Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 586
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Moss Timothy J M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of single or repeated intramuscular injections of betamethasone, given maternally or directly to the fetus, on chronically catheterized, late-gestation fetal sheep. METHODS: Fetal or maternal sheep received either repeated intramuscular injections of betamethasone (0.5 mg/kg body weight at 104, 111, and 118 days' gestation), single ...
Brancati Francesco - - 2003
Triploidy is the most frequent chromosome aberration in first trimester spontaneous abortions. In contrast to aneuploidies due to nondisjunction, increased maternal age is not a risk factor and the mechanism of triploidy remains poorly understood. To date, recurrence of triploidy of maternal origin has been described only in a few ...
Burgess Jason - - 2003
The clk-1 mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans display an average slowing down of physiological rates, including those of development, various behaviors, and aging. clk-1 encodes a hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of the redox-active lipid ubiquinone (co-enzyme Q), and in clk-1 mutants, ubiquinone is replaced by its biosynthetic precursor demethoxyubiquinone. Surprisingly, ...
Bustard Mark A - - 2003
The administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin) is increasing during preterm pregnancies, yet its disposition and, importantly, the extent of fetal exposure remain to be elucidated. When used as a tocolytic (pharmacological agent that stops uterine contractions), it is administered transdermally (24-48 h). Here, we quantified the maternal and fetal ...
Gatford Kathryn L - - 2003
Maternal nutrition and growth hormone (GH) treatment during early- to mid-pregnancy can each alter the subsequent growth and differentiation of muscle in progeny. We have investigated the effects of varying maternal nutrition and maternal treatment with porcine (p) GH during the second quarter of pregnancy in gilts on semitendinosus muscle ...
King Janet C - - 2003
An adequate supply of nutrients is probably the single most important environmental factor affecting pregnancy outcome. Women with early or closely spaced pregnancies are at increased risk of entering a reproductive cycle with reduced reserves. Maternal nutrient depletion may contribute to the increased incidence of preterm births and fetal growth ...
Troisi Rebecca - - 2003
Evidence suggests that adult cancer risk of hormonally related tumors may be influenced by the in utero environment, and most speculation on the biological mechanism has focused on the hormonal component. Epidemiological studies investigating the biological nature of pregnancy and maternal factors associated with offspring's cancer risk have relied on ...
Agbaria Riad - - 2003
The present study compared the phosphorylation rate of 3'-azidothymidine (AZT) in isolated maternal and fetal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with that in amniocytes obtained during gestation and at term. Maternal PBMCs were isolated from venous blood samples obtained from HIV-seronegative pregnant women during delivery. Immediately after delivery, cord blood ...
Yamada Takashi - - 2003
Maternal oxygen supplementation is commonly performed to improve fetal oxygenation and acid-base balance during fetal asphyxia. The efficiency of this treatment is controversial, which may be associated with the production of oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation. However, only a few studies have been performed to evaluate these issues. To ...
Gündüz Bülent - - 2003
We tested in Siberian hamsters the nature of the maternal signal that relays photoperiodic information to the developing fetuses. As previous investigations have identified maternal hormonal and circadian components in this process, the specific goal of this presentation is to determine quality of the signal that connotes daylength when it ...
Fletes Ma del Rocío Luna Mdel - - 2003
The pharmacokinetics of D,L-3-hydroxy-3-ethyl-3-phenylpropionamide (HEPP), an investigational anticonvulsant drug, was evaluated in nonpregnant and in pregnant rats on gestation day (GD) 7, 12, and 21 after an intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of 50mg/kg. Maternal-fetal disposition in the GD21 group was also evaluated. In all groups, HEPP was rapidly absorbed and the ...
Steegers-Theunissen R P M - - 2003
It is hypothesized that the following periconceptional and early pregnancy nutrient-gene interactions link vascular-related reproductive complications and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood: (1) Maternal and paternal genetically controlled nutrient status affects the quality of gametes and fertilization capacity; (2) The embryonic genetic constitution, derived from both parents, and the maternal genetically ...
Wu Zida - - 2003
Human placental GH (hGH-V) is a variant of pituitary hGH (hGH-N) synthesized and secreted by syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. It differs from hGH-V by only 13 amino acid residues, which makes difficult a specific measurement of hGH-V without interference from hGH-N. To overcome the analytical difficulties, we produced new high affinity ...
Carlsen S M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To investigate a possible effect of age on maternal androgen levels in uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: A study of 134 parous women with uncomplicated pregnancies was carried out at three university hospitals in Norway and Sweden. Maternal levels of androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and the free testosterone index were measured ...
Sinsheimer Janet S - - 2003
Biological mechanisms that involve gene-by-environment interactions have been hypothesized to explain susceptibility to complex familial disorders. Current research provides compelling evidence that one environmental factor, which acts prenatally to increase susceptibility, arises from a maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility. Because it is genetic in origin, a maternal-fetal incompatibility is one possible source ...
