Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 547
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Van de Putte Bart - - 2004
Due to their effect on maternal testosterone levels, sons are said to have reduced maternal longevity in pre-industrial humans. This analysis, using information from a Flemish agricultural village in the 18th-20th centuries, confirms the presence of a negative effect of sons on maternal longevity. However, the effect is mainly observed ...
Haig D - - 2004
The maternal-fetal unit contains three distinct haplotypes at each locus: the maternally derived fetal haplotype (MDFH) that is shared by the mother and fetus, the paternally derived fetal haplotype (PDFH), and the non-inherited maternal haplotype (NIMH). The evolutionary forces acting on these haplotypes are distinct. The NIMH is absent from ...
Strümper Danja - - 2004
Ketamine could be a useful maternal analgesic in obstetric surgery, as it might avoid the need for opioid administration and associated side effects in the newborn. Racemic ketamine passes the placental barrier and has oxytocin-like properties but does not seem to affect uterine blood flow (UBF). S(+)-ketamine was recently approved ...
Frey Anne - - 2004
The role of maternally derived abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development has been studied using ABA-deficient mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viviani. ABA deficiency induced seed abortion, resulting in reduced seed yield, and delayed growth of the remaining embryos. Mutant grafting onto wild-type stocks and reciprocal crosses indicated that maternal ABA, ...
Levy H L - - 2004
Untreated pregnancies and their outcomes were studied in 10 women with histidinaemia and their 26 pregnancies. The mean maternal assigned histidine level was 727+/-186 micromol/L (range 484-1,053). Six women had classic histidinaemia (assigned level >700 micromol/L) and the remaining four had mild (atypical) histidinaemia. The pregnancies were uneventful, with only ...
Hanley W B - - 2004
Analysis of outcome data from 305 of the 414 offspring from the Maternal Phenylketonuria Collaborative Study (MPKUCS), plus 70 control offspring, revealed significant deficits in the IQ (intelligence quotient), as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R), when maternal metabolic control during pregnancy was delayed and/or inadequate. There ...
Gauldin Deb - - 2004
In this column, the author is reminded that maternity fashion and her own sense of clothing styles often leave much to be desired.
Berardi Alberto - - 2004
We report a case of maternal anaphylaxis following intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. The term fetus developed severe brain damage as a consequence of intrapartum asphyxia. The lesions resulted from maternal hypotension following anaphylaxis. We discuss the feto-maternal risks and the controversial treatment of such a condition. The increasing number of penicillin-treated parturients ...
Güttler Flemming - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent maternal and offspring phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotypes in conjunction with maternal IQ and dietary control during pregnancy are related to cognitive development in offspring of women with phenylketonuria (PKU). METHODS: PAH gene mutations were determined in 196 ...
Moss Timothy J M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of betamethasone in maternal and fetal circulations after maternal or fetal intramuscular administration. STUDY DESIGN: Ewes that bore single fetuses underwent surgery at approximately 96 days of pregnancy for the implantation of fetal and maternal vascular catheters. At approximately ...
Levy Harvey L - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: A major issue in maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU) has been whether maternal non-PKU mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) is teratogenic. Such untreated pregnancies and their outcomes are presented on this report. METHODS: Enrolled pregnancies in which the untreated prepregnancy assigned phenylalanine level (APL) was no more than 600 micro mol/L were included ...
Clarke Joe T R - - 2003
The results of the International Collaborative Study of Maternal phenylketonuria have shown that dietary phenylalanine restriction of women with hyperphenylalaninemia during pregnancy decreases the incidence of mental retardation, microcephaly, congenital heart disease, and intrauterine growth retardation in their offspring. The best results are achieved when treatment is initiated before conception. ...
Waisbren Susan E - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive and behavioral outcome in treated maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) offspring. METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal study, 228 children who were born to mothers with treated PKU or untreated mild hyperphenylalaninemia were compared with 70 control subjects at 7 years of age. RESULTS: Offspring cognitive outcome negatively correlated ...
Moss Timothy J M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of single or repeated intramuscular injections of betamethasone, given maternally or directly to the fetus, on chronically catheterized, late-gestation fetal sheep. METHODS: Fetal or maternal sheep received either repeated intramuscular injections of betamethasone (0.5 mg/kg body weight at 104, 111, and 118 days' gestation), single ...
Brancati Francesco - - 2003
Triploidy is the most frequent chromosome aberration in first trimester spontaneous abortions. In contrast to aneuploidies due to nondisjunction, increased maternal age is not a risk factor and the mechanism of triploidy remains poorly understood. To date, recurrence of triploidy of maternal origin has been described only in a few ...
