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Results 351 - 400 of 1256
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Taggart Michael J MJ Maternal & Fetal Health Research Centre & Cardiovascular Research Group, University of Manchester, St. Mary's Hospital, Hathersage Road, Manchester M13 0JH, UK. - - 2007
Parturition at term, the end stage of a successful pregnancy, occurs as a result of powerful, co-ordinated and periodic contractions of uterine smooth muscle (myometrium). To occur in a propitious manner, a high degree of control over the activation of a myometrial cell is required. We review the molecular mechanisms ...
Domingues Marlos Rodrigues - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity during pregnancy is a poorly investigated subject on population level. The study aimed to describe duration, type and frequency of leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy, and to explore its associated factors. METHODS: A population-based study was carried out during 2004 in Southern Brazil. A total of 4,471 ...
Pereira Mark A MA Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55454, USA. - - 2007
Few studies document longitudinal changes in physical activity from prepregnancy to the postpartum period. This study estimated change in self-reported leisure-time physical activity in 1442 women before pregnancy, during the second trimester, and at 6 months postpartum. In addition, it also examined predictors of becoming insufficiently active during or after ...
Gyrup Claus - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Maternal serum concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, pappalysin-1, EC 3.4.24.79) are used to predict the occurrence of Down syndrome. In pregnancy, PAPP-A primarily circulates as a covalent 2:2 complex with the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP), which inhibits the proteolytic activity of PAPP-A. At term, however, ...
Afzal-Ahmed Iram - - 2007
Inactivation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) may contribute to vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. We have compared the susceptibility of erythrocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to oxidative stress in women with normotensive or preeclamptic pregnancies. The redox ...
Chasan-Taber Lisa - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: National data indicate that Latina women are less active than non-Latina white women and are at higher risk of gestational diabetes and subsequent type 2 diabetes. Physical activity may reduce risk of maternal disorders of pregnancy, but sparse data exists on the correlates of physical activity in pregnant Latina ...
Abdul Sattar Munavvar - - 2007
Traditionally Plumbago rosea L. is used as an abortifacient in the Southeast Asian region. Methanolic root extract of a local species of Plumbago rosea L. was studied to evaluate its traditional antifertility claim. Interestingly, it was found to possess dose related inhibitory effect on uterine contractile responses elicited by oxytocic ...
Andronowska Aneta - - 2007
Nitric oxide plays a key role in the regulation of various female reproductive processes such as ovulation, implantation and myometrial relaxation. The aim of the present study was to determine the histochemical activity and cellular localization of NADPH-d in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy, including the implantation period. Tissue ...
Chasan-Taber Lisa - - 2007
In 2002, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists revised their 1994 guidelines to recommend that pregnant women without medical or obstetric complications follow exercise guidelines for nonpregnant women. In spite of these guidelines, the optimal dose of recreational physical activity (i.e., total volume of energy expenditure, and specific frequency, ...
Matsuo H - - 2007
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To elucidate the sequential changes of autonomic nervous activity during pregnancy, we examined heart rate variability on two positions and whether autonomic nervous activity affected duration of labor. METHODS: Thirty-eight normal pregnant women were studied. Frequency domain parameters (HF, LF, LF/HF ratio) and heart rate were obtained ...
San Juan Dertkigil Marcia - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To evaluate changes in the amniotic fluid index (AFI) in low-risk pregnant women before and after physical activity in water. METHODS: This was a prospective trial with a before-after approach. Women carried out moderate physical activity for 50 min, 3 times a week, while partially immersed in a swimming ...
Perkins Cooker C D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the separate and combined relationships of aerobic physical activity during pregnancy, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, and height to the fetal growth ratio. METHODS: The aerobic physical activity of 51 healthy, nonsmoking pregnant women was assessed for 48 hours at both 20 and 32 weeks of pregnancy ...
Dwarkanath Pratibha - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Earlier studies in India have demonstrated an inverse relationship between physical activity and birth weight in rural women who had high levels of physical activity related to agricultural and domestic activities. There are no data on urban Indian women from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds with varying levels ...
Ochiai Noriaki - - 2007
Bifenazate is a novel carbazate acaricide discovered by Uniroyal Chemical (now Chemtura Corporation) for the control of phytophagous mites infesting agricultural and ornamental crops. Its acaricidal activity and that of its principal active metabolite, diazene, were characterized. Bifenazate and diazene had high toxicity and specificity both orally and topically to ...
Terrien J J School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland. - - 2007
Numerous studies have observed and analyzed the external electrical activity of the uterus, the so-called electrohysterogram (EHG), associated with contractions during pregnancy and labor. The EHG is mainly composed of two distinct frequency components, FWL (Fast Wave Low, low frequency component) and FWH (Fast Wave High, high frequency component). It ...
Rezavand N - - 2006
Burn injury is rare during pregnancy. However, severe burn injury during pregnancy is very dangerous for both mother and foetus. Maternal and foetal outcome depends on the mother's total body surface area (TBSA) burned. In women with more than 50% TBSA burned, foetal and maternal complications are considerable. Our study ...
