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Results 251 - 300 of 404
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Perry D F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Antenatal ascertainment of fetal sex is a common feature of modern pregnancies. Women who opt not to learn fetal sex typically employ a variety of methods to forecast it. This study investigated the validity of prevalent folklore used to identify fetal sex before birth. METHOD: One hundred four pregnant ...
Oi S - - 1999
With the dramatic technical advances in neuroimaging, it has become possible to diagnose central nervous system (CNS) anomalies in the fetus in utero with more precise morphological analysis. A new technique, high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using heavily T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences, has been reported to solve motion artifact ...
Cheek T G - - 1999
Assessing fetal wellbeing has evolved from the ancient awareness of 'quickening' to a vast array of biophysical, imaging and biochemical methods. Because the results of these tests influence the urgency of fetal delivery and sometimes the choice of maternal anesthetic technique, it is important for anesthesiologists to understand the fundamentals ...
- - 1999
Decisions to undertake fetal therapy involve a complex assessment of the best interests of the fetus and a pregnant woman's interest in her own health and freedom from unwanted invasion of her body. Pregnant women almost always accept a recommendation for fetal therapy that is approached collaboratively, especially if the ...
Achiron R - - 1999
Recent advances in high-resolution ultrasonography combined with color-coded Doppler analysis have enabled a new insight to be gained into fetal physiology and allowed the investigation of small, previously inaccessible fetal vessels under normal and abnormal conditions. In addition, the findings in some cases contradict the accepted fetal pathophysiology derived from ...
Oliver M H - - 1999
Both the maternal and fetal somatotrophic axes are closely linked to fetal substrate supply. Nutritional insults at critical stages of fetal development may lead to permanent reprogramming of the relationships between these factors. The consequences of reprogramming during fetal life may be harmful to metabolic, endocrine and cardiovascular homoeostatic mechanisms ...
Simpson K R - - 1998
Since the discovery of the ability to detect fetal heart tones in the 1980s, there has been ongoing research about how to interpret the meaning of these data. Fetal pulse oximetry, also known as fetal oxygen saturation monitoring, is a new method of assessing fetal status during labor that is ...
Luttkus A K - - 1998
Within the last ten years several groups adapted pulse oximetry to be used in the fetus. The obvious advantage of this technology is the fact that a biochemical parameter--the arterial oxygen saturation--can be measured continuously during delivery. Nevertheless, the continuous information about the fetal oxygenation during delivery has a couple ...
Stinstra J G - - 1998
The influence of the volume conductor on the EEG, MEG, fetal ECG and fetal MCG is studied by means of simulations. The assumption that the Maxwell equations can be used in a quasi-static approximation is reconsidered and the fact that the conductivity of human tissue is frequency dependent is taken ...
Calvano C J - - 1998
Prenatal interventions may prevent some sequelae of congenital anomalies, yet open fetal surgery is limited by pre-term labor. We are developing amnioscopic strategies to reduce risks for in utero surgery. Seven fetal sheep were accessed percutaneously under ultrasound guidance, via maternal laparoscopy/transuterine trocars, or via laparoscopically assisted partial uterine exteriorization ...
Jona J Z - - 1998
The use of maternal/fetal ultrasound screening has become commonplace in today's society. The principle behind fetal surgery evolves around the potential of correction or interruption of various abnormal processes that may bring about fetal demise or can become life-threatening to the newborn. This article reviews the progressive technical improvements and ...
Farmer D L - - 1998
Fetal therapy is a logical extension of fetal diagnosis. Fetal surgery has been performed in humans for the past 10 years. During this time, technical obstacles have been overcome and the natural history of many fetal disorders has been defined. A select group of disorders amenable to potential improvement by ...
El-Gehani F - - 1998
This study elaborates our recent preliminary finding that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has a specific stimulatory effect on fetal rat Leydig cells. We examined the dose-response relationship for the effect of VIP on cAMP and testosterone production by dispersed fetal Leydig cells isolated from rat testes on embryonic day (E) ...
