Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1260
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Claessens Adam J - - 2010
Clonidine is a centrally acting, alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used for the treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. The metabolic pathways of clonidine are poorly understood, and the quantitative contribution of specific human cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms has not been systematically assessed. In this study, 17 cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes, in addition to ...
Haakstad Lene A H - - 2010
Most pregnancy-studies have relied on retrospective, cross-sectional surveys to measure physical activity level. Questionnaires are cost-effective, but validity of the data may be questionable. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to validate a physical activity and pregnancy questionnaire (PAPQ) with a portable activity monitor (ActiReg). DESIGN: Prospective comparison ...
Korsten-Reck U - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is an important component of a health pregnancy. Being physically active during pregnancy often creates uncertainty and leads to numerous questions: How much and which kind of sports is possible? In pregnant woman a lot of physiological changes are taking place in haemodynamics, in the respiratory ...
Brooks Virginia L - - 2010
The purpose of this review is to delineate the general features of endocrine regulation of the baroreceptor reflex, as well as specific contributions during pregnancy. In contrast to the programmed changes in baroreflex function that occur in situations initiated by central command (e.g., exercise or stress), the complex endocrine milieu ...
O'Sullivan Michael D - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The possibility exists that the vehicle for 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, castor oil, exerts an effect on human uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on contractility of myometrial preparations that were obtained during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Myometrial strips were suspended under isometric conditions. Contractility was ...
Sherwal Vinita - - 2010
Ever since ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) was recognized as a clinical entity, various treatment modalities have been tried to prevent its occurrence and reduce its severity. Many recent studies have evaluated the role of dopamine agonists in reducing the incidence of OHSS. To assess the effectiveness of dopamine agonist bromocriptine ...
Al-Gubory Kaïs H - - 2010
Placental oxidative stress has been suggested as a key factor in early pregnancy failure. Abnormal placental development limits success in pregnancies obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, an index of oxidative stress, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were determined in ...
Rutges J P H J - - 2010
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate connective tissue architecture and cell migration through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and are associated with both physiological and pathological processes. Although they are known to play a role in skeletal development, little is known about the role of MMPs in intervertebral disc (IVD) development. Sixteen fetal ...
Gielchinsky Yuval - - 2010
Regenerative capacity is progressively lost with age. Here we show that pregnancy markedly improved liver regeneration in aged mice concomitantly with inducing a switch from proliferation-based liver regeneration to a regenerative process mediated by cell growth. We found that the key mediator of this switch was the Akt/mTORC1 pathway; its ...
Payakachat Nalin N Division of a Pharmaceutical Evaluation and Policy, Department of Pharmacy Practice. College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences . Little Rock, AR ( United States - - 2010
This study aimed to determine if nonprescription emergency contraception (EC) availability impacted self-reported unintended pregnancy rates and to assess women's knowledge and awareness of EC prior to and after nonprescription availability. A survey regarding contraception use and knowledge was verbally administered to a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 272 pregnant women ...
Derzsy Zolt?n - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of the complement system in normal human pregnancy and preeclampsia in a comprehensive manner, measuring circulating levels of complement proteins, their activation fragments and regulatory factors, as well as those of C-reactive protein (CRP). Sixty preeclamptic patients, 60 healthy pregnant ...
Said Joanne M - - 2010
Protein S, protein C and antithrombin are important regulators of coagulation. While deficiencies of these proteins have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes, testing for these deficiencies during pregnancy is limited by the use of non-pregnant reference ranges and a limited understanding of the changes that occur during pregnancy. Although ...
Szecsi Pal B - - 2010
Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight ...
Tobin V A VA Centre for Integrative Physiology, The College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9, - - 2010
Oxytocin neurone activation at birth depends upon noradrenaline-mediated signals from the uterus via a brainstem pathway, as well as on factors within the supraoptic nucleus (SON), including oxytocin itself, and the system adapts during pregnancy to optimise the delivery process. We determined whether noradrenaline release in the SON in response ...
Evenson Kelly R - - 2010
Accurate measurement of the components of physical activity during pregnancy can aid in our understanding of the dose response relationships between physical activity and corresponding perinatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a one-week recall questionnaire to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity during pregnancy. ...
Hegaard Hanne K - - 2010
BACKGROUND: National guidelines recommend that healthy pregnant women take 30 minutes or more of moderate exercise a day. Most women reduce the level of physical activity during pregnancy but only a few studies of women's experiences of physical activity during pregnancy exist. The aim of the present study was to ...
Ross Jason W - - 2010
Establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in the pig involves intricate communication between the developing conceptuses and the maternal endometrium. This process occurs during trophoblast elongation which is spaciotemporally associated with conceptus synthesis and release of IL1B concomitant with pregnancy-specific endometrial up-regulation of IL-1 receptors, providing the potential for activation of ...
Lain Samantha J - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Research into the effects of common activities during pregnancy is sparse and often contradictory. To examine whether common activities are an acute trigger of pregnancy complications the prevalence of these activities are necessary to determine sample size estimates. The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of ...