Lübbe Andrea Nicola - - 2006
The ongoing interest in very efficient systems for the imitation of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase reactions, consisting of metalloporphyrin and oxygen donor, prompted us to develop a method to compare the catalytic activity of soluble metalloporphyrins with those which have been immobilised on different silica surfaces. In this article, we describe ...
Holness Mark J - - 2006
We evaluated the impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha activation and dexamethasone treatment on islet adaptations to the distinct metabolic challenges of fasting and pregnancy, situations where lipid handling is modified to conserve glucose. PPARalpha activation (24 h) in vivo did not affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in nonpregnant female ...
Uematsu H - - 2006
Slackia exigua ATCC 700122(T) and Cryptobacterium curtum ATCC 700683(T) were our isolates from infected root canal and human periodontal pocket, respectively; they are asaccharolytic anaerobic gram-positive rods, which are predominant in the oral cavity. They utilize arginine, so our aim was to investigate the pathway of arginine degradation. Metabolic end ...
van de Geijn F E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with changes in the immune system. Although previous studies have focussed mainly on adaptive immunity, there are indications that components of innate immunity, such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL), are associated with pregnancy outcome. Although this would suggest that pregnancy also involves adaptations in innate immunity, there ...
Oken Emily E Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. - - 2006
To investigate associations of physical activity and television viewing before and during pregnancy with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and abnormal glucose tolerance, the combination of GDM with less severe impaired glucose tolerance. We assessed duration and intensity of physical activity and time spent viewing television both before and ...
Wang Youxue - - 2006
Fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion are vital functions of the pancreatic duct and other secretory epithelia. CFTR and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity at the luminal membrane are required for these functions. The molecular identity of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchangers and their relationship with CFTR in determining fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion are not known. ...
Kil Jonathan - - 2007
Previous studies indicate that noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) involves a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and a subsequent loss of outer hair cells (OHC). However, the cellular localization of this GPx decrease and the link to OHC loss are still poorly understood. In this report, we examined the ...
Schmidt Michael D - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Participation in physical activity during pregnancy may reduce the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia and help prevent excess maternal weight gain. However, studies describing patterns and correlates of activity during pregnancy are sparse. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe total physical activity (household/caregiving, occupational, ...
Manjunatha Ujjini H - - 2006
Leprosy responds very slowly to the current multidrug therapy, and hence there is a need for novel drugs with potent bactericidal activity. PA-824 is a 4-nitroimidazo-oxazine that is currently undergoing phase I clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis. The activity of PA-824 against Mycobacterium leprae was tested and compared ...
Wang Xueyong - - 2006
It has been shown previously in a number of systems that after an extended block of activity, synaptic strength is increased. We found that an extended block of synaptic activity at the mouse neuromuscular junction, using a tetrodotoxin cuff in vivo, increased synaptic strength by prolonging the evoked endplate current ...
Magnusson-Olsson A L - - 2006
The fetal demand for FFA increases as gestation proceeds, and LPL represents one potential mechanism for increasing placental lipid transport. We examined LPL activity and protein expression in first trimester and term human placenta. The LPL activity was 3-fold higher in term (n = 7; P < 0.05) compared with ...
Sakurada Koichi - - 2006
Pralidoxime iodide (2-PAM), an antidote approved for the reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in organophosphate poisoning, dose-dependently hydrolyzed an acetylthiocholine iodide (ASCh). The AChE (0.3 U) activity inhibited by VX analog (ENMP, 0.1 microM) increased to approximately 200% of normal levels after a dosage of 5 mM 2-PAM (control 0.132+/-0.012 ...
McEvoy S P - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the prevalence and effects of distracting activities while driving. DESIGN: Cross sectional driver survey. SETTING: New South Wales and Western Australia, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 1347 licensed drivers aged between 18 and 65 years. Data were weighted to reflect the corresponding driving population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of distracting ...
Biri Aydan - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Miscarriage (early pregnancy failure) is a pregnancy-related disease, the pathophysiology of which is still not completely understood. Lipid peroxidation and alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities may be of importance in the pathogenesis of this disorder. This study was planned to investigate the possible relation between free radical scavenging enzyme ...
Derbyshire Emma - - 2006
Few studies appear to have investigated the prevalence of constipation for all three trimesters of the gestative period, or indeed after birth. Using a prospective 4- to 7-day weighed food diary, International Physical Activity Questionnaire and 7-day bowel habit diary, dietary factors, physical activity levels and bowel habit parameters were ...
Nash James A - - 2006
Lysozyme is an abundant, cationic antimicrobial protein that plays an important role in pulmonary host defense. Increased concentration of lysozyme in the airspaces of transgenic mice enhanced bacterial killing whereas lysozyme deficiency resulted in increased bacterial burden and morbidity. Lysozyme degrades peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall leading to rapid ...
Yamada Kazuhiro - - 2006
Sustained activity of mammalian methionine synthase (MS) requires MS reductase (MSR), but there have been few studies of the interactions between these two proteins. In this study, recombinant human MS (hMS) and MSR (hMSR) were expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells and purified to homogeneity. hMSR maintained hMS activity at a ...