Schröder-van der Elst J P - - 1998
The synthetic flavonoid EMD-49209 is a potent inhibitor of the in vivo and in vitro binding of thyroxine (T4) to transthyretin (TTR). We studied the distribution of 125I-labeled EMD-49209 in maternal tissues, intestinal contents, and fetal tissues in rats that were 20 days pregnant (from 1 to 24 h after ...
Fehervary P - - 1998
We report on a rare case of pulmonary embolism which we observed in the second stage of labor. For fetal surveillance we used oxycardiotocography (OCTG), an experimental system which combines internal CTG and pulse oximetry which enabled us to observe hemodynamic reactions of the unborn child and the effect on ...
Goffinet F - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry, the distribution of fetal oxygen saturation values, and the relationship with the neonatal outcome in a population with an abnormal fetal heart rate. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective multicenter observational study was performed from June 1994 to November ...
Carbonne B - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the predictive value of intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry with that of fetal blood analysis for an abnormal neonatal outcome in case of an abnormal fetal heart rate. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective multicenter observational study was conducted from June 1994 to November 1995. Fetal oxygen ...
Faisst K - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of sensor location and suction fixation duration on measurements of intrapartum fetal oxygen saturation (SpO2) with a new reflectance pulse oximetry system. DESIGN: Fetal SpO2 values (n = 18) were determined in the first stage of labor before and after moving the sensor to another ...
Peebles D M - - 1997
Current methods of intrapartum surveillance have made little impact on fetal mortality and morbidity while leading to increased caesarean section rates. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a powerful new technique that can continuously measure changes in fetal cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics during labor. Data are presented suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy has potential ...
Milley J R - - 1997
Although stress in fetal life not only increases fetal catecholamine concentration but also decreases fetal growth, there have been few studies that define the specific role of catecholamines in mediating the fetal response to stress. None, however, have investigated effects on fetal amino acid or protein metabolism, processes that should ...
Bullard K M - - 1997
Fetal dermal wounds heal without scarring. Because wound repair requires extracellular matrix turnover, the authors hypothesized that fetal skin would have increased levels of proteinases responsible for matrix degradation compared with adult skin. It was further hypothesized that transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) induces scarring in fetal skin by altering ...
Quinn T M - - 1997
Fetal surgery holds the promise of correcting some fetal problems at an early point in gestation, before fetal injury or death has occurred. Prenatal operative intervention may become the more cost-effective and humane approach to a series of otherwise devastating fetal diseases. With refinement of techniques that reduce maternal and ...
Dildy G A - - 1997
Current clinical methods of intrapartum fetal assessment are sensitive but poorly specific in detecting fetal compromise during labor. These limitations have substantially contributed to the escalating cesarean section rate which occurred in the US during the last several decades. Experimental and clinical research efforts directed towards application of the oxygen ...
Milley J R - - 1997
Fetal acidosis is associated with poor fetal growth. Because protein accretion is an important component of fetal growth, we used seven chronically prepared fetal lambs (10-16 days postoperation) to find whether fetal metabolic acidosis affected fetal protein accretion, and, if so, whether such effects were due to decreased synthesis or ...
Flake A W - - 1997
Over the past 25 years obstetricians have developed multiple techniques to diagnose fetal abnormalities whether they be structural or functional. Such diagnoses have allowed couples the option of pregnancy termination when legally permissible. In selective situations it has become possible to correct some abnormalities. In general, structural abnormalities have suggested ...
Johnson R F - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Fetal acidemia increases umbilical venous bupivacaine concentrations in the in situ rabbit model. The authors studied the effects of decreasing fetal pH on the rate of maternal to fetal (M-->F) clearances of lidocaine, bupivacaine, 2-chloroprocaine, and antipyrine (a nonionic marker of placental transfer) across the isolated, dual perfused, human ...