Bohács Anikó - - 2010
PROBLEM: Pregnancy-associated immunologic alterations may improve the course of asthma. Severe maternal asthma with an exacerbation impairs fetal growth. METHOD OF STUDY: Lymphocyte activation was estimated by flow cytometry analysis of surface markers in non-pregnant healthy and mild or moderate persistent asthmatic women and healthy as well as mild or ...
Weir Zoe - - 2010
Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The qualitative study described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the views and experiences of overweight ...
Polyzos Nikolaos P - - 2010
To examine whether treatment of periodontal disease with scaling and root planing during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in the preterm birth rate. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Central Trials Registry, ISI Web of Science, Medline, and reference lists of relevant studies to July 2010; ...
Melzer Katarina - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the relation between recommended levels of physical activity during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted an observational study with energy expenditure, aerobic fitness, and sleeping heart rate measured in 44 healthy women in late pregnancy. Medical records were examined for pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: ...
Chung F S - - 2010
Changes in tissue P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity during pregnancy could affect the pharmacokinetics and thus the efficacy and toxicity of many drugs. Therefore, using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, we tested whether gestational age affects tissue P-gp activity in the pregnant non-human primate, Macaca nemestrina. Mid-gestational (day 75 +/- 13, n= ...
Str?m Marin - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum depression (PPD) in a large, prospective cohort. METHOD: Exposure information from the Danish National Birth Cohort, a large, prospective cohort with information on more than 100,000 pregnancies (1996-2002), was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the ...
Rizzo A - - 2009
Rosiglitazone is a drug used in human medicine for treating type II diabetes mellitus. It activates Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptors gamma (PPAR-gamma), which regulate energetic metabolism. We aimed to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on bovine myometrial contractility in vitro. Myometrial strips were collected from uteri of cows in estrus, diestrus, ...
Steinborn Andrea - - 2010
Little information exists concerning the role of fetal regulatory T cells (Tregs) during intrauterine development. We examined whether complications such as reduced birth weight or the occurrence of preterm labor were associated with deficiencies in the number or in the immunosuppressive activity of Tregs in the fetal circulation. Their total ...
Connor Kristin L - - 2009
Periconceptional undernutrition (UN) in sheep accelerates fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, resulting in preterm birth. In contrast, twin conception suppresses fetal HPA function and delays prepartum HPA activation. We hypothesized that these dissimilar effects on fetal HPA activity result from different influences of maternal glucocorticoid (GC) on maturation of the ...
Abdelouahab Nadia - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Environmental prenatal exposure to potentially neurotoxic metals poses a particular challenge with regard to the study of early toxic effects. Monoamine oxidase activity, shown to be influenced by metals in experimental studies, could be a useful biomarker in humans. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between blood metal concentrations at ...
DiPietro Janet A JA Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2009
The contemporaneous association between maternal salivary cortisol and fetal motor activity was examined at 32 and 36 weeks gestation. Higher maternal cortisol was positively associated with the amplitude of fetal motor activity at 32 weeks, r(48) = .39, p < .01, and 36 weeks, r(77) = .27, p < .05, ...
Jensen Ellen C - - 2009
The efferent mechanisms mediating the well-known diurnal cardiovascular rhythms in the late-gestation fetus are only partially understood. In the present study, we evaluated the contribution of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems (SNS) to these rhythms. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at a mean (SE) of 122 (1) days gestation (term ...
Harizopoulou Vicentia C - - 2010
The aim of this study was to assess whether the levels of physical activity before and during early pregnancy are associated with the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study group included 160 puerperas. Among them, 40 (25%) diagnosed as having GDM during their recent pregnancy, whereas the remaining ...
Horv??th E M - - 2009
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increased oxidative-nitrosative stress, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and subsequent cellular damage play important roles in the complications of both diabetes mellitus and pregnancy. Our aim was to investigate nitrative stress and PARP activity levels during normal and gestational diabetic (GDM) pregnancy in both maternal and fetal tissues. METHODS: Blood ...
Thaxton Jessica E - - 2009
Pregnancy outcome is severely compromised by intrauterine infections and inflammation. Although the pregnant uterine microenvironment is replete with innate immune cells and TLR expression, the mechanisms that facilitate adverse effects of their activation are largely unknown. In this study, we mimic the activation of TLR9 with its pathogenic ligand hypomethylated ...
Melzer K - - 2009
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To measure resting metabolic rate (RMR), activity energy expenditure (AEE), total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity pattern, that is, duration and intensity (in metabolic equivalents, METs) of activities performed in late pregnancy compared with postpartum in healthy, well-nourished women living in Switzerland. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Weight, height, RMR, AEE, TEE ...
Mokhtari Mojgan - - 2010
PURPOSE: To our knowledge, there is no report regarding adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of serum ADA activity in normal pregnancy, GDM and normal non-pregnant women. METHODS: The serum catalytic concentration of ADA was measured ...
