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Results 351 - 400 of 548
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Sheard N F - - 2000
Diet has long been recognized as the primary treatment modality for individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) during infancy and childhood. Recent findings from the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study clearly indicate that dietary restriction of phenylalanine is also necessary to prevent the adverse effects of an elevated plasma phenylalanine concentration during pregnancy, ...
Hayde M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare paired antepartum fetal/maternal COHb ratios in whole blood from control and alloimmunized pregnancies and to examine the relationships between fetal and maternal COHb. METHODS: COHb levels were measured in paired fetal and maternal blood samples obtained at cordocentesis in 47 control and 16 Rh-alloimmunized pregnancies. COHb was ...
Ni X - - 2000
To determine a fetal variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) without using fetal tissues, we amplified the whole VNTR region in intron 40 of the von Willebrand factor gene from maternal peripheral blood by the polymerase chain reaction and then separated the amplified fragments by a nonhydratable polyacrylamide gel with ...
King J C - - 2000
Pregnancy consists of a series of small, continuous physiologic adjustments that affect the metabolism of all nutrients. The adjustments undoubtedly vary widely from woman to woman depending on her prepregnancy nutrition, genetic determinants of fetal size, and maternal lifestyle behavior. Studies of protein and energy metabolism illustrate the potential of ...
Fasouliotis S J - - 2000
Advances in prenatal care have brought about a greater understanding as to the special status of the fetus to the point that it is considered a patient in its own regard. Pregnant women generally follow the medical recommendations of their physicians that are intended for the benefit of their baby. ...
Waisbren S E - - 2000
CONTEXT: Untreated maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) increases risk for developmental problems in offspring. The extent to which this risk is reduced by maternal dietary therapy at various stages of pregnancy is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dietary treatment during pregnancy of women with PKU affects developmental outcomes of offspring. DESIGN: ...
Platt L D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report was to update the results of the Maternal Phenylketonuria Collaborative Study, which was established to assess the efficacy of a phenylalanine-restricted diet in preventing morbidity among the offspring of women with hyperphenylalaninemia. STUDY DESIGN: During a 12-year period 576 women with hyperphenylalaninemia were enrolled ...
Riemann M K - - 2000
Maternal training during pregnancy has been the subject for numerous investigations lately, which are presented in this survey. No studies in human beings have shown any negative effect of training on the embryogenesis. During physical training a small rise in foetal heart rate of 5-25 bpm is a common finding. ...
Kinsella S M - - 2000
We surveyed 99 maternity care professionals (obstetricians, midwives and anaesthetists in equal numbers) to assess their knowledge of potential treatments during acute intrapartum fetal hypoxia, including maternal oxygen administration. Knowledge of adult arterial oxygen saturation was satisfactory, but few of those surveyed gave a correct figure for fetal oxygenation in ...
Donohue K - - 1999
Maternal influences on progeny characters affect phenotypic correlations between characters expressed in maternal and progeny generations and consequently influence evolutionary responses to selection. Net selection on maternally influenced characters depends on selection both on the progeny character and on the maternal characters that influence it. I used seed dispersal in ...
Kesby G - - 1999
Phenylketonuria in pregnancy carries with it an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and development of a fetus that is affected by the maternal phenylketonuria syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by low birthweight, congenital heart disease, microcephaly, childhood growth failure, and cognitive impairment. It is the result of the hyperphenylalaninemia that ...
Radunovic N - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Neopterin is generated by macrophages and monocytes in response to cytokine and endotoxin stimulation and is a sensitive marker of the severity of infectious-, autoimmune-, and alloimmune-mediated inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to evaluate fetal and maternal neopterin concentrations during the second half of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We ...
Kumar S - - 1999
Deamination to diphenylmethoxyacetic acid (DPMA) is the major route of diphenhydramine (DPHM) clearance in many species. In this study, we assessed the contribution of this pathway to nonplacental DPHM elimination and disposition of DPMA in maternal and fetal sheep. Paired maternal-fetal experiments were conducted in five chronically catheterized pregnant sheep ...
Sacks G - - 1999
Our understanding of the immunology of pregnancy has been dominated by the fetal allograft model and by changes in the maternal-specific immune system. Here, Gavin Sacks and colleagues draw attention to substantial and contrasting changes in the maternal innate system and hypothesize that its function and that of monocytes in ...
Iyer P - - 1999
The contribution of maternal toxicity to the teratogenic effects of the herbicide cyanazine has been assessed to determine whether it may be a hazard to development. Eye defects such as anophthalmia and microphthalmia were observed in rat fetuses and pups. Maternal toxicity was determined from body weight data and clinical ...
Downing C - - 1999
Both maternal and fetal genetic factors influence variations in response to prenatal ethanol exposure. To assess the effect of maternal genotype on the incidence of ethanol teratogenesis, a reciprocal cross study was conducted in an animal mode using the relatively susceptible C57BL/6J (B6) and the relatively resistant DBA/2J (D2) inbred ...