Maeda Takahiro - - 2003
Pronounced dilation of the maternal vasculature occurs during normal pregnancy. Likewise, low resistance characterizes the fetoplacental circulation. Nitric oxide released by endothelial cells is a potent vasodilator known to be a key modulator of both maternal and fetal vascular tone. However, the mechanisms underlying the maternal circulatory adaptations and the ...
Palmer Christina G S - - 2002
Fetal events and obstetric complications are associated with schizophrenia. Here we report the results of a family-based candidate-gene study that assesses the role of maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility at the RHD locus in schizophrenia. We adapted the case-parent-trio log-linear modeling approach to test for RHD maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility and to distinguish ...
Reinhold K - - 2002
Using literature data on reciprocal crosses, I estimated the influence of maternal effects on morphological and behavioral traits and compared these effects between mammals, birds, insects with homogametic females, and butterflies. In birds and in both groups of insects, no detectable difference between the reciprocal hybrids was observed on average, ...
Dekker Gus - - 2002
The etiology of preeclampsia is often considered to be purely maternal, i.e. maternal constitutional factors that impair maternal cardiovascular/endothelial mechanisms normally required to cope with the specific pregnancy demands, being primarily a generalised inflammatory response and a hyperdynamic circulation. Recent data strongly indicate an important role for the male partner ...
Palinski Wulf - - 2002
It has long been postulated that pathogenic events during fetal development influence atherosclerosis-related diseases later in life, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. This review focuses on the evidence indicating that maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy is responsible for one cascade of pathogenic events. Maternal hypercholesterolemia is associated with greatly increased ...
Magee A C - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) can result in multiple congenital anomalies. In Northern Ireland, the prevalence of PKU is relatively high at 1 in 4000. OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of 39 pregnancies in 20 mothers. RESULTS: Dietary control was established before conception in 17 pregnancies (44%). Five mothers with hyperphenylalaninaemia ...
Jensen E C - - 2002
Exposure of the fetus to excess maternal glucocorticoids has been postulated to alter fetal growth and development, and thus provide a possible mechanism for the link between impaired fetal growth and altered postnatal physiology. However, the effects of exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids on fetal physiology and metabolism in utero ...
Roberts Joyce E - - 2002
Recognition that the available evidence does not support arbitrary time limits for the second stage of labor has led to reconsideration of the influence of maternal bearing down efforts on fetal/newborn status as well as on maternal pelvic structural integrity. The evidence that the duration of 'active' pushing is associated ...
Warland Jane - - 2002
This literature review highlights that research about the effect of maternal hypotension in pregnancy has either concentrated on an acute hypotensive episode, or looked at the influence of persistent maternal hypotension on fetal growth and/or premature birth. Whilst there is some German literature no published English study has specifically examined ...
Cho S - - 2001
The genetic mouse model BTBR-Pah(enu2) was used to more thoroughly investigate the pathogenesis of maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU). More specifically, it was used to examine the effect of maternal blood phenylalanine (PHE) level on the pregnancy outcome of MPKU offspring as determined by certain key measures of development at birth (i.e., ...
Lyerly A D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: We examined the attitudes of members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine regarding the clinical, scientific, ethical, and policy issues in maternal-fetal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A 43-question survey was distributed to all members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Two mailings and one electronic mail reminder were sent, each ...
Lyerly A D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Important clinical, social, and ethical questions are associated with the evaluation and use of surgical approaches aimed at correcting fetal anatomic abnormalities. In particular, the expansion of maternal-fetal surgery to ameliorate nonlethal fetal conditions has intensified the need to address issues about the adequacy of technology assessment and the ...
Slamberová R - - 2001
The present study tested the hypothesis that repeated administration of morphine on days 11-18 of pregnancy alters maternal behavior. Saline- and morphine-treated mothers were observed with their pups in two experiments. Rats were always tested twice a day during the light and dark phases of the reverse light/dark cycle. In ...
Lovic V - - 2001
Although there is considerable research on the phenomenology, neuroendocrinology, neuroanatomy, and sensory control of maternal behavior, little is known about the influences of early postnatal and postweaning experiences on the development of maternal behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess how early life separation from the mother rat ...
Tomkins A - - 2001
Nearly 600 000 women die every year from pregnancy related conditions and the maternal mortality rates (MMR = deaths per 100 000 live births) in developing countries may be as high as 1000 compared with less than ten in industrialised countries. In the light of the striking impact of deficiencies ...
Gressens P - - 2001
Foetal and neonatal brain is under the influence of environmental factors from maternal and extra-maternal origin. Based on the available data, these environmental factors can be classified into three arbitrary groups: (i) factors and maternal status with a demonstrated deleterious effect on the foetal brain (i.e. ethanol, cocaine, some drugs ...
- - 2001
Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic and may result in growth retardation, significant psychomotor handicaps, and birth defects in the offspring of unmonitored and untreated pregnancies. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninemia, should receive counseling concerning their risks for ...
Mann P E - - 2001
Biological factors can profoundly affect a mother's response to her young. For example, it is well known that the hormones of pregnancy act on the maternal brain to stimulate the spontaneous onset of maternal behavior at parturition. Studies in the rat have provided an excellent model to investigate maternal behavior ...
