Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 367
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Jibodu O A - - 2000
Intrapartum hypoxia was thought to contribute to the incidence of cerebral palsy, seizures and mental retardation. Electronic fetal monitoring was expected to prevent or reduce this incidence. Electronic fetal monitoring has a high false positive rate and fetal blood sampling, which is an invasive procedure, only allows an intermittent assessment. ...
Young A D - - 2000
A critical component in the conduct of a prenatal developmental toxicity study is the evaluation of fetal skeletal development. As the developing rodent fetus is typically evaluated at gestation day 20, at a time when ossification of the skeleton is incomplete, a thorough assessment of skeletal development would include both ...
Yam J - - 2000
Fetal pulse oximetry has been advocated as a means of improving the specificity of cardioto-cography in intrapartum fetal surveillance. The objective of this article, the first of two reviewing the current literature on fetal pulse oximetry, is to discuss the principles of this new and evolving technology, its development, and ...
Yam J - - 2000
Part II continues by discussing the clinical application of fetal pulse oximetry in intrapartum fetal surveillance as reviewed in the literature. It profiles the predictive ability of fetal pulse oximetry and its correlation with conventional methods of fetal monitoring. In addition, an account is made of its limitations, safety, and ...
Corda M - - 2000
Haemoglobin (Hb) J-Sardegna [alpha50(CE8)His-->Asp] is a haemoglobin variant characteristic of subjects from the island of Sardinia. Here we report a study of the functional properties of both fetal and adult Hb J-Sardegna. The results indicate that adult Hb J-Sardegna displays an oxygen affinity that is higher than that of adult ...
- - 2000
The goal of antepartum fetal surveillance is to prevent fetal death. Antepartum fetal surveillance techniques based on assessment of fetal heart rate patterns have been in clinical use for almost three decades. More recently, real-time ultrasonography and Doppler velocimetry have been used to evaluate fetal well-being. Antepartum fetal surveillance techniques ...
Maeda K - - 1999
We have presented that fetal surveillance may be enhanced by use of the fetal actocardiogram and by computerized processing of fetal motion as well as fetal B-mode ultrasound imaging. Ultrasonic Doppler fetal actogram is a sensitive and objective method for detecting and recording fetal movements. Computer processing of the actograph ...
Colditz P B - - 1999
Despite the pressing clinical need to improve fetal intrapartum surveillance, fetal oximetry has lagged well behind its application in the neonate because of the difficulty of developing a suitable method to record data from the fetus and testing its accuracy and reproducibility. Acceptable values of oxygen saturation that indicate fetal ...
Kawataki M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: As the technique of fetal ultrasound has developed, we have more opportunities to perform fetal echocardiography. Our knowledge about fetal diagnosis has been rapidly expanded. It is essential for the pediatricians to understand the ethical issues surrounding the fetal diagnosis. METHODS: We discussed these ethical issues at the 5th ...
Seelbach-Göbel B - - 1999
Although in the beginning phase of its use, the application of fetal oximetry in high-risk obstetrics is predicted to increase. Even at its early clinical application, patient data have shown that fetal oximetry has the excellent potential to be used with other fetal monitoring modalities to further characterize the metabolic ...
Ramanujam N - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: We report the feasibility of measuring photon migration through the fetal head in utero using antepartum, transabdominal, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. METHODS: We developed a continuous wave (CW) spectrometer that incorporates a halogen light source, silicon photodetectors, and a differential processing circuit for antepartum, transabdominal, NIR spectroscopy. By placement ...
Samuels P - - 1999
Advances in fetal monitoring and open fetal surgery for life-threatening congenital diseases have provided us with the unique opportunity to examine fetal surgical wound healing. Fetal wounds heal rapidly and without scarring. The exact mechanisms of fetal scarless healing remain unknown. This article illustrates the most current understanding of the ...
Lindsay M K - - 1999
The gold standard for assessment of fetal well being in labor is the adequacy of fetal oxygenation using continuous electronic fetal monitoring. Additional biophysical properties of the fetus are increasingly being used to ascertain the health of the intrauterine environment. This article focuses on the detection and management of the ...
Perry D F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Antenatal ascertainment of fetal sex is a common feature of modern pregnancies. Women who opt not to learn fetal sex typically employ a variety of methods to forecast it. This study investigated the validity of prevalent folklore used to identify fetal sex before birth. METHOD: One hundred four pregnant ...
Oi S - - 1999
With the dramatic technical advances in neuroimaging, it has become possible to diagnose central nervous system (CNS) anomalies in the fetus in utero with more precise morphological analysis. A new technique, high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using heavily T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences, has been reported to solve motion artifact ...
Cheek T G - - 1999
Assessing fetal wellbeing has evolved from the ancient awareness of 'quickening' to a vast array of biophysical, imaging and biochemical methods. Because the results of these tests influence the urgency of fetal delivery and sometimes the choice of maternal anesthetic technique, it is important for anesthesiologists to understand the fundamentals ...
- - 1999
Decisions to undertake fetal therapy involve a complex assessment of the best interests of the fetus and a pregnant woman's interest in her own health and freedom from unwanted invasion of her body. Pregnant women almost always accept a recommendation for fetal therapy that is approached collaboratively, especially if the ...