Pugh L C - - 1999
Modifications of the Fatigue Symptoms Checklist can be used clinically to assess fatigue during the childbearing year. Data from a series of studies provide beginning norms that can be used to interpret clinical scores and point to the potential importance of assessments to pregnancy complications and maternal performance. Consistent with ...
Hornstra Deborah - - 1998
We should not think of babies as having a right to be born healthy. We cannot say what such a right involves, and if we could, enforcing it would infringe on the mother's most basic rights. Most importantly, positing such a right casts the fetus and mother as adversaries, and ...
Yentis S M - - 1998
To determine maternal and fetal mortality associated with Eisenmenger's syndrome in the UK, a postal questionnaire was sent to 225 NHS obstetric units with neonatal intensive care units, requesting information about maternal and fetal outcome in cases of Eisenmenger's Syndrome between 1991 and 1995. Fifteen cases were identified. The maternal ...
Iwersen S - - 1998
In order to determine the fetal-maternal distribution of heroin and its main metabolites (6-monoacetylmorphine and morphine) the drug concentrations were measured in autopsy material. The heroin-related death of a pregnant drug abuser (approximately the 32nd week of gestation) provided the fetal and maternal material. Fetal and maternal hair was analyzed ...
Kowles R V - - 1997
A large proportion of the nuclei in developing endosperm of Zea mays L. undergoes endoreduplication. Nuclear preparations of the entire endosperm from maize kernels of inbred lines, their reciprocal hybrids, and in some cases, F2 and F3 endosperm tissue were evaluated using flow cytometry. Data relative to DNA endoreduplication patterns, ...
Mabrouk A R - - 1997
The effect of burns on fetal and maternal survival is known to be detrimental. This prospective study describes the performance of pregnant burned patients who were managed and followed up for fetal and maternal outcomes at Ain Shams University's burn unit and Maternity Hospital during the period from October 1995 ...
Russwurm G P - - 1997
PROBLEM: Soluble human leukocyte antigens (sHLA), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were studied during human pregnancy to test the hypothesis that sHLA concentrations are regulated by these specific cytokines. METHOD OF STUDY: Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure sHLA I and II in maternal circulation, cord blood, and ...
Bajoria R - - 1997
To determine the transfer and metabolism of TRH by human fetal membranes, the bidirectional transport and uptake of TRH was investigated by adding 125I-labeled TRH (100,000 cpm) or commercial TRH either to the maternal or the fetal compartment of an in vitro model of cultured human fetal membranes obtained from ...
Young M - - 1997
Maternal body protein was labelled with [15N]glycine during the last third of pregnancy in the rat; the label was found in fetal protein, demonstrating that amino acids derived from maternal protein had crossed the placental membrane. The enrichment of fetal carcass protein was greater than that of maternal skeletal muscle, ...
Thorp J A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence, treatment, and outcome of maternal oxygen desaturation during magnesium sulfate therapy. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind trial, designed to determine if mothers at risk for premature delivery treated with phenobarbital and vitamin K had less frequent intracranial hemorrhage in their newborns, ...
Benson C B - - 1997
PURPOSE: To assess the effect of prognostic factors on the outcome of singleton pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First-trimester ultrasonographic (US) scans that demonstrated a living fetus in 4,156 consecutive singleton pregnancies were studied. The relationship between outcome and maternal age, mode of conception, maternal symptoms, and US findings was evaluated. ...
Hankins G D - - 1997
Fetal bradycardia is a well-known response to maternal hypothermia, as induced at open-heart surgery, but heretofore has not been reported in conjunction with hypothermia from urosepsis. A 24-year-old Vietnamese woman admitted at 33 weeks estimated gestational age with pyelonephritis secondary to Escherichia coli developed several episodes of maternal hypothermia to ...
Waisbren S E - - 1997
A Maternal PKU camp provided education and social support for 25 young women with phenylketonuria (PKU). Questionnaires were administered and blood samples were collected on the first and last days of camp to evaluate the psychological and medical impact of the programme. Long-term outcome was assessed through telephone interviews 7-14 ...
Malek A - - 1996
PROBLEM: We determined the evolution of the maternal-fetal transport of immunoglobulins during human pregnancy. METHOD: Paired blood samples were collected between 17-41 weeks of gestation (WG) by puncture of a peripheral maternal vein and by cordocentesis (17-36 WG, n = 91) or directly at delivery (37-41 WG n = 16) ...
Pantanowitz L - - 1996
The fact that venomous snakebites during pregnancy result in a high fetal wastage and that both venomous snake and spider bites may cause maternal mortality, makes this an important, albeit uncommonly encountered, entity in obstetrics. Perhaps the most difficult aspect of dealing with this clinical situation is that care must ...
Foster S F - - 1996
The aim of this study is to make a preliminary examination of the relationship between body satisfaction, maternal fetal attachment, and breast or bottle feeding plans in pregnancy. Thirty eight women between 32 and 38 weeks pregnant were examined by means of the Maternal Foetal Attachment Scale, the Eating Disorders ...
Hosking D J - - 1996
The demands of fetal growth lead to an adaptation of maternal homeostasis in order to provide the required calcium from enhanced intestinal absorption rather than from mobilization of maternal skeletal reserves. In large part this adaptive process depends on the interrelationship between PTH and 1,25(OH)2D which shows quantitative rather than ...
