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Cho Eujin - - 2012
Pigmentary demarcation lines are abrupt transition lines between the areas of deeper pigmentation and the areas of lighter, normal pigmentation. Type B pigmentary demarcation lines involve the posterior medial portion of the lower extremities and are more commonly associated with pregnancy. We present a case of pigmentary demarcation lines of ...
van Drongelen Joris - - 2012
The vascular response to pregnancy has been frequently studied in mesenteric artery models, by investigating endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dependent responses to mechanical (flow-mediated vasodilation, myogenic reactivity, and vascular compliance) and pharmacological stimuli (G-protein coupled receptor responses: Gq(EC), Gs(SMC), Gq(SMC)). It is unclear to what extent ...
Prins Jelmer R - - 2012
IL6 is a multifunctional cytokine with pivotal roles in the inflammatory response and in directing T cell differentiation in adaptive immunity. IL6 is widely expressed in the female reproductive tract and gestational tissues, and exerts regulatory functions in embryo implantation and placental development, as well as the immune adaptations required ...
Dickmann Leslie J LJ Department of Pharmacokineticsand Drug Metabolism, - - 2013
There is considerable evidence that pregnancy changes the disposition of drugs in an enzyme- and gestational stage-specific manner. On the basis of probe drug studies, the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 increases and CYP1A2 decreases during human pregnancy. However, no studies of CYP2B6 activity during human pregnancy have been conducted. ...
Rada Cara C - - 2012
The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes hemodynamic changes during pregnancy via angiogenesis and vasodilation to ensure adequate perfusion of the placenta. Improper vascularization at the maternal-fetal interface can cause pregnancy complications and poor fetal outcomes. Recent evidence indicates that small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel subtype 3 (SK3) contributes to vascular remodeling ...
Kalu C A - - 2012
Background: It has been recognized that preterm labor is related to short cervical length and that poor progress in labor is a major indication for cesarean section at term. We therefore hypothesize that long cervix is not associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery during labor at term. Objectives: The ...
Benoit Joshua B - - 2012
Sphingosine is a structural component of sphingolipids. The metabolism of phosphoethanolamine ceramide (sphingomyelin) by sphingomyelinase (SMase), followed by the breakdown of ceramide by ceramidase (CDase) yields sphingosine. Female tsetse fly is viviparous and generates a single progeny within her uterus during each gonotrophic cycle. The mother provides her offspring with ...
Hsiao Elaine Y - - 2012
A variety prenatal insults are associated with the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, autism and cerebral palsy. While the precise mechanisms underlying how transient gestational challenges can lead to later life dysfunctions are largely unknown, the placenta is likely to play a key role. The literal interface between ...
Emera Deena - - 2012
Transposable elements (TEs) are known to provide DNA for host regulatory functions, but the mechanisms underlying the transformation of TEs into cis-regulatory elements are unclear. In humans two TEs--MER20 and MER39--contribute the enhancer/promoter for decidual prolactin (dPRL), which is dramatically induced during pregnancy. We show that evolution of the strong ...
Majed Batoule H BH Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Vascular Surgery, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02115, - - 2012
Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is a member of the prostanoid group of eicosanoids that regulate homeostasis, hemostasis, smooth muscle function and inflammation. Prostanoids are derived from arachidonic acid by the sequential actions of phospholipase A(2), cyclooxygenase (COX), and specific prostaglandin (PG) synthases. There are two major COX enzymes, COX1 and COX2, that ...
Stika Catherine S - - 2012
Previously established as a chemotherapeutic agent for decades, methotrexate has been adapted for use as a medical therapy for unruptured ectopic pregnancies. Its mechanism of action, competitive inhibition of folate-dependent steps in nucleic acid synthesis, effectively kills the rapidly dividing ectopic trophoblast. However, the same action on normal cells is ...
Blois Sandra M - - 2012
Mouse and human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG) are known to exert immunomodulatory functions during pregnancy by inducing maternal leukocytes to secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines that promote a tolerogenic decidual microenvironment. Many such anti-inflammatory mediators also function as proangiogenic factors, which, along with the reported association of murine PSG with the uterine vasculature, ...
