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Reinhold K - - 2002
Using literature data on reciprocal crosses, I estimated the influence of maternal effects on morphological and behavioral traits and compared these effects between mammals, birds, insects with homogametic females, and butterflies. In birds and in both groups of insects, no detectable difference between the reciprocal hybrids was observed on average, ...
Dekker Gus - - 2002
The etiology of preeclampsia is often considered to be purely maternal, i.e. maternal constitutional factors that impair maternal cardiovascular/endothelial mechanisms normally required to cope with the specific pregnancy demands, being primarily a generalised inflammatory response and a hyperdynamic circulation. Recent data strongly indicate an important role for the male partner ...
Palinski Wulf - - 2002
It has long been postulated that pathogenic events during fetal development influence atherosclerosis-related diseases later in life, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. This review focuses on the evidence indicating that maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy is responsible for one cascade of pathogenic events. Maternal hypercholesterolemia is associated with greatly increased ...
Magee A C - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) can result in multiple congenital anomalies. In Northern Ireland, the prevalence of PKU is relatively high at 1 in 4000. OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of 39 pregnancies in 20 mothers. RESULTS: Dietary control was established before conception in 17 pregnancies (44%). Five mothers with hyperphenylalaninaemia ...
Jensen E C - - 2002
Exposure of the fetus to excess maternal glucocorticoids has been postulated to alter fetal growth and development, and thus provide a possible mechanism for the link between impaired fetal growth and altered postnatal physiology. However, the effects of exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids on fetal physiology and metabolism in utero ...
Roberts Joyce E - - 2002
Recognition that the available evidence does not support arbitrary time limits for the second stage of labor has led to reconsideration of the influence of maternal bearing down efforts on fetal/newborn status as well as on maternal pelvic structural integrity. The evidence that the duration of 'active' pushing is associated ...
Warland Jane - - 2002
This literature review highlights that research about the effect of maternal hypotension in pregnancy has either concentrated on an acute hypotensive episode, or looked at the influence of persistent maternal hypotension on fetal growth and/or premature birth. Whilst there is some German literature no published English study has specifically examined ...
Cho S - - 2001
The genetic mouse model BTBR-Pah(enu2) was used to more thoroughly investigate the pathogenesis of maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU). More specifically, it was used to examine the effect of maternal blood phenylalanine (PHE) level on the pregnancy outcome of MPKU offspring as determined by certain key measures of development at birth (i.e., ...
Lyerly A D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: We examined the attitudes of members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine regarding the clinical, scientific, ethical, and policy issues in maternal-fetal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A 43-question survey was distributed to all members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Two mailings and one electronic mail reminder were sent, each ...
Lyerly A D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Important clinical, social, and ethical questions are associated with the evaluation and use of surgical approaches aimed at correcting fetal anatomic abnormalities. In particular, the expansion of maternal-fetal surgery to ameliorate nonlethal fetal conditions has intensified the need to address issues about the adequacy of technology assessment and the ...
Slamberová R - - 2001
The present study tested the hypothesis that repeated administration of morphine on days 11-18 of pregnancy alters maternal behavior. Saline- and morphine-treated mothers were observed with their pups in two experiments. Rats were always tested twice a day during the light and dark phases of the reverse light/dark cycle. In ...
Lovic V - - 2001
Although there is considerable research on the phenomenology, neuroendocrinology, neuroanatomy, and sensory control of maternal behavior, little is known about the influences of early postnatal and postweaning experiences on the development of maternal behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess how early life separation from the mother rat ...
Tomkins A - - 2001
Nearly 600 000 women die every year from pregnancy related conditions and the maternal mortality rates (MMR = deaths per 100 000 live births) in developing countries may be as high as 1000 compared with less than ten in industrialised countries. In the light of the striking impact of deficiencies ...
Gressens P - - 2001
Foetal and neonatal brain is under the influence of environmental factors from maternal and extra-maternal origin. Based on the available data, these environmental factors can be classified into three arbitrary groups: (i) factors and maternal status with a demonstrated deleterious effect on the foetal brain (i.e. ethanol, cocaine, some drugs ...
- - 2001
Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic and may result in growth retardation, significant psychomotor handicaps, and birth defects in the offspring of unmonitored and untreated pregnancies. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninemia, should receive counseling concerning their risks for ...
Mann P E - - 2001
Biological factors can profoundly affect a mother's response to her young. For example, it is well known that the hormones of pregnancy act on the maternal brain to stimulate the spontaneous onset of maternal behavior at parturition. Studies in the rat have provided an excellent model to investigate maternal behavior ...
Brennan P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Studies indicate that maternal-fetal incompatibility of HLA-DR and DQ antigens may be associated with a decreased risk of disease activity during pregnancy in women with rheumatoid arthritis. We attempted to replicate these findings in a large cohort of women with inflammatory polyarthritis. METHODS: Women with an inflammatory polyarthritis were ...