Kindzelskii Andrei L - - 2006
Pregnancy is a unique immunological state. Pregnancy neutrophils differ from those of non-pregnant women as they cannot be fully activated for oxidant production, but yet have higher levels of unstimulated oxidant production. Although reduced activation is due to decreased hexose monophosphate shunt activity, the mechanism enhancing basal oxidant levels is ...
Freeman David A - - 2006
The role of the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus (IGL) in photoperiod responsiveness was examined in a laboratory-selected line of photoperiod nonresponsive (NR) Siberian hamsters. NR hamsters fail to exhibit typical winter-type responses (i.e., gonadal regression and development of winter-type pelage) when exposed to short day lengths (e.g., 10 h ...
al Kandari Hessa - - 2006
CONTEXT: The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnanalone in the first step of steroidogenic pathways. Defective enzyme activity leads to the deficiency of all steroid hormones, including progesterone, which is essential to sustain term pregnancy. RESULTS: We report a homozygous point mutation in the CYP11A1 ...
Zaga-Clavellina Verónica - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the secretions of zymogen and active forms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 and their specific inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 by fetal membranes stimulated with group B Streptoccocci (GBS). METHODS: We used an in vitro experimental model that allowed us to estimate the individual contribution of ...
Coolman Marianne - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Haemostasis is a complex balance of activating and inhibitory pathways resulting in coagulation and lysis. Normal pregnancy is associated with hypercoagulation that is even more profound in complicated pregnancies. OBJECTIVE: To study the role of the plasminogen-activator system in complicated pregnancy with regard to haemostasis, it is essential to ...
Mo Qianxing - - 2006
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a multi-functional steroid that has been implicated in a broad range of biological effects in humans and rodents. Recent studies demonstrated that DHEA acts genomically through the androgen receptor (AR) in addition to its well-known effects on cell surface receptors. However, the relative contribution of DHEA and ...
Sarkar Mohan - - 2006
UDP-GlcNAc:alpha3-D-mannoside beta1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (encoded by Mgat1) controls the synthesis of hybrid, complex, and paucimannose N-glycans. Mice make hybrid and complex N-glycans but little or no paucimannose N-glycans. In contrast, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans make paucimannose N-glycans but little or no hybrid or complex N-glycans. To determine the functional requirement ...
Rousham E K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Research on the impact of maternal physical activity on pregnancy outcomes has often employed subjective measures of physical activity obtained by diary or questionnaire. This study investigates the feasibility of using accelerometry as an objective measure of physical activity of pregnant women compared with subjective data obtained via activity ...
Glueck Charles J - - 2006
We assessed whether hypofibrinolytic plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 activity) showed an independent association with first-trimester miscarriage in the 430 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who had previous pregnancies (from a cohort of 967 women with PCOS). Prospectively, we hypothesized that Glucophage (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ) promotes successful live ...
Huang Ji-Biao - - 2006
To better understand the mechanisms of metabolic microcompartmentalization associated with neutrophil hexose monophosphate shunt activity during pregnancy, we have studied the intracellular trafficking of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDase). Microtubule motor proteins colocalize with G6PDase. Dynein inhibitors block G6PDase accumulation at the microtubule-organizing center in pregnancy cells. On this basis, we conclude ...
Guo Yuanqiang - - 2006
Three novel three-membered ring sesquiterpenoids, named kissoone A (1), kissoone B (2), and its acetylated product, kissoone C (3), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana fauriei. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 2 and 3 showed enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite ...
Williams James M - - 2006
The present study tests the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia enhances reactivity to nitric oxide (NO) through age-dependent increases in soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and protein kinase G (PKG) activity. In term fetal and adult ovine carotids, chronic hypoxia had no significant effect on mRNA levels for the beta1-subunit of sGC, ...
Jones Gavin O - - 2006
The activation enthalpies for the reactions of cyclopentadiene with ethylene, acrylonitrile, fumaronitrile, maleonitrile, vinylidene cyanide, tricyanoethylene, and tetracyanoethylene have been computed with the Hartree-Fock quantum mechanical method and a variety of density functionals (B3LYP, BPW91, and MPW1K) and compared to classic experimental data obtained by Sauer, Wiest, and Mielert (Chem. ...
Lof Marie - - 2006
Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late ...
Ganjam V K - - 2006
Endometrial periglandular fibrosis (EPF) contributes to embryonic and fetal loss in mares. Equine EPF correlates inversely with conception and successful gestation. In the modified Kenney endometrial biopsy classification system, EPF categories I, IIA, IIB, and III correspond to minimal, mild, moderate, and severe fibrosis (+/-inflammation), respectively. Paraffin sections of biopsy ...
Schmidt Michael D - - 2006
PURPOSE: Participation in physical activity during pregnancy may reduce the risk of maternal and fetal disorders. However, few studies have validated physical activity questionnaires for use during pregnancy, a time characterized by different patterns of activity than nonpregnancy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the validity and ...
Satomura A - - 2006
A patient suffering from severe haemophilia B with factor IX inhibitor developed steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. As a result of switching to activated anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (activated prothrombin complex concentrate) agent, FEIBA, bleeding was controlled and internal shunt placement was successful, leading to control of bleeding during extracorporeal ultrafiltration (ECU) therapy. ...
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