Achiron R - - 1999
Recent advances in high-resolution ultrasonography combined with color-coded Doppler analysis have enabled a new insight to be gained into fetal physiology and allowed the investigation of small, previously inaccessible fetal vessels under normal and abnormal conditions. In addition, the findings in some cases contradict the accepted fetal pathophysiology derived from ...
Oliver M H - - 1999
Both the maternal and fetal somatotrophic axes are closely linked to fetal substrate supply. Nutritional insults at critical stages of fetal development may lead to permanent reprogramming of the relationships between these factors. The consequences of reprogramming during fetal life may be harmful to metabolic, endocrine and cardiovascular homoeostatic mechanisms ...
Simpson K R - - 1998
Since the discovery of the ability to detect fetal heart tones in the 1980s, there has been ongoing research about how to interpret the meaning of these data. Fetal pulse oximetry, also known as fetal oxygen saturation monitoring, is a new method of assessing fetal status during labor that is ...
Luttkus A K - - 1998
Within the last ten years several groups adapted pulse oximetry to be used in the fetus. The obvious advantage of this technology is the fact that a biochemical parameter--the arterial oxygen saturation--can be measured continuously during delivery. Nevertheless, the continuous information about the fetal oxygenation during delivery has a couple ...
Stinstra J G - - 1998
The influence of the volume conductor on the EEG, MEG, fetal ECG and fetal MCG is studied by means of simulations. The assumption that the Maxwell equations can be used in a quasi-static approximation is reconsidered and the fact that the conductivity of human tissue is frequency dependent is taken ...
Calvano C J - - 1998
Prenatal interventions may prevent some sequelae of congenital anomalies, yet open fetal surgery is limited by pre-term labor. We are developing amnioscopic strategies to reduce risks for in utero surgery. Seven fetal sheep were accessed percutaneously under ultrasound guidance, via maternal laparoscopy/transuterine trocars, or via laparoscopically assisted partial uterine exteriorization ...
Jona J Z - - 1998
The use of maternal/fetal ultrasound screening has become commonplace in today's society. The principle behind fetal surgery evolves around the potential of correction or interruption of various abnormal processes that may bring about fetal demise or can become life-threatening to the newborn. This article reviews the progressive technical improvements and ...
Farmer D L - - 1998
Fetal therapy is a logical extension of fetal diagnosis. Fetal surgery has been performed in humans for the past 10 years. During this time, technical obstacles have been overcome and the natural history of many fetal disorders has been defined. A select group of disorders amenable to potential improvement by ...
El-Gehani F - - 1998
This study elaborates our recent preliminary finding that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has a specific stimulatory effect on fetal rat Leydig cells. We examined the dose-response relationship for the effect of VIP on cAMP and testosterone production by dispersed fetal Leydig cells isolated from rat testes on embryonic day (E) ...
Schröder-van der Elst J P - - 1998
The synthetic flavonoid EMD-49209 is a potent inhibitor of the in vivo and in vitro binding of thyroxine (T4) to transthyretin (TTR). We studied the distribution of 125I-labeled EMD-49209 in maternal tissues, intestinal contents, and fetal tissues in rats that were 20 days pregnant (from 1 to 24 h after ...
Fehervary P - - 1998
We report on a rare case of pulmonary embolism which we observed in the second stage of labor. For fetal surveillance we used oxycardiotocography (OCTG), an experimental system which combines internal CTG and pulse oximetry which enabled us to observe hemodynamic reactions of the unborn child and the effect on ...
Goffinet F - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry, the distribution of fetal oxygen saturation values, and the relationship with the neonatal outcome in a population with an abnormal fetal heart rate. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective multicenter observational study was performed from June 1994 to November ...
Carbonne B - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the predictive value of intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry with that of fetal blood analysis for an abnormal neonatal outcome in case of an abnormal fetal heart rate. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective multicenter observational study was conducted from June 1994 to November 1995. Fetal oxygen ...
Faisst K - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of sensor location and suction fixation duration on measurements of intrapartum fetal oxygen saturation (SpO2) with a new reflectance pulse oximetry system. DESIGN: Fetal SpO2 values (n = 18) were determined in the first stage of labor before and after moving the sensor to another ...
Peebles D M - - 1997
Current methods of intrapartum surveillance have made little impact on fetal mortality and morbidity while leading to increased caesarean section rates. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a powerful new technique that can continuously measure changes in fetal cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics during labor. Data are presented suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy has potential ...
Milley J R - - 1997
Although stress in fetal life not only increases fetal catecholamine concentration but also decreases fetal growth, there have been few studies that define the specific role of catecholamines in mediating the fetal response to stress. None, however, have investigated effects on fetal amino acid or protein metabolism, processes that should ...
Bullard K M - - 1997
Fetal dermal wounds heal without scarring. Because wound repair requires extracellular matrix turnover, the authors hypothesized that fetal skin would have increased levels of proteinases responsible for matrix degradation compared with adult skin. It was further hypothesized that transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) induces scarring in fetal skin by altering ...