Rosenfeld Charles R - - 2009
Regulation of uteroplacental blood flow (UPBF) during pregnancy remains unclear. Large conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK(Ca)), consisting of alpha- and regulatory beta-subunits, are expressed in uterine vascular smooth muscle (UVSM) and contribute to the maintenance of UPBF in the last third of ovine pregnancy, but their expression pattern and activation ...
Katafigioti Amalia A Department of Anesthesiology, Aretaieion Hospital, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, - - 2009
Pregnancy is associated with reduced local anesthetic requirements and increased pain thresholds, possibly due to hormonal changes and activation of endogenous opioids. We compared the responses to a mechanical and an electrical stimulus in 30 pregnant women (pregnant group) scheduled for cesarean section and 30 healthy female volunteers (control group) ...
Zhang Huixia - - 2009
Plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors are lower in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women or men. Using nelfinavir as a model protease inhibitor, we have shown that this phenomenon can be reproduced in a representative non-human primate model, Macaca nemestrina (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329:1016-1022, 2009). Nelfinavir is cleared from ...
Whitworth Kristin M - - 2009
The following experiments compared the efficiency of three fusion/activation protocols following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with porcine somatic cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the chicken beta-actin/rabbit beta-globin hybrid promoter (pCAGG-EGFP). The three protocols included electrical fusion/activation (NT1), electrical fusion/activation followed by treatment with a reversible ...
Tokumura A - - 2009
Altered lipid metabolism is associated with human abnormal pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia and preterm labor, and potentially leads to fetus loss. A causative factor for the onset and progress of the systemic multifactorial syndromes associated with the pathological pregnancy is oxidized low-density lipoprotein, an active identity of which was postulated ...
Govaert B - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a treatment for consecutive therapy resistant faecal incontinence or constipation. Little is known about the effects of SNS on uterocervical function. Therefore, it is advised to turn off the stimulator during pregnancy or to wait with permanent implantation of the stimulator until family completion. ...
Toy H - - 2009
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an HDL-bound enzyme system which plays a key role in the protection of LDL and HDL from oxidation by hydrolysing activated phospholipids and lipid peroxide products. Oxidative stress has been involved in the pathogenesis of many complications of human pregnancy, including early pregnancy failure (EPF), preeclampsia and ...
Tchaikovski S N - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy, oral contraceptive (OC)use and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are established risk factors for venous thrombosis. Acquired resistance to activated protein C (APC) has been proposed to contribute to the increased thrombosis risk. Mouse models are often used for preclinical testing of newly developed hormone preparations. However, it is ...
Nielsen L Ringholm - - 2009
AIMS: To investigate whether increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia in early pregnancy is related to pregnancy-induced changes in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). METHODS: Severe hypoglycaemic events the year preceding pregnancy were recorded retrospectively in 107 consecutive pregnant women with T1DM. Events during pregnancy ...
Pretorius Etheresia - - 2009
In normal pregnancy there is an increase in procoagulant activity. Furthermore, the fibrinolytic activity is impaired and remains low during labor and delivery, but returns rapidly to normal, following delivery. Here, we show ultrastructural changes in fibrin networks found in pregnant individuals and nonpregnant individuals. Typically thick, major fibers, and ...
Domingues Marlos Rodrigues - - 2009
Preterm birth is a major reason for infant mortality and morbidity, representing a public health concern worldwide. Regular and voluntary physical activity is healthy behaviour that should be incorporated by everyone, including pregnant women. On the other hand, some women are exposed to highly demanding occupational physical activities during pregnancy ...
Borodulin Katja K University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. - - 2009
Realizing the importance of regular physical activity, particularly in the prevention of chronic diseases and unhealthy weight gain, it is important to study how physical activity changes during and after pregnancy using prospective study designs. The aim of this study was to describe the mode, duration, intensity, and changes in ...
Sharkey Don - - 2009
Maternal diet during pregnancy can program an offspring's risk of disease in later life. Obesity adversely alters renal and adipose tissue function, resulting in chronic kidney disease and insulin resistance, respectively, the latter associated with dysregulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In view of the current obesity epidemic, we ...
Zhao Yong - - 2009
Chromatographic fractionation of the extract of Isodon henryi resulted in the isolation of seven new ENT-kaurane diterpenoids, named minheryins A-G (1-7), together with the six known ENT-kaurane diterpenoids leukamenin F (8), excisoidesin (9), leukamenin E (10), wangzaozin A (11), pseurata A (12), and racemosin A (13), which were elucidated by ...
Heesch Cheryl M CM Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. - - 2009
Pregnancy is characterized by elevated heart rate and decreased total peripheral resistance and arterial blood pressure. Plasma volume is expanded and plasma osmolality is decreased, yet vasopressin secretion in pregnant animals, including humans, is no different than levels in the nonpregnant state. Although reflex compensatory sympathoexcitation is suppressed, baseline sympathetic ...
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