Srirattana Kanokwan - - 2012
Abstract Trichostatin A (TSA) has previously been used in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to improve the cloning efficiency in several species, which led our team to investigate the effects of TSA on the full-term development of bovine SCNT and gaur-bovine interspecies SCNT (gaur iSCNT; gaur somatic cells as donors ...
Ladyman Sharon R - - 2012
Hyperphagia during pregnancy, despite rising concentrations of the satiety hormone leptin, suggests a state of leptin resistance develops. This study investigated the satiety response and hypothalamic responses to leptin during pregnancy in the mouse. Pregnant (day 13) and nonpregnant mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either leptin or vehicle ...
Sheridan Rachel M RM Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. - - 2012
Recent studies from our laboratory have indicated that the transcription factor activator protein-2α plays a critical role in the differentiation of human villous cytotrophoblast cells to syncytiotrophoblast cells. However, little is known about the expression of activator protein-2α in placentas from pathologic pregnancies. This study compares the expression of activator ...
Kusinski Laura C LC Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, School of Biomedicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, St. Mary’s Hospital, Manchester, - - 2012
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is the inability of a fetus to reach its genetically predetermined growth potential. In the absence of a genetic anomaly or maternal undernutrition, FGR is attributable to "placental insufficiency": inappropriate maternal/fetal blood flow, reduced nutrient transport or morphological abnormalities of the placenta (e.g., altered barrier thickness). ...
Pollheimer Jürgen - - 2012
During early pregnancy the placenta-derived extravillous trophoblast starts to invade the maternal uterus in order to regulate adequate blood flow and nutrient supply to the growing fetus. A unique set of events including plugging and remodelling of maternal vessels, regulation of oxygen levels, as well as the crosstalk with maternal ...
Alexandrova N V - - 2012
Comparative histological study of uterine curettage specimens in missed abortion in women with spontaneous and induced pregnancy and progressing spontaneous pregnancy revealed similar changes in the endometrium and placental villi. Immunohistochemical assay showed enhanced expression of PPARγ and increased proliferation index (Ki-67) in cells of the villous and extravillous trophoblasts ...
Stansfield Fiona Jane - - 2012
The ovaries of 8 African elephant fetuses and their mothers between 2 and 22 months of gestation, and those of 2 cycling and 2 lactating elephants, were examined grossly, histologically and immunocytochemically, with emphasis on the development and regression of the accessory corpora lutea (CL) of pregnancy and the steroidogenic ...
Cui Yujie - - 2012
In pregnancy, trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral artery remodelling are important for lowering maternal vascular resistance and increasing uteroplacental blood flow. Impaired spiral artery remodelling has been implicated in pre-eclampsia, a major complication of pregnancy, for a long time but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Corin (also known as atrial ...
Pohler Ky G - - 2012
Synchronization of dominant follicle development and control of ovulation/oocyte retrieval are commonly used assisted reproductive technologies in both cattle and humans. The final maturation of the dominant follicle is intimately tied to the final maturation of the oocyte, preovulatory secretion of estradiol, preparation of follicular cells for luteinization, postovulatory secretion ...
Crawford K E - - 2012
Calreticulin is a calcium binding, endoplasmic reticulum resident protein best known for its roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis and the quality control processes of the endoplasmic reticulum. There is evidence for a range of activities for calreticulin outside the endoplasmic reticulum, including in the cytosol, on the surface of different ...
Ma Jie - - 2012
Endogenous digitalis-like factors (EDLFs) appear to be hypertensiogenic and increased in the serum and placenta of women with preeclampsia (PE), a complication of pregnancy. Digibind, an anti-digoxin antibody Fab fragment, reverses in vitro effects of EDLF and in vivo features of PE. We used Digibind in a radioimmunoassay to measure ...
Herrera E A EA Department of Physiology Development & Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, - - 2012
Virtually nothing is known about the effects on fetal physiology of xanthine oxidase inhibition. This is despite maternal treatment with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol being considered in human complicated pregnancy to protect the infant’s brain from excessive generation of ROS.We investigated the in vivo effects of maternal treatment with ...