Brennan P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Studies indicate that maternal-fetal incompatibility of HLA-DR and DQ antigens may be associated with a decreased risk of disease activity during pregnancy in women with rheumatoid arthritis. We attempted to replicate these findings in a large cohort of women with inflammatory polyarthritis. METHODS: Women with an inflammatory polyarthritis were ...
Luck M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To review the findings of safe motherhood intervention studies conducted in African settings. DATA SOURCES: Published literature regarding interventions designed to reduce maternal mortality in African settings. STUDY SELECTION: Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the effects of interventions designed to reduce maternal mortality. DATA EXTRACTION: Search of ...
Thureen P J - - 2000
We tested the hypothesis that decreased fetal amino acid (AA) supply, produced by maternal hypoaminoacidemia (low AA) during hyperglycemia (HG), is reversible with maternal AA infusion and regulates fetal insulin concentration ([I]). We measured net uterine and umbilical AA uptakes during maternal HG/low AA concentration ([AA]) and after maternal intravenous ...
Sheard N F - - 2000
Diet has long been recognized as the primary treatment modality for individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) during infancy and childhood. Recent findings from the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study clearly indicate that dietary restriction of phenylalanine is also necessary to prevent the adverse effects of an elevated plasma phenylalanine concentration during pregnancy, ...
Hayde M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare paired antepartum fetal/maternal COHb ratios in whole blood from control and alloimmunized pregnancies and to examine the relationships between fetal and maternal COHb. METHODS: COHb levels were measured in paired fetal and maternal blood samples obtained at cordocentesis in 47 control and 16 Rh-alloimmunized pregnancies. COHb was ...
Ni X - - 2000
To determine a fetal variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) without using fetal tissues, we amplified the whole VNTR region in intron 40 of the von Willebrand factor gene from maternal peripheral blood by the polymerase chain reaction and then separated the amplified fragments by a nonhydratable polyacrylamide gel with ...
King J C - - 2000
Pregnancy consists of a series of small, continuous physiologic adjustments that affect the metabolism of all nutrients. The adjustments undoubtedly vary widely from woman to woman depending on her prepregnancy nutrition, genetic determinants of fetal size, and maternal lifestyle behavior. Studies of protein and energy metabolism illustrate the potential of ...
Fasouliotis S J - - 2000
Advances in prenatal care have brought about a greater understanding as to the special status of the fetus to the point that it is considered a patient in its own regard. Pregnant women generally follow the medical recommendations of their physicians that are intended for the benefit of their baby. ...
Waisbren S E SE Genetic Service, Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass 02115, USA. - - 2000
Untreated maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) increases risk for developmental problems in offspring. The extent to which this risk is reduced by maternal dietary therapy at various stages of pregnancy is not known. To determine whether dietary treatment during pregnancy of women with PKU affects developmental outcomes of offspring. The Maternal PKU ...
Platt L D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report was to update the results of the Maternal Phenylketonuria Collaborative Study, which was established to assess the efficacy of a phenylalanine-restricted diet in preventing morbidity among the offspring of women with hyperphenylalaninemia. STUDY DESIGN: During a 12-year period 576 women with hyperphenylalaninemia were enrolled ...
Riemann M K - - 2000
Maternal training during pregnancy has been the subject for numerous investigations lately, which are presented in this survey. No studies in human beings have shown any negative effect of training on the embryogenesis. During physical training a small rise in foetal heart rate of 5-25 bpm is a common finding. ...
Kinsella S M - - 2000
We surveyed 99 maternity care professionals (obstetricians, midwives and anaesthetists in equal numbers) to assess their knowledge of potential treatments during acute intrapartum fetal hypoxia, including maternal oxygen administration. Knowledge of adult arterial oxygen saturation was satisfactory, but few of those surveyed gave a correct figure for fetal oxygenation in ...
Donohue K - - 1999
Maternal influences on progeny characters affect phenotypic correlations between characters expressed in maternal and progeny generations and consequently influence evolutionary responses to selection. Net selection on maternally influenced characters depends on selection both on the progeny character and on the maternal characters that influence it. I used seed dispersal in ...
Kesby G - - 1999
Phenylketonuria in pregnancy carries with it an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and development of a fetus that is affected by the maternal phenylketonuria syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by low birthweight, congenital heart disease, microcephaly, childhood growth failure, and cognitive impairment. It is the result of the hyperphenylalaninemia that ...
Radunovic N - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Neopterin is generated by macrophages and monocytes in response to cytokine and endotoxin stimulation and is a sensitive marker of the severity of infectious-, autoimmune-, and alloimmune-mediated inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to evaluate fetal and maternal neopterin concentrations during the second half of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We ...
Kumar S - - 1999
Deamination to diphenylmethoxyacetic acid (DPMA) is the major route of diphenhydramine (DPHM) clearance in many species. In this study, we assessed the contribution of this pathway to nonplacental DPHM elimination and disposition of DPMA in maternal and fetal sheep. Paired maternal-fetal experiments were conducted in five chronically catheterized pregnant sheep ...
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >