Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1193
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Vlachos Dimitrios G - - 2008
Free radical production and high catecholamine levels are implicated with the modulation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the mode of delivery on maternal-neonatal erythrocyte membrane AChE activity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Some women with normal pregnancy (N = 30) were divided into two groups: group A ...
Nielsen Dennis S - - 2008
Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste and flavour, and has to be fermented, dried and roasted in order to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. During the fermentation microbial activity outside the cocoa beans induces biochemical and physical changes inside the beans. The process is complex involving activity ...
Wu X - - 2008
The smooth muscle of the uterus during pregnancy presents a unique circumstance of physiological mechanotransduction as the tissue remodels in response to stretches imposed by the growing foetus(es), yet the nature of the molecular and functional adaptations remain unresolved. We studied, in myometrium isolated from non-pregnant (NP) and pregnant mice, ...
Adjei Araba A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen (APAP) use in early pregnancy has been associated with the risk of gastroschisis, a rare but serious congenital defect of the abdominal wall. The purpose of this study was to characterize the variability of APAP sulfation in a panel of human fetal livers and to identify the sulfotransferases ...
Girardi Guillermina - - 2008
Appropriate complement inhibition is an absolute requirement for normal pregancy. Uncontrolled complement activation in the maternal-fetal interface leads to fetal death. Here we show that complement activation is a crucial and early mediator of pregnancy loss in two different mouse models of pregnancy loss. Using a mouse model of fetal ...
Matsubayashi Hidehiko - - 2008
PROBLEM: A decrease in factor XII (FXII) activity has been observed in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. Because of the many similarities between recurrent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) failure and early pregnancy loss patients, we investigated whether women with recurrent IVF-ET failure had low FXII activity. METHOD OF STUDY: ...
Hebert M F - - 2008
The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of pregnancy on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activities, as measured by disposition of midazolam and digoxin, respectively. Thirteen women received digoxin (0.25 mg p.o.) and midazolam (2 mg p.o.) in random order, separated by 1-2 weeks at 28-32 weeks gestation, ...
Dickmann Leslie J - - 2008
During human pregnancy, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 activities are altered. The aim of the current study was to determine if this phenomenon can be replicated in the rat, and to evaluate the mechanisms that contribute to the changes in Cyp2c and Cyp2d activity during pregnancy. The intrinsic clearance of dextromethorphan ...
Rosenkranz Andrea - - 2008
Pregnancy is associated with substantial changes in the haemostatic system and a six-fold higher incidence of venous thromboembolism. Conventional global tests, such as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, do not definitely detect this hypercoagulable condition. We investigated whether the changes in haemostatic system during pregnancy are reflected in ...
Kwon Bowon - - 2008
Benzylideneacetone (BZA) is a metabolite of gram-negative entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, and it acts as an enzyme inhibitor against phospholipase A2 (PLA2). PLA2 catalyzes a committed biosynthetic step of eicosanoids, which mediate insect immune reactions to infection by microbial pathogens. This study tested a hypothesis that a putative immunosuppressive activity ...
Hutton Lisa C - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether uteroplacental delivery of endotoxin produces fetal systemic and central nervous system reactions that are suggestive of inflammation. STUDY DESIGN: Lipopolysaccharide (30 or 60 microg) was administered into the uterine artery of late gestation (135 +/- 0.3 days) pregnant sheep. Fetal ...
Girardi Guillermina - - 2008
The paternal antigens presented by the fetus could be considered foreign by the mother's immune system and elicit an immune response. Here we show that the complement system functions as an effector in fetal rejection in two different mouse models of pregnancy loss. In a mouse model of fetal loss ...
Sonneck K - - 2008
IgE-dependent activation of basophils is associated with upregulation of several surface molecules. We recently identified the surface enzyme aminopeptidase N (CD13) as a novel activation antigen on human basophils. In the present study, we asked whether CD13 can be employed as a novel marker of allergen-induced activation of basophils in ...
Hojo Satoshi - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Protein S (PS) activity has been shown to decrease during normal pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine any correlation between decreased maternal PS activity and fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study of maternal PS activity and complement 4b-binding protein (C4BP) concentration ...
Schlüssel Michael Maia - - 2008
A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the effects of physical activity during pregnancy on selected maternal-child health outcomes. The search included articles published from 1980 to 2005 in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases using key words such as physical activity, physical exercise, pregnancy, and gestation. The methodological quality ...
Speranzini L B M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Progesterone, estrogen and the hormonal complex of pregnancy have been responsible for some degree of colon hypomotility in human pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To find out if estrogen, progesterone and the hormonal complex of pregnancy decrease colon myoelectric activity. METHODS: The study was performed in 37 healthy female rats in which ...
Shen Y - - 2008
Flos Magnoliae (FM, Chinese name: Xin-yi) is one of the most commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. It has a long history of clinical use for managing rhinitis, sinusitis and headache. More than 20 different FM species have been used clinically, which makes species identification and evaluation of pharmacological effects of ...
Nishizawa Yoshiki - - 2008
Among the isotypes of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), only type 5b (TRACP-5b) is derived from osteoclasts, and it is necessary to develop an assay specific for this TRACP-5b for evaluation of osteoclastic activity. Recently, a novel assay system for TRACP-5b called the fragments absorbed immunocapture enzymatic assay (FAICEA) has ...
Sanders Sarah G - - 2008
Over the past few years the benefits of exercise during pregnancy have become appreciated. Much attention has been given to common forms of exercise, such as aerobic dance, swimming, cycling and running. The effects of professional and recreational dance during pregnancy, such as ballet or flamenco, for example, have not ...
Matthiessen Jeppe - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare the Danish Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) estimating physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and physical activity level (PAL) and the pattern of physical activity (including health-related physical activity) with measurements from a validated position and motion instrument (ActiReg). METHODS: One hundred and thirty-eight healthy Danish volunteers aged 20-59 ...
Zhang Wenli - - 2008
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is an essential precursor of peptidoglycan and the rhamnose-GlcNAc linker region of mycobacterial cell wall. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv genome, Rv1018c shows strong homology to the GlmU protein involved in the formation of UDP-GlcNAc from other bacteria. GlmU is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes two sequential steps in ...
Habte Habtom H - - 2008
The female reproductive tract is amongst the main routes for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission. Cervical mucus however is known to protect the female reproductive tract from bacterial invasion and fluid loss and regulates and facilitates sperm transport to the upper reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to ...
de Andrade Camila Marques - - 2007
Clinical observation shows pregnant women under antiretroviral therapy present bleeding episodes at delivery, although this therapy promotes a decrease in fibrinolysis in nonpregnant patients, suggesting a prothrombotic state in the former. Since these drugs provoke hepatic disorders, they can cause bleeding disturbances. We investigated effects of antiretroviral therapy on hemostasis ...
Zanchi Jaksa - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Impaired activity of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) has been suggested as a risk factor in cataractogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the G6PD activity level in 89 male subjects of Dalmatian origin with idiopathic presenile cataracts. METHODS: G6PD activity was determined by a quantitative spectrophotometric ...
Scher Mark S - - 2007
Two maternal-fetal case presentations illustrate the possible association of active maternal ulcerative colitis during pregnancy and fetal brain injury resulting in long-term neurological sequelae. Thromboembolic complications may occur in the fetus based on similar mechanisms for stroke in children and adults with active inflammatory bowel disease. Identification of thrombophilia in ...
Ozeki K - - 2008
This study describes the adsorptive property of vitamins on HA and the effect of the HA adsorbed vitamin on the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity for effective use as a bone graft substitute. The vitamins used were calciferol (D3), menaquirone (K2) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3). These vitamins were adsorbed on HA at ...
Mahieu Boris - - 2007
Influence of changes in levels of coagulation factors and anticoagulants on acquired activated protein C (APC) resistance were studied in 40 healthy women during normal pregnancy. Factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), free protein S (FPS) and protein C were determined at 5-13, 14-26 and 27-40 weeks gestation ...
Pumbwe Lilian - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential of active compounds (ACs) present in commonly used analgesics/antiseptics and cleaning agents (detergents and disinfectants) to induce multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) in Bacteroides fragilis. METHODS: B. fragilis ATCC 25285 untreated or pretreated with sublethal concentrations of ACs (n = 25) was grown for 12 h. ...
Greene Wendy - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Trauma complicates 6% to 7% of all pregnancies. Adverse outcomes are rare when monitoring is normal and early warning signs absent. Trauma systems often use pregnancy as the sole criterion (PSC) for partial trauma team activation. This study compares outcomes of pregnant patients presenting with PSC versus other physiologic, ...
Watson Patricia E - - 2007
Activity during pregnancy has health implications for mother and child. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine changes in activity levels during pregnancy; the influence of socioeconomic factors and well-being on activity, and the influence of activity on maternal anthropometric measures and birth outcome. Twenty-four hour activity ...
Kayedi M H - - 2007
The present study evaluated the efficacy and wash resistance of three types of commercial, deltamethrin-treated nets (PermaNet, Yorkool and A-Z nets) - that their manufacturers claimed to be long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) - and those of nets conventionally treated with deltamethrin, at either 23-27 mg/m(2) (using one K-O Tab tablet/net) ...
Perales Mariano - - 2007
Circadian clocks rhythmically coordinate biological processes in resonance with the environmental cycle. The clock function relies on negative feedback loops that generate 24-h rhythms in multiple outputs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the clock component TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) integrates the environmental information to coordinate circadian responses. Here, we use chromatin ...
Feys Hendrik B - - 2007
The plasma metalloprotease ADAMTS13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 motif 13) cleaves prothrombotic ultralarge multimers of the platelet-adhesive protein von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) into less active multimers that promote haemostasis in injured blood vessels. When the enzyme is dysfunctional or undetectable, circulating ULVWF may cause massive intravascular ...