Luck M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To review the findings of safe motherhood intervention studies conducted in African settings. DATA SOURCES: Published literature regarding interventions designed to reduce maternal mortality in African settings. STUDY SELECTION: Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the effects of interventions designed to reduce maternal mortality. DATA EXTRACTION: Search of ...
Thureen P J - - 2000
We tested the hypothesis that decreased fetal amino acid (AA) supply, produced by maternal hypoaminoacidemia (low AA) during hyperglycemia (HG), is reversible with maternal AA infusion and regulates fetal insulin concentration ([I]). We measured net uterine and umbilical AA uptakes during maternal HG/low AA concentration ([AA]) and after maternal intravenous ...
Sheard N F - - 2000
Diet has long been recognized as the primary treatment modality for individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) during infancy and childhood. Recent findings from the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study clearly indicate that dietary restriction of phenylalanine is also necessary to prevent the adverse effects of an elevated plasma phenylalanine concentration during pregnancy, ...
Hayde M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare paired antepartum fetal/maternal COHb ratios in whole blood from control and alloimmunized pregnancies and to examine the relationships between fetal and maternal COHb. METHODS: COHb levels were measured in paired fetal and maternal blood samples obtained at cordocentesis in 47 control and 16 Rh-alloimmunized pregnancies. COHb was ...
Ni X - - 2000
To determine a fetal variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) without using fetal tissues, we amplified the whole VNTR region in intron 40 of the von Willebrand factor gene from maternal peripheral blood by the polymerase chain reaction and then separated the amplified fragments by a nonhydratable polyacrylamide gel with ...
King J C - - 2000
Pregnancy consists of a series of small, continuous physiologic adjustments that affect the metabolism of all nutrients. The adjustments undoubtedly vary widely from woman to woman depending on her prepregnancy nutrition, genetic determinants of fetal size, and maternal lifestyle behavior. Studies of protein and energy metabolism illustrate the potential of ...
Fasouliotis S J - - 2000
Advances in prenatal care have brought about a greater understanding as to the special status of the fetus to the point that it is considered a patient in its own regard. Pregnant women generally follow the medical recommendations of their physicians that are intended for the benefit of their baby. ...
Waisbren S E - - 2000
CONTEXT: Untreated maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) increases risk for developmental problems in offspring. The extent to which this risk is reduced by maternal dietary therapy at various stages of pregnancy is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dietary treatment during pregnancy of women with PKU affects developmental outcomes of offspring. DESIGN: ...
Platt L D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report was to update the results of the Maternal Phenylketonuria Collaborative Study, which was established to assess the efficacy of a phenylalanine-restricted diet in preventing morbidity among the offspring of women with hyperphenylalaninemia. STUDY DESIGN: During a 12-year period 576 women with hyperphenylalaninemia were enrolled ...
Riemann M K - - 2000
Maternal training during pregnancy has been the subject for numerous investigations lately, which are presented in this survey. No studies in human beings have shown any negative effect of training on the embryogenesis. During physical training a small rise in foetal heart rate of 5-25 bpm is a common finding. ...
Kinsella S M - - 2000
We surveyed 99 maternity care professionals (obstetricians, midwives and anaesthetists in equal numbers) to assess their knowledge of potential treatments during acute intrapartum fetal hypoxia, including maternal oxygen administration. Knowledge of adult arterial oxygen saturation was satisfactory, but few of those surveyed gave a correct figure for fetal oxygenation in ...
Donohue K - - 1999
Maternal influences on progeny characters affect phenotypic correlations between characters expressed in maternal and progeny generations and consequently influence evolutionary responses to selection. Net selection on maternally influenced characters depends on selection both on the progeny character and on the maternal characters that influence it. I used seed dispersal in ...
Kesby G - - 1999
Phenylketonuria in pregnancy carries with it an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and development of a fetus that is affected by the maternal phenylketonuria syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by low birthweight, congenital heart disease, microcephaly, childhood growth failure, and cognitive impairment. It is the result of the hyperphenylalaninemia that ...
Radunovic N - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Neopterin is generated by macrophages and monocytes in response to cytokine and endotoxin stimulation and is a sensitive marker of the severity of infectious-, autoimmune-, and alloimmune-mediated inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to evaluate fetal and maternal neopterin concentrations during the second half of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We ...
Kumar S - - 1999
Deamination to diphenylmethoxyacetic acid (DPMA) is the major route of diphenhydramine (DPHM) clearance in many species. In this study, we assessed the contribution of this pathway to nonplacental DPHM elimination and disposition of DPMA in maternal and fetal sheep. Paired maternal-fetal experiments were conducted in five chronically catheterized pregnant sheep ...
Sacks G - - 1999
Our understanding of the immunology of pregnancy has been dominated by the fetal allograft model and by changes in the maternal-specific immune system. Here, Gavin Sacks and colleagues draw attention to substantial and contrasting changes in the maternal innate system and hypothesize that its function and that of monocytes in ...