Joshima H - - 1996
To accumulate fundamental knowledge about a possible relationship between severe mental retardation caused by in utero radiation exposure and impaired oxygen transport to fetal brain, the effect of X-ray irradiation on erythropoietic activity in fetal liver of C57BL/6J mice was studied in vivo and in vitro by measuring 59Fe uptake ...
Ploeckinger-Ulm B - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of three-dimensional ultrasonography in visualizing fetal digits was examined. STUDY DESIGN: The digits of 72 fetuses, including 2 with skeletal dysplasia, were examined prospectively with both conventional and three-dimensional ultrasonography. RESULTS: Complete visualization of all fetal digits was obtained more often with three-dimensional ultrasonography than with two-dimensional ...
Vilos GA - - 1996
Three cohorts of infertile women were treated for bilateral tubal obstruction. From July 1990 to July 1994, 37 distal tubal obstruction were treated with laparoscopic bilateral neosalpingostomy using a Coherent ultrapulse carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Before July 1990, 72 with distal obstruction had neosalpingostomy by laparotomy using the CO2 laser ...
Lurie S - - 1996
This review provides recent data and clinical opinions on a new technology in assessing fetal well-being during labor, the fetal pulse oximeter. Fetal pulse oximetry is potentially superior to electronic fetal heart rate monitoring because it allows direct assessment of both fetal oxygen status and fetal tissue perfusion. Several studies ...
van Wijngaarden W J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to test the hypothesis that the addition of fetal electrocardiogram time-interval analysis to conventional electronic fetal monitoring would significantly reduce the number of cases requiring fetal scalp blood sampling without an increase in adverse outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized prospective trial was performed in 214 women ...
Michejda M - - 1996
The epidemiology and biologic characteristics of fetal tissue harvested from elective and spontaneous abortions are reviewed. The use of fetal bone marrow obtained from second trimester lost pregnancies is discussed. Allogeneic fetal tissue transplantation carried out in utero is reviewed. Data on intrauterine transplantation of human fetal bone marrow obtained ...
Takahashi Y - - 1996
We present an unusual case of indomethacin-induced occlusion of the fetal ductus arteriosus, which occurred in one of twins. In fetal echocardiography, the characteristic findings, a to and fro regurgitation pattern at pulmonary valve and postvalvular dilation of the main pulmonary artery, were obtained in addition to right ventricular dilation ...
Olutoye O O - - 1996
The ability of fetal tissues to heal without scarring has prompted extensive research into the biochemical and molecular differences between fetal and postnatal wound healing. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms of fetal wound repair may to lead to approaches to correct or prevent the clinical problems encountered in ...
Johnson R L - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether fetal acoustic stimulation can improve the chance of successful external cephalic version in patients at 36 to 38 weeks' gestation with fetal midline spine position. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, blinded crossover trial was performed. In this "N of 1" study, the patient served ...
Rohrich R J - - 1995
Our understanding of fetal vascular anatomy is rudimentary. This article evaluates the rate of fetal vascular branch-point development at different gestational ages using a porcine model. The consistent biphasic, vascular branch-point development provides an improved understanding of fetal vascular anatomy, although further studies on fetal growth and the effects of ...
Vawter D E - - 1995
A review of human fetal tissue policies over the past 40 years reveals an increasing awareness that the use of this tissue raises unique ethical and policy issues. Initially it was believed that the use of fetal tissue was no different from using any other abandoned surgical waste specimen. Then ...
Elchalal U - - 1995
Pulse oximetry is widely used to monitor the patient's well-being in anesthetic and neonatal practice. As a result of recent technologic and theoretical advances, it has emerged as a clinical tool in intrapartum fetal monitoring. Oximeters record both pulse rate and arterial oxygen saturation of the fetus and they may ...
