal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in regulation of fetal phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid homeostasis, studies were performed in ewes and their fetal lambs. Fetal nephrectomy caused a rise ...
Meschia G - - 1985
The supply of O2 to fetal tissues depends upon a balance between factors that favor and hinder fetal oxygenation. Experiments in sheep have demonstrated that high rates of placental perfusion, high O2 affinity of fetal red cells and high rates of perfusion in fetal tissues compensate for an ineffective placental ...
Saini V D - - 1985
This paper describes a method for detecting low-level fetal ECG signals in maternal abdominal ECG recordings. Detection is based on a systematic application of the principle that the fetal ECG contains proportionately greater high-frequency components than does the maternal ECG. Adaptive subtraction of the maternal high-frequency components is used to ...
Singh N P - - 1984
In order to correlate the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) to biological endpoints, and elucidate aspects of this relationships, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), chemicals with different biological actions at different stages in development, have been evaluated for their ability to induce SCE at different gestational ages in the ...
Wallenburg H C - - 1984
Equatorial compression of the fetal head is known to occur during labor; its effect on trancutaneous scalp PO2 (PtCO2) was investigated in acute experiments in four fetal lambs. Fetal PtCO2, and oxygen tension (PaO2) and flow in a carotid artery were continuously measured. Equatorial head compression was obtained by inflating ...
Edelstone D I - - 1984
I have described how various maternal and fetal conditions can affect fetal oxygen delivery. It is clear from much of the recent experimental evidence that fetal oxidative metabolism can be sustained despite reductions in fetal O2 delivery of 40-50%. As long as fetal oxygen reserves are not depleted, fetal metabolic ...
Philipps A F - - 1984
Hyperglycemia has been shown to induce arterial hypoxemia in the chronically catheterized fetal sheep. To investigate the mechanism behind this glucose-induced hypoxemia, eight pregnant ewes and their fetuses were studied. Fetal glucose infusion (11.9 +/- 0.6 mg glucose/kg per min) was associated with a doubling of the fetal plasma glucose ...
Müller G - - 1984
Examination of 28 agitated, hyperventilating patients with fetal tachycardia showed that the mothers were in a hyperventilation-related state of hypocapnia and alkalosis. The mean maternal pCO2 was 17.48 +/- 6.79 mm Hg, the pH 7.54 +/- 0.14, which caused a reflex spasm of the umbilical veins, fetal acidosis and fetal ...
Hill L M - - 1984
Scalp sampling to evaluate fetal acid-base status was introduced 20 years ago. In most instances, adequate samples may be obtained without difficulty. Occasionally, however, a region of scalp free of hair cannot be found. As a result, the sample either diffuses along the hairs that are present or clots. Although ...
Kimura N - - 1983
Colony formation by multipotent hemopoietic precursors (CFUMIX) from human fetal liver was studied in a methylcellulose culture system containing erythropoietin (Ep) and media conditioned by leukocytes in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA-LCM). The 15 fetal livers used were obtained from 13-23-week-old abortuses. Morphologic characteristics of the fetal mixed colonies were ...
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