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Henzel M Kristina - - 2001
Preeclampsia (preECL), a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, which occurs only in humans, is dangerous for mother and fetus. It may be caused by placental hypoxia triggering the release of a circulating factor that damages the maternal endothelium leading to vasoconstriction and hypertension. Our primary objective was to determine if systemic ...
Magee L A - - 2001
Fifty per cent of pregnancies are unplanned, and 1-6% of young women have pre-existing hypertension. However, no commonly used antihypertensive agent is known to be teratogenic. ACE inhibitors (and angiotensin-receptor antagonists) should be discontinued due to fetotoxicity. Five to 10% of pregnant women have hypertension, of which pre-existing hypertension is ...
Kuntz T B - - 2001
The Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) pathway of apoptosis is abnormally activated in diseases associated with impaired immune tolerance or chronic inflammation. Pregnancy-related hypertension is a spectrum of disease that commonly causes significant morbidity in women and in their newborn infants, is associated with generalized inflammation, and may be causally related to ...
Beauchesne L M - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The study sought to determine the outcome of pregnancy in women with coarctation of the thoracic aorta. BACKGROUND: Patients with coarctation of the thoracic aorta are expected to reach childbearing age, but data on the outcome of pregnancy in this population are limited. METHODS: The Mayo Clinic database was ...
Edwards N - - 2001
Preeclampsia is the most common disease of pregnancy, occurring in up to 10% of the pregnant population. The cause of the disease is as yet undetermined; however, most of the clinical effects are commonly attributed to damage to the endothelial layer, leading to increased pressor activity of all the maternal ...
Lam G K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare and dangerous entity in pregnancy. Previous studies have found a 35-50% maternal mortality rate in the peripartum period. To date, most reports have described treatment of these patients with diuretics, digoxin, and calcium-channel blockers. CASE: We describe the successful treatment of a primigravida ...
Shesely E G - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test whether omitting the vasodilator nitric oxide that is derived from any 1 of the 3 isoforms of nitric oxide synthase results in hypertension during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We measured systolic blood pressure before, during, and after pregnancy using an automated tail ...
Greenwood J P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Direct recordings from peripheral sympathetic nerves have shown an increased sympathetic drive in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia (PE). It is unknown whether sympathetic drive is altered in normal pregnancy, when arterial blood pressure can be normal or relatively low. The aim of this study was to measure and ...
Kobashi G - - 2001
Hypertension in pregnancy (HP), including preeclampsia, is known to be a multifactorial disease. Recently, a Glu298Asp variant of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) was identified as being associated with coronary spasm and myocardial infarction, whereas it has been reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase plays a role in ...
Malas N O - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine the calcium and parathyroid hormone levels in normal pregnancy and pregnancy induced hypertension. METHODS: Eighty pregnant women were enrolled in this study, 50 women represented the study group (Pregnancy-induced hypertension), and 30 women represented the control group (normal pregnancy). This study was carried out between March 1998 ...
Umans J G - - 2001
Human pregnancy, normally characterized by systemic vasodilation and modest hypotension, can be complicated by underlying maternal hypertension and several unique hypertensive disorders, including pre-eclampsia. Although well-designed and adequately powered clinical trials are critically needed, there have been several recent meta-analyses of this large literature, along with consensus statements and treatment ...
Gofton E N - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the obstetrical intervention rates and maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with gestational hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: Induction and operative delivery rates and indices of maternal and neonatal morbidity were determined in women (37-41 completed weeks) with gestational hypertension (n = 979), ...
Sugden M C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Leptin concentrations are increased during late pregnancy, and leptin receptors are expressed in placental and fetal tissues, suggesting a role for leptin in placental and/or fetal growth, or both. In humans, leptin concentrations in adulthood are inversely related to body weight at birth, independent of adult adiposity, and correlate ...
Sharkey L C - - 2001
The SHHF/Mcc-fa(cp) (spontaneous hypertension and heart failure) rat is advanced as a novel and suitable non-primate model of pregnancy-associated hypertension and fetal growth restriction because it simultaneously has spontaneous pregnancy-associated hypertension, small for gestational age (SGA) offsprings, and altered placental gene expression. Pregnancy-associated hypertension is a major contributor to maternal ...
Hermida R C - - 2001
With the aim of describing the predictable pattern of blood pressure (BP) variability during gestation, we analyzed 2430 BP series systematically sampled by ambulatory monitoring for 48 consecutive hours every 4 weeks from the first obstetric visit (usually within the first trimester of pregnancy) until delivery in 235 normotensive women, ...
Abraham K A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: We undertook this study to evaluate the incidence and outcome of HELLP in Irish patients. In addition, duration and trends of the abnormal laboratory results were studied. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective observational study screened 12068 pregnant women between January 1995 and March 1997. Any pregnant woman with hypertension, proteinuria, ...