Rickwood A M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children presenting clinically with pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction had fetal hydronephrosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-three children, born during or after 1985, presented clinically with pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction. Records of the maternal pregnancies were reviewed with reference to the findings of any fetal ultrasonography. RESULTS: In 25 patients ...
Meuli M - - 1995
The aim of this study was to determine whether the fetal alimentary tract shares the unique scarless healing properties of fetal skin. Full-thickness incisional gastric wounds were created and sutured closed in fetal lambs at 60, 75, and 120 days' gestation (full term, 145 days), and in adult control sheep. ...
Ohel G - - 1995
The rate of fetal urine production and the incidence of fetal micturition was compared in periods of fetal sleep and awakeness. Sonography and fetal heart rate monitoring were concomitantly performed on 12 normal term pregnancies. Fetal bladder volumes were serially calculated, and the rate of urine production and micturition were ...
Low J A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to demonstrate the predictive value of clinical risk scoring and fetal assessment for intrapartum fetal asphyxia. STUDY DESIGN: Intrapartum fetal asphyxia was defined by an umbilical artery buffer base < 34 mmol/L. The predictive value of 20 antepartum and intrapartum risk factors was examined in 1909 ...
Whyte R K - - 1995
In recent years clinicians caring for sick preterm infants have come to depend on pulse oximetry to avoid hyperoxia, which means assuming saturation values for critical levels of oxygen tension. This prediction is made difficult by the shape of the haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve at critical values for arterial pO2 and ...
Flake A W - - 1995
Fetal surgery, as defined for the purpose of this chapter, is the act of opening the gravid uterus, surgically correcting a fetal abnormality, and returning the fetus to the uterus for postoperative recovery and continued gestational development. By this definition, human fetal surgery has now been performed for more than ...
Reppert S M - - 1995
In mammals, a unidirectional communication exists between the biological clocks of the mother and fetus. As a biological clock begins oscillating in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the fetus, redundant circadian signals entrain the fetal clock to the prevailing light-dark cycle. Recent studies have revealed an activatable dopamine system within the ...
Oga M - - 1994
An ultrasonographic examination revealed increased fetal bladder size as well as fetal bilateral hydronephrosis at 13-weeks' gestation. Diagnosis of the fetal urethral obstruction was made. Repeated ultrasonography was undertaken from the 13th to through 16th weeks of gestation. Percutaneous puncture with aspiration and laboratory analysis of fetal urine was performed ...
Johnson N - - 1994
Experimental pulse oximetry devices, similar to the existing systems used in adult and neonatal monitoring, can be used on the fetus to provide safe, and rapid information about oxygenation. They have been calibrated using fetal lambs and validated in human cross-sectional studies. Experiments have shown that fetal oxygen saturation decreases ...
Sasse V - - 1994
There is still controversy about the question of which approach is best to treat tubal infertility: microsurgery, laparoscopic treatment, or in vitro fertilization. Our study comprised 161 patients with distal tubal occlusion. Various instruments (argon laser, CO2 laser, Nd:YAG laser, monopolar electrical needle, scissors) were used for laparoscopic salpingostomy, and ...
Dequesne JG - - 1994
Since 1985, more than 500 CO2 laser laparoscopic procedures have been done, including treatment of endometriosis, adhesiolysis, salpingo-ovariolysis and salpingoneostomy. The most frequent indication was endometriosis. The results were as follows. Endometriosis: 85 patients total. In AFS Stage 1-2: 17/30 (57%) ongoing pregnancies; AFS Stage 3:18/37 (48%) ongoing pregnancies; and ...
Levitsky L L - - 1994
To understand glycogenesis in the fetal hepatocyte, we examined glucose transport in cultured fetal and adult male rat hepatocytes. GLUT-1 mRNA was detected in fetal hepatocytes at isolation but in adult hepatocytes only after culture. GLUT-1 mRNA was more abundant in fetal than in adult hepatocytes (P < 0.005). GLUT-1 ...
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