Levy H L - - 1996
Unlike maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) which produces severe birth defects when untreated during pregnancy, maternal non-PKU mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) has a less severe impact but whether it is benign or may have long-term consequences for offspring has been unclear. From an international survey of maternal MHP we obtained information about 86 ...
Fowles E R - - 1996
PURPOSE: To examine the relationships among a woman's attachment to her fetus, the presence of postpartum depressive symptoms, and subsequent perceptions of maternal role attainment three months after birth DESIGN: A longitudinal, panel design SETTING: Hospital-sponsored childbirth education classes PARTICIPANTS: Primiparous women (N = 136) at 24-40 weeks of pregnancy ...
Levy H L - - 1996
Phenylketonuria (PKU) produces white matter changes identifiable by magnetic resonance imaging. These changes occur postnatally. Offspring of untreated mothers with PKU also have a brain effect, expressed as microcephaly and mental retardation. This effect occurs prenatally. To determine whether the white matter changes seen in PKU are also present in ...
Rothenberg S J - - 1996
We constructed models of umbilical cord blood lead (PbB), with and without the addition of maternal PbB at delivery and earlier in pregnancy, to determine which factors explaining cord PbB depended upon maternal PbB and which did not. We prospectively studied women of low-to-middle socioeconomic status who lived in the ...
Levy H L - - 1996
The maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) syndrome refers to the teratogenic effects of PKU during pregnancy. These effects include mental retardation, microcephaly, congenital heart disease, and intrauterine growth retardation. In untreated pregnancies wherein the mother has classic PKU with a blood phenylalanine level > or = 1,200 microM (20 mg/dl), the frequencies ...
Haig D - - 1996
Pregnancy is traditionally viewed as a harmonious collaboration between mother and fetus. From this perspective, viviparity poses a series of problems that maternal and fetal genes work together to solve and the many complications of pregnancy are interpreted as evidence of the malfunctioning of an evolved system or of the ...
Mirmiran M - - 1996
The early development of circadian rhythms in primates, including man, was reviewed. Continuous 24-h recordings were carried out for maternal and fetal circadian rhythms during gestation as well as in preterm infants. Several propositions were made based on these new findings: 1. The fetal biological clock is an endogenous clock ...
Yoshihara H - - 1996
The purpose of this study was to investigate the fetal circulatory responses during maternal hemorrhage. Five pregnant goats with fetuses with a mean gestational age of 132 +/- 2 days were used. The maternal blood was withdrawn at 350 ml/h for 2 hours (e.g. 700 ml, 11.9 ml/kg maternal weight) ...
Schmolling J - - 1996
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maternal and fetal albumin concentrations on the transplacental transfer and the placental tissue accumulation of digoxin. Digoxin passage across the isolated lobules of 15 human placentae was calculated from repeated fetal and maternal perfusate samples, and placental tissue ...
Pérez-Escamilla R - - 1995
International health organizations have recommended exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) (i.e., breast milk as the only source of food) as the optimal infant feeding method during the first 4-6 mo of life. Therefore, it is important to document the determinants of EBF in different populations. Low-income urban women from Brazil (n = ...
Sullivan C A - - 1995
Thrombocytopenia that complicates pregnancy can occur secondary to known maternal disease processes or may arise again during, and as a result of, gestation. A combination of maternal history, clinical presentation, and laboratory investigation usually leads the obstetrician to the proper diagnosis of the condition and, when necessary, dictates appropriate fetal ...
Kendrick J M - - 1995
The goal of this study was to determine the frequency and methods of intraoperative fetal and uterine monitoring during maternal surgery in the United States. Maternal surgery was defined as nonobstetric surgery during pregnancy that required general or regional anesthesia. We mailed a 21-item questionnaire to the perioperative nurse managers ...
Hornstra G - - 1995
Essential fatty acids (EFA) are vitally important structural elements of cell membranes and, therefore, instrumental in the formation of new tissues. The primary EFA cannot be synthesized by man and, consequently, humans depend on dietary sources for an adequate EFA supply. Fetal development is associated with a high EFA requirement, ...
Vincent A - - 1995
Fetal arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is characterised by non-progressive multiple joint contractures, which may result in fetal death, and is heterogeneous in origin. It can associate with maternal myasthenia gravis and autoantibodies to muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR). We found maternal antibodies that selectively inhibit the fetal form of the AChR ...
Paulus D A - - 1995
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) does not appear to cause excessive maternal risk, but the potential for fetal complications is of great concern. In general, operative intervention should be delayed until at least the second trimester. When this is not possible, ethical issues arise and a clash of maternal autonomy versus "fetal ...
Montemagno R - - 1995
A cross-sectional study of 64 women and their fetuses undergoing cordocentesis at 18-25 weeks showed no significant correlation between maternal and fetal Hb or MCV and no relationship between these measurements and fetal abdominal circumference. We found no evidence for a nutritional or physiological association between maternal and fetal haematological ...
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