Tewksbury D A - - 2001
In addition to the normally prevalent low molecular weight angiotensinogen (LMrA), significant quantities of a high molecular weight angiotensinogen (HMrA) are present in the human pregnant state. Previous studies have documented that 47% of women who develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) have a significantly elevated plasma HMrA/LMrA ratio. The purpose of ...
Lydakis C - - 2001
To study the prevalence of pre-eclampsia (PE) and other obstetric outcomes (growth restriction and fetal mortality) in pregnancies of normotensive and hypertensive women attending an antenatal hypertension clinic, we studied a cohort of 372 pregnancies from 267 women. The prevalence of PE in the groups of pregnancies of normotensive and ...
- - 2001
Chronic hypertension occurs in up to 5% of pregnant women; rates vary according to the population studied and the criteria used for confirming the diagnosis (1,2). This complication may result in significant maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There has been confusion over the terminology and criteria used to ...
Zhang J - - 2001
This study examined the incidence of and risk factors for recurrent and newly developed hypertensive disorders in the second pregnancy. We analysed data on 1641 women who had both the first and second pregnancies in the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a large prospective cohort study at 12 hospitals in the US. ...
Shah D M - - 2001
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are prototypical of maternal conditions associated with reduced uteroplacental blood flow. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy include chronic hypertension, preeclampsia-eclampsia, superimposed preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension. Pathophysiology of these disorders include deficient uterine vascular modeling in the process of placentation and aberrations of vasomotor regulation. Aberrations of uterine ...
Schneider M C - - 2001
Research reported during the past year has enhanced our understanding of conditions that lead to the complex changes that are observed in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. An association between placental pathology and a multisystem disorder that is characterized by endothelial dysfunction which involves genetic and immunological investigations has been identified. ...
Granger J P - - 2001
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is estimated to affect 7% to 10% of all pregnancies in the United States. Despite being the leading cause of maternal death and a major contributor of maternal and perinatal morbidity, the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of PIH have not yet been fully elucidated. Studies during ...
Dukler D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To describe the maternal characteristics of pregnancy and perinatal outcome of primiparous women with preeclampsia, to determine the recurrence rate and to define the maternal risk factors for preeclampsia in subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study. Two groups of patients were defined: the study group consisted of 380 ...
Silver H M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare baroreflex function among nonpregnant women and among women with normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, or gestational hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: Baroreflex function was tested in 20 women with preeclampsia, in 20 age- and gestational age-matched normotensive gravid women, in 20 age-matched nonpregnant women, and in 20 nonmatched ...
Bolte A C - - 2001
Preeclampsia is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia is more than pregnancy-induced hypertension. The hypertension is only one manifestation of an underlying multifactorial, multisystem disorder, initiated early in pregnancy. In established severe disease there is volume contraction, reduced cardiac output, enhanced vascular reactivity, increased vascular permeability ...
Pérgola P E - - 2001
We present a case of living, related-donor kidney transplantation during the first trimester of pregnancy. The patient received mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), tacrolimus, and prednisone throughout the entire pregnancy. This is the first reported case of use of MMF during pregnancy. The mother did well, except for mild preeclampsia and mild ...
Németh I - - 2001
Gestational hypertension during the third trimester reflects an exaggerated maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy. We hypothesized that oxidative stress present even in normal pregnancy becomes uncompensated in hypertensive patients. A glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity sufficient to meet the increased reductive equivalent need of the cells is indispensable for defense against ...
Spaanderman M E - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia seems to be superimposed upon a preexisting hemodynamic, hemostatic, autoimmune or metabolic disorder. We tested the hypothesis that in normotensive thrombophilic formerly preeclamptic subjects, the non-pregnant circulatory volume status predicts the development of subsequent hypertensive pregnancy and/or fetal growth restriction. METHODS: In 250 non-diabetic formerly preeclamptic women and ...
Barton J R - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Limited information is available regarding the progression of disease in women with mild gestational hypertension. Our purpose was to describe the prognostic signs in the natural course of mild gestational hypertension and pregnancy outcomes in women who were remote from term with mild gestational hypertension that was expectantly managed. ...
Al-Bunyan M A - - 2001
To study the correlation of randomly-tested total antiepileptic plasma levels and seizure control in a retrospectively collected group of pregnant epileptic Saudi women. The medical records of 30 Saudi epileptic female patients were reviewed during their subsequent pregnancies (total of 50). The type of antiepileptic drugs used during each pregnancy, ...
Morris C D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to prospectively determine the effects of nutrient intakes on the incidences of preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension among women enrolled in the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention study. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective observational cohort study of women in a randomized clinical trial that ...
Lindheimer M D - - 2001
Before 1980 research on the kidney and hypertension during pregnancy was neglected, although these diseases, especially hypertension, are major causes of morbidity to mother and child. The past 20 years, however, has witnessed a striking reversal of this neglect. This review focuses on recent progress in renal physiology, kidney disease, ...