Sims Steven R - - 2007
Sixteen linear ethoxylated alcohol surfactants (AEOs) were studied to determine their contact insecticidal activity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Within groups of AEOs of equal carbon chain length, insecticidal activity, measured as LT50 values (in minutes) and 24-h mortality after treatment, was inversely related to the ...
Javitt Norman B - - 2007
Recent findings extend the biologic activities of oxysterols as ligands for nuclear receptors to a role in morphogenesis during fetal development and to a role in the metabolism of photooxidation products of cholesterol in the retina. A 1000-fold increase of the 27-hydroxy metabolite of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the plasma of children ...
Kiss Emese - - 2007
Excessive lipid peroxidation is a major factor of accelerated atherosclerosis, observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed at the present study to determine the paraoxonasel (PON1) and arylesterase activities, and lipid-profile in 37 SLE patients and 30 age-/sex-matched controls. Association was analyzed between PON1 activity and SLEDAI, ...
Kurasawa Gotaro - - 2007
We investigated the serial changes in blood protein S (PS) and related proteins in 11 normal pregnant women. The PS activity decreased significantly in the third trimester and reached minimum levels (23.3%) one hour after delivery. Although the PS activity was reduced markedly below the normal limits, all the women ...
Taggart Michael J - - 2007
Parturition at term, the end stage of a successful pregnancy, occurs as a result of powerful, co-ordinated and periodic contractions of uterine smooth muscle (myometrium). To occur in a propitious manner, a high degree of control over the activation of a myometrial cell is required. We review the molecular mechanisms ...
Domingues Marlos Rodrigues - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity during pregnancy is a poorly investigated subject on population level. The study aimed to describe duration, type and frequency of leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy, and to explore its associated factors. METHODS: A population-based study was carried out during 2004 in Southern Brazil. A total of 4,471 ...
Pereira Mark A - - 2007
Few studies document longitudinal changes in physical activity from prepregnancy to the postpartum period. This study estimated change in self-reported leisure-time physical activity in 1442 women before pregnancy, during the second trimester, and at 6 months postpartum. In addition, it also examined predictors of becoming insufficiently active during or after ...
Gyrup Claus - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Maternal serum concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, pappalysin-1, EC 3.4.24.79) are used to predict the occurrence of Down syndrome. In pregnancy, PAPP-A primarily circulates as a covalent 2:2 complex with the proform of eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP), which inhibits the proteolytic activity of PAPP-A. At term, however, ...
Afzal-Ahmed Iram - - 2007
Inactivation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) may contribute to vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. We have compared the susceptibility of erythrocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to oxidative stress in women with normotensive or preeclamptic pregnancies. The redox ...
Chasan-Taber Lisa - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: National data indicate that Latina women are less active than non-Latina white women and are at higher risk of gestational diabetes and subsequent type 2 diabetes. Physical activity may reduce risk of maternal disorders of pregnancy, but sparse data exists on the correlates of physical activity in pregnant Latina ...
Abdul Sattar Munavvar - - 2007
Traditionally Plumbago rosea L. is used as an abortifacient in the Southeast Asian region. Methanolic root extract of a local species of Plumbago rosea L. was studied to evaluate its traditional antifertility claim. Interestingly, it was found to possess dose related inhibitory effect on uterine contractile responses elicited by oxytocic ...
Andronowska Aneta - - 2007
Nitric oxide plays a key role in the regulation of various female reproductive processes such as ovulation, implantation and myometrial relaxation. The aim of the present study was to determine the histochemical activity and cellular localization of NADPH-d in the porcine uterus during early pregnancy, including the implantation period. Tissue ...
Chasan-Taber Lisa - - 2007
In 2002, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists revised their 1994 guidelines to recommend that pregnant women without medical or obstetric complications follow exercise guidelines for nonpregnant women. In spite of these guidelines, the optimal dose of recreational physical activity (i.e., total volume of energy expenditure, and specific frequency, ...
Matsuo H - - 2007
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To elucidate the sequential changes of autonomic nervous activity during pregnancy, we examined heart rate variability on two positions and whether autonomic nervous activity affected duration of labor. METHODS: Thirty-eight normal pregnant women were studied. Frequency domain parameters (HF, LF, LF/HF ratio) and heart rate were obtained ...
San Juan Dertkigil Marcia - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To evaluate changes in the amniotic fluid index (AFI) in low-risk pregnant women before and after physical activity in water. METHODS: This was a prospective trial with a before-after approach. Women carried out moderate physical activity for 50 min, 3 times a week, while partially immersed in a swimming ...
Perkins Cooker C D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the separate and combined relationships of aerobic physical activity during pregnancy, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, and height to the fetal growth ratio. METHODS: The aerobic physical activity of 51 healthy, nonsmoking pregnant women was assessed for 48 hours at both 20 and 32 weeks of pregnancy ...
Dwarkanath Pratibha - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Earlier studies in India have demonstrated an inverse relationship between physical activity and birth weight in rural women who had high levels of physical activity related to agricultural and domestic activities. There are no data on urban Indian women from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds with varying levels ...
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