Espinoza Jimmy J William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , 3601 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073 , USA +1 248 898 5128 ; - - 2012
The prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia remains limited due to its heterogeneous clinical presentation and unclear pathophysiology. However, accumulating evidence indicates that angiogenic imbalances during pregnancy may play a central role in the mechanisms of injury of preeclampsia. Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggests that a combination of ...
Cole Laurence A - - 2012
hCG is a wonder. Firstly, because hCG is such an extreme molecule. hCG is the most acidic glycoprotein containing the highest proportion of sugars. Secondly, hCG exists in 5 common forms. Finally, it has so many functions ranging from control of human pregnancy to human cancer. This review examines these ...
Zeng Xiangfang - - 2012
Administration of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), an analogue of endogenous N-acetyl-glutamate (an activator of arginine synthesis) has been shown to enhance neonatal growth by increasing circulating arginine levels. However, the effect of NCG on pregnancy remains unknown. This study examined the effects of NCG on pregnancy outcome and evaluated potential mechanisms involved. ...
Rowe Jared H - - 2012
Although the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes has an established predilection for disseminated infection during pregnancy that often results in spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, the specific host-pathogen interaction that dictates these disastrous complications remain incompletely defined. Herein, we demonstrate systemic maternal Listeria infection during pregnancy fractures fetal tolerance and triggers fetal ...
Shore Amy N - - 2012
Pregnancy-induced noncoding RNA (PINC) and retinoblastoma-associated protein 46 (RbAp46) are upregulated in alveolar cells of the mammary gland during pregnancy and persist in alveolar cells that remain in the regressed lobules following involution. The cells that survive involution are thought to function as alveolar progenitor cells that rapidly differentiate into ...
Kaitu'u-Lino Tu'uhevaha J - - 2012
Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication, characterized by severe endothelial dysfunction, hypertension and maternal end-organ damage. Soluble endoglin is an anti-angiogenic protein released from placenta and thought to play a central role in causing the endothelial dysfunction and maternal organ injury seen in severe preeclampsia. We recently reported MMP-14 was ...
López-Gatius F - - 2011
After 80 years of the commercial application of artificial insemination (AI) in the cow, the method still has numerous benefits over natural insemination including worldwide gene improvement. The efficiency of insemination depends, among many other factors, on the delivery of an appropriate number of normal spermatozoa to the appropriate reproductive ...
El-Zarkouny S Z - - 2011
The objectives were to (1) compare blood metabolites and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows not inseminated before (early) and after (late) 100d in milk (DIM) because of prolonged anovulation or anestrus; and (2) evaluate reproductive responses of cows ≤100 DIM to GnRH+PGF(2α) treatments after a fixed-time artificial insemination (AI; ...
Salminen Annamari - - 2011
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) functions in homeostasis of lung surfactant and in innate immunity. SP-A is secreted by the fetal lung into amniotic fluid. Additionally it has been detected in gestational tissues. We propose that SP-A influences intrauterine inflammation that is commonly associated with preterm birth, the main underlying cause ...
Leino O - - 2011
Fish contains both beneficial substances e.g. docosahexaenoic acids but also harmful compounds e.g. methylmercury. Importantly, the health effects caused by these two substances can be evaluated in one common end point, intelligence quotient (IQ), providing a more transparent analysis. We estimated health effects of maternal fish consumption on child's central ...
Rao Vinita G - - 2011
A 28-year-old, healthy female, who had a recent repeated history of miscarriage, presented with bilateral choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM), for which she received photodynamic therapy with three doses of lucentis, at intervals of one month each, to which she responded. After five months, the patient again presented with complaints of ...
Pueyo Victoria - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking during pregnancy alters neurodevelopment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides precise measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), which forms part of the central nervous system. AIMS: To assess using the OCT how smoking during pregnancy would affect optic nerve development as detected in human offspring. STUDY ...
Jayaprakasam Anuradha - - 2011
Valsalva retinopathy can present as a sudden, dramatic loss of central vision due to the premacular location of the resultant subhyaloid hemorrhage. Certain vascular conditions predispose to the condition and occasional reports exist of Valsalva retinopathy in pregnancy. The authors describe a case of Valsalva retinopathy in a pregnant patient ...