Stewart R - - 2001
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) associated with pregnancy carries a high maternal mortality rate. Short-term epoprostenol infusion has been demonstrated to improve the hemodynamic profile in patients with PPH. We report a successful maternal-fetal outcome with epoprostenol therapy during pregnancy, cesarean section, and postpartum in a patient with PPH. Epoprostenol therapy ...
Bolte A C - - 2001
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in developing and developed countries. The etiology of preeclampsia is still unknown. Delivering the baby is the only definite treatment. The benefits of acute pharmacological control of severe hypertension prior to and/or post-delivery are generally ...
Lenfant C - - 2001
This report updates the 1990 National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy and focuses on classification, pathophysiology, and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Using evidence-based medicine and consensus, this report updates contemporary approaches to hypertension control during pregnancy by expanding ...
Vázquez Blanco M - - 2001
The changes induced by transient hypertension on cardiac structure and function are unclear. Pregnancy-induced hypertension offers a natural and spontaneous model of this condition. To assess the potential of echocardiographic Doppler to unmask left ventricular function impairment, we studied 28 women aged 26.4 +/- 7.2 years with pregnancy-induced hypertension defined ...
Feldman D M - - 2001
Hypertensive disease in pregnancy represents a significant health problem in the world, and ranks second only to thromboembolism as a cause of maternal mortality in the USA. In addition, hypertension is associated with both perinatal morbidity and mortality secondary to direct effects on the fetus as well as the iatrogenic ...
Raijmakers M T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To measure levels of oxidized and free thiols in whole blood of normotensive pregnant and preeclamptic women and evaluate the role of oxidative stress. METHODS: We measured whole blood oxidized and free levels of cysteine, homocysteine, cysteinylglycine, and glutathione by high performance liquid chromatography in women with normotensive pregnancies ...
Mirpuri N G - - 2001
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diagnosis of preeclampsia is currently made from blood pressure measurements taken at antenatal visits (either at the hospital or in the community). The aim of this work was to see whether the presence of underlying hypertensive diseases is accompanied by changes in the skin of pregnant women, which can ...
Hall G - - 2001
Long-term sexual co-habitation and previous pregnancies are thought to protect against the development of hypertensive disease of pregnancy. In order to test the hypothesis that pregnancies conceived after prolonged exposure to the partner's spermatozoa have reduced rates of hypertensive disease this study examined the outcomes of pregnancies of women who ...
Sattar N - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether waist circumference at the first antenatal visit predicts risk of developing hypertension later in pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women with singleton pregnancies (n = 1142, median age 29 years, interquartile range 25-32 years, 387 primigravidas) were recruited at their first antenatal visits. Using standardized methods, midwives determined ...
Jerat S - - 2001
Adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilatory peptide with plasma levels that increase during pregnancy. Although fetoplacental adrenomedullin levels are reported to increase in preeclampsia, maternal plasma levels may be elevated or decreased, or they may resemble those in normal pregnancy. In other hypertensive conditions, adrenomedullin increases. Therefore, we hypothesized that maternal ...
Terrone D A - - 2001
The objective of this study is to describe the incidence of transient hypertension and to evaluate if transient hypertension is associated with increased maternal or fetal morbidity as compared to other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and normotensive controls. Data were collected from all deliveries at the University of Mississippi Medical ...
Chung N A - - 2001
Hypertension is an important cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. There are still no definitive guidelines as to when and how patients should be treated, but it is important that appropriate treatment is initiated early in patients at highest risk and they are closely ...
Kobayashi T - - 2001
We investigated coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters for significant differences between patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia (< 32 weeks gestation, wG) and those with late-onset severe preeclampsia (> or = 32 wG). A decrease in antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC), and free protein S (PS) activities and an increase in plasmin-alpha2-plasmin inhibitor complex ...
Schulz S - - 2001
Carney complex is an extremely rare, autosomal dominant, multi-system disorder characterized by multiple neoplasias and lentiginosis. The genetic defect responsible for this complex has been localized to the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16). The most prevalent clinical manifestations in patients with Carney complex are spotty skin pigmentation, skin and ...
Jurajda M - - 2001
In preeclampsia the cytotrophoblast invasion of the decidual vessels is reduced. The endothelia in the decidual vessels may influence cytotrophoblast invasion and remodeling of decidual spiral arteries. The decidual endothelial cells from preeclamptic placentas produce less matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1) than those from normal placentas. MMPs form a group of enzymes ...
Edelstam G - - 2001
Reference values are usually based on blood samples from healthy men or non-pregnant women. Blood samples from pregnant women may be compared with these reference values. Correct references for pregnancy can be extremely important for clinical decisions such as ablatio placentae, appendicitis, premature rupture of membranes and preeclampsia. Previous studies ...
O'Reilly B - - 2001
We set out to analyse the effect of pregnancy and hypertension in renal transplant recipients and review serum creatinine levels as a marker of graft function, before, during and after pregnancy. The study was conducted at a major tertiary referral centre in London. This was a retrospective analysis of renal ...
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