Iyer P - - 1999
The contribution of maternal toxicity to the teratogenic effects of the herbicide cyanazine has been assessed to determine whether it may be a hazard to development. Eye defects such as anophthalmia and microphthalmia were observed in rat fetuses and pups. Maternal toxicity was determined from body weight data and clinical ...
Downing C - - 1999
Both maternal and fetal genetic factors influence variations in response to prenatal ethanol exposure. To assess the effect of maternal genotype on the incidence of ethanol teratogenesis, a reciprocal cross study was conducted in an animal mode using the relatively susceptible C57BL/6J (B6) and the relatively resistant DBA/2J (D2) inbred ...
Pugh L C - - 1999
Modifications of the Fatigue Symptoms Checklist can be used clinically to assess fatigue during the childbearing year. Data from a series of studies provide beginning norms that can be used to interpret clinical scores and point to the potential importance of assessments to pregnancy complications and maternal performance. Consistent with ...
Hornstra Deborah - - 1998
We should not think of babies as having a right to be born healthy. We cannot say what such a right involves, and if we could, enforcing it would infringe on the mother's most basic rights. Most importantly, positing such a right casts the fetus and mother as adversaries, and ...
Yentis S M - - 1998
To determine maternal and fetal mortality associated with Eisenmenger's syndrome in the UK, a postal questionnaire was sent to 225 NHS obstetric units with neonatal intensive care units, requesting information about maternal and fetal outcome in cases of Eisenmenger's Syndrome between 1991 and 1995. Fifteen cases were identified. The maternal ...
Iwersen S - - 1998
In order to determine the fetal-maternal distribution of heroin and its main metabolites (6-monoacetylmorphine and morphine) the drug concentrations were measured in autopsy material. The heroin-related death of a pregnant drug abuser (approximately the 32nd week of gestation) provided the fetal and maternal material. Fetal and maternal hair was analyzed ...
Kowles R V - - 1997
A large proportion of the nuclei in developing endosperm of Zea mays L. undergoes endoreduplication. Nuclear preparations of the entire endosperm from maize kernels of inbred lines, their reciprocal hybrids, and in some cases, F2 and F3 endosperm tissue were evaluated using flow cytometry. Data relative to DNA endoreduplication patterns, ...
Mabrouk A R - - 1997
The effect of burns on fetal and maternal survival is known to be detrimental. This prospective study describes the performance of pregnant burned patients who were managed and followed up for fetal and maternal outcomes at Ain Shams University's burn unit and Maternity Hospital during the period from October 1995 ...
Russwurm G P - - 1997
PROBLEM: Soluble human leukocyte antigens (sHLA), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were studied during human pregnancy to test the hypothesis that sHLA concentrations are regulated by these specific cytokines. METHOD OF STUDY: Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure sHLA I and II in maternal circulation, cord blood, and ...
Bajoria R - - 1997
To determine the transfer and metabolism of TRH by human fetal membranes, the bidirectional transport and uptake of TRH was investigated by adding 125I-labeled TRH (100,000 cpm) or commercial TRH either to the maternal or the fetal compartment of an in vitro model of cultured human fetal membranes obtained from ...
Young M - - 1997
Maternal body protein was labelled with [15N]glycine during the last third of pregnancy in the rat; the label was found in fetal protein, demonstrating that amino acids derived from maternal protein had crossed the placental membrane. The enrichment of fetal carcass protein was greater than that of maternal skeletal muscle, ...
Thorp J A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence, treatment, and outcome of maternal oxygen desaturation during magnesium sulfate therapy. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind trial, designed to determine if mothers at risk for premature delivery treated with phenobarbital and vitamin K had less frequent intracranial hemorrhage in their newborns, ...
Benson C B - - 1997
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of prognostic factors on the outcome of singleton pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First-trimester ultrasonographic (US) scans that demonstrated a living fetus in 4,156 consecutive singleton pregnancies were studied. The relationship between outcome and maternal age, mode of conception, maternal symptoms, and US findings was evaluated. ...
Hankins G D - - 1997
Fetal bradycardia is a well-known response to maternal hypothermia, as induced at open-heart surgery, but heretofore has not been reported in conjunction with hypothermia from urosepsis. A 24-year-old Vietnamese woman admitted at 33 weeks estimated gestational age with pyelonephritis secondary to Escherichia coli developed several episodes of maternal hypothermia to ...
Waisbren S E - - 1997
A Maternal PKU camp provided education and social support for 25 young women with phenylketonuria (PKU). Questionnaires were administered and blood samples were collected on the first and last days of camp to evaluate the psychological and medical impact of the programme. Long-term outcome was assessed through telephone interviews 7-14 ...
Malek A - - 1996
PROBLEM: We determined the evolution of the maternal-fetal transport of immunoglobulins during human pregnancy. METHOD: Paired blood samples were collected between 17-41 weeks of gestation (WG) by puncture of a peripheral maternal vein and by cordocentesis (17-36 WG, n = 91) or directly at delivery (37-41 WG n = 16) ...
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