Pereira R J - - 2011
We investigated the effect of stage of pregnancy on estimates of breeding values for milk yield and milk persistency in Gyr and Holstein dairy cattle in Brazil. Test-day milk yield records were analyzed using random regression models with or without the effect of pregnancy. Models were compared using residual variances, ...
Garrels W - - 2011
The pig is an important model for biomedical research. Recently, we described a method for producing transgenic pigs using a nonautonomous Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon1 (Garrels et al. 2010 Reprod. Domest. Anim. 45, 65 abst.). Briefly, in vivo developed porcine zygotes were co-injected with a CAGGS-Venus transposon and hyperactive SB100. ...
Dyrdal Gunvor Marie GM Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1094, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, - - 2011
The association between overall life satisfaction (LS) and relationship satisfaction (RS) was investigated longitudinally among mothers (N=67,355), using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected twice during pregnancy, and at 6 and 36 months postpartum. Satisfaction increased ...
Kolm I - - 2010
We present an unusual case of a nevus of the nipple changing during pregnancy which caused a diagnostic pitfall. Nevi on the nipple and areola are infrequent, and diagnostic criteria for clinical, dermoscopy or reflectance confocal microscopy examination for nevi in this 'special location' are still missing. We comment on ...
Malvasi Antonio - - 2011
The authors examined the presence of Substance P (SP) and Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) and their related fibers in the pseudocapsule of uterine fibroids (PUF) and in normal myometrium (NM) during myomectomies in 57 non-pregnant women. 4 samples were removed from the normal myometrium (NM) and from PUF. The samples ...
Taba Ryusuke - - 2010
We report a case of emergent massive meconium peritonitis due to intrauterine volvulus without malrotation. Fetal ascites was detected on a regular ultrasonographic examination, and fetal distress was found on cardiotocographic monitoring. The mother had noticed a slight decrease in fetal movements over the preceding 24 hours. Prenatal magnetic resonance ...
Koyuncu Faik Mumtaz - - 2010
Fetal goiter can be the result of maternal hyperthyroidism treated with antithyroid drugs. Polyhydramnios may be the presenting symptom and can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography. We report a case of fetal goiter diagnosed at 30 weeks of gestation and fetal hypothyroidism confirmed by cordocentesis. Intra-amniotic levothyroxine was administered. Onset ...
Derks Jan B JB Department of Perinatology, University Medical Centre, 100 3584 CX Utrecht, The - - 2010
In complicated labor, neonatal outcome may depend not only on the extent of fetal asphyxia and acidosis but also on the effects on the fetal cardiovascular system of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) associated with repeated compressions of the umbilical cord. This study tested the hypothesis ...
Boat Anne - - 2010
To lower the incidence and severity of fetal cardiovascular depression during maternal fetal surgery under general anesthesia. We hypothesized that supplemental intravenous anesthesia (SIVA) with propofol and remifentanil would lower the need for high-dose inhalational anesthesia and provide adequate maternal depth of anesthesia and uterine relaxation. SIVA technique would minimize ...
van Oppenraaij R H F - - 2010
For normal fetal growth and development a well-developed chorionic villous vascularization is essential. The aim of this study is to investigate whether idiopathic second trimester fetal loss is associated with an underdeveloped chorionic villous vascularization. 38 placentas after late miscarriage, classified as idiopathic fetal loss (IFL, n=16) or as fetal ...
Tongprasert F - - 2010
To describe systematic cordocentesis training among maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) fellows. During their 2-year training period, five MFM fellows, who had completed systematic model training, performed 1116 midpregnancy diagnostic cordocentesis procedures (mean, 223 (range, 185-259) procedures each) under expert supervision. The details of the procedures were recorded prospectively. Multiple pregnancies and ...
Deprest Jan A - - 2010
Fetal diagnosis prompts the question for fetal therapy in highly selected cases. Some conditions are suitable for in utero surgical intervention. This paper reviews historically important steps in the development of fetal surgery. The first invasive fetal intervention in 1963 was an intra-uterine blood transfusion. It took another 20 years ...
De Silva K Ranil D - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of contribution from the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems to the origin of the PCA in fetal autopsy brains of last trimester of pregnancy and to compare with published data on the configuration of adult and fetal brains in a population ...
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