Quinn T M - - 1997
Fetal surgery holds the promise of correcting some fetal problems at an early point in gestation, before fetal injury or death has occurred. Prenatal operative intervention may become the more cost-effective and humane approach to a series of otherwise devastating fetal diseases. With refinement of techniques that reduce maternal and ...
Dildy G A - - 1997
Current clinical methods of intrapartum fetal assessment are sensitive but poorly specific in detecting fetal compromise during labor. These limitations have substantially contributed to the escalating cesarean section rate which occurred in the US during the last several decades. Experimental and clinical research efforts directed towards application of the oxygen ...
Milley J R - - 1997
Fetal acidosis is associated with poor fetal growth. Because protein accretion is an important component of fetal growth, we used seven chronically prepared fetal lambs (10-16 days postoperation) to find whether fetal metabolic acidosis affected fetal protein accretion, and, if so, whether such effects were due to decreased synthesis or ...
Flake A W - - 1997
Over the past 25 years obstetricians have developed multiple techniques to diagnose fetal abnormalities whether they be structural or functional. Such diagnoses have allowed couples the option of pregnancy termination when legally permissible. In selective situations it has become possible to correct some abnormalities. In general, structural abnormalities have suggested ...
Johnson R F - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Fetal acidemia increases umbilical venous bupivacaine concentrations in the in situ rabbit model. The authors studied the effects of decreasing fetal pH on the rate of maternal to fetal (M-->F) clearances of lidocaine, bupivacaine, 2-chloroprocaine, and antipyrine (a nonionic marker of placental transfer) across the isolated, dual perfused, human ...
Joshima H - - 1996
To accumulate fundamental knowledge about a possible relationship between severe mental retardation caused by in utero radiation exposure and impaired oxygen transport to fetal brain, the effect of X-ray irradiation on erythropoietic activity in fetal liver of C57BL/6J mice was studied in vivo and in vitro by measuring 59Fe uptake ...
Ploeckinger-Ulm B - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The effectiveness of three-dimensional ultrasonography in visualizing fetal digits was examined. STUDY DESIGN: The digits of 72 fetuses, including 2 with skeletal dysplasia, were examined prospectively with both conventional and three-dimensional ultrasonography. RESULTS: Complete visualization of all fetal digits was obtained more often with three-dimensional ultrasonography than with two-dimensional ...
Vilos GA - - 1996
Three cohorts of infertile women were treated for bilateral tubal obstruction. From July 1990 to July 1994, 37 distal tubal obstruction were treated with laparoscopic bilateral neosalpingostomy using a Coherent ultrapulse carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Before July 1990, 72 with distal obstruction had neosalpingostomy by laparotomy using the CO2 laser ...
Lurie S - - 1996
This review provides recent data and clinical opinions on a new technology in assessing fetal well-being during labor, the fetal pulse oximeter. Fetal pulse oximetry is potentially superior to electronic fetal heart rate monitoring because it allows direct assessment of both fetal oxygen status and fetal tissue perfusion. Several studies ...
van Wijngaarden W J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to test the hypothesis that the addition of fetal electrocardiogram time-interval analysis to conventional electronic fetal monitoring would significantly reduce the number of cases requiring fetal scalp blood sampling without an increase in adverse outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized prospective trial was performed in 214 women ...
Michejda M - - 1996
The epidemiology and biologic characteristics of fetal tissue harvested from elective and spontaneous abortions are reviewed. The use of fetal bone marrow obtained from second trimester lost pregnancies is discussed. Allogeneic fetal tissue transplantation carried out in utero is reviewed. Data on intrauterine transplantation of human fetal bone marrow obtained ...
Takahashi Y - - 1996
We present an unusual case of indomethacin-induced occlusion of the fetal ductus arteriosus, which occurred in one of twins. In fetal echocardiography, the characteristic findings, a to and fro regurgitation pattern at pulmonary valve and postvalvular dilation of the main pulmonary artery, were obtained in addition to right ventricular dilation ...
Olutoye O O - - 1996
The ability of fetal tissues to heal without scarring has prompted extensive research into the biochemical and molecular differences between fetal and postnatal wound healing. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms of fetal wound repair may to lead to approaches to correct or prevent the clinical problems encountered in ...
Johnson R L - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether fetal acoustic stimulation can improve the chance of successful external cephalic version in patients at 36 to 38 weeks' gestation with fetal midline spine position. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, blinded crossover trial was performed. In this "N of 1" study, the patient served ...
Rohrich R J - - 1995
Our understanding of fetal vascular anatomy is rudimentary. This article evaluates the rate of fetal vascular branch-point development at different gestational ages using a porcine model. The consistent biphasic, vascular branch-point development provides an improved understanding of fetal vascular anatomy, although further studies on fetal growth and the effects of ...
Vawter D E - - 1995
A review of human fetal tissue policies over the past 40 years reveals an increasing awareness that the use of this tissue raises unique ethical and policy issues. Initially it was believed that the use of fetal tissue was no different from using any other abandoned surgical waste specimen. Then ...
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