Burgess Jason - - 2003
The clk-1 mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans display an average slowing down of physiological rates, including those of development, various behaviors, and aging. clk-1 encodes a hydroxylase involved in the biosynthesis of the redox-active lipid ubiquinone (co-enzyme Q), and in clk-1 mutants, ubiquinone is replaced by its biosynthetic precursor demethoxyubiquinone. Surprisingly, ...
Bustard Mark A - - 2003
The administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin) is increasing during preterm pregnancies, yet its disposition and, importantly, the extent of fetal exposure remain to be elucidated. When used as a tocolytic (pharmacological agent that stops uterine contractions), it is administered transdermally (24-48 h). Here, we quantified the maternal and fetal ...
Gatford Kathryn L - - 2003
Maternal nutrition and growth hormone (GH) treatment during early- to mid-pregnancy can each alter the subsequent growth and differentiation of muscle in progeny. We have investigated the effects of varying maternal nutrition and maternal treatment with porcine (p) GH during the second quarter of pregnancy in gilts on semitendinosus muscle ...
King Janet C - - 2003
An adequate supply of nutrients is probably the single most important environmental factor affecting pregnancy outcome. Women with early or closely spaced pregnancies are at increased risk of entering a reproductive cycle with reduced reserves. Maternal nutrient depletion may contribute to the increased incidence of preterm births and fetal growth ...
Troisi Rebecca - - 2003
Evidence suggests that adult cancer risk of hormonally related tumors may be influenced by the in utero environment, and most speculation on the biological mechanism has focused on the hormonal component. Epidemiological studies investigating the biological nature of pregnancy and maternal factors associated with offspring's cancer risk have relied on ...
Agbaria Riad - - 2003
The present study compared the phosphorylation rate of 3'-azidothymidine (AZT) in isolated maternal and fetal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with that in amniocytes obtained during gestation and at term. Maternal PBMCs were isolated from venous blood samples obtained from HIV-seronegative pregnant women during delivery. Immediately after delivery, cord blood ...
Yamada Takashi - - 2003
Maternal oxygen supplementation is commonly performed to improve fetal oxygenation and acid-base balance during fetal asphyxia. The efficiency of this treatment is controversial, which may be associated with the production of oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation. However, only a few studies have been performed to evaluate these issues. To ...
Gündüz Bülent - - 2003
We tested in Siberian hamsters the nature of the maternal signal that relays photoperiodic information to the developing fetuses. As previous investigations have identified maternal hormonal and circadian components in this process, the specific goal of this presentation is to determine quality of the signal that connotes daylength when it ...
Fletes Ma del Rocío Luna Mdel - - 2003
The pharmacokinetics of D,L-3-hydroxy-3-ethyl-3-phenylpropionamide (HEPP), an investigational anticonvulsant drug, was evaluated in nonpregnant and in pregnant rats on gestation day (GD) 7, 12, and 21 after an intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of 50mg/kg. Maternal-fetal disposition in the GD21 group was also evaluated. In all groups, HEPP was rapidly absorbed and the ...
Steegers-Theunissen R P M - - 2003
It is hypothesized that the following periconceptional and early pregnancy nutrient-gene interactions link vascular-related reproductive complications and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood: (1) Maternal and paternal genetically controlled nutrient status affects the quality of gametes and fertilization capacity; (2) The embryonic genetic constitution, derived from both parents, and the maternal genetically ...
Wu Zida - - 2003
Human placental GH (hGH-V) is a variant of pituitary hGH (hGH-N) synthesized and secreted by syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. It differs from hGH-V by only 13 amino acid residues, which makes difficult a specific measurement of hGH-V without interference from hGH-N. To overcome the analytical difficulties, we produced new high affinity ...
Carlsen S M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To investigate a possible effect of age on maternal androgen levels in uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: A study of 134 parous women with uncomplicated pregnancies was carried out at three university hospitals in Norway and Sweden. Maternal levels of androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and the free testosterone index were measured ...
Sinsheimer Janet S - - 2003
Biological mechanisms that involve gene-by-environment interactions have been hypothesized to explain susceptibility to complex familial disorders. Current research provides compelling evidence that one environmental factor, which acts prenatally to increase susceptibility, arises from a maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility. Because it is genetic in origin, a maternal-fetal incompatibility is one possible source ...
Maeda Takahiro - - 2003
Pronounced dilation of the maternal vasculature occurs during normal pregnancy. Likewise, low resistance characterizes the fetoplacental circulation. Nitric oxide released by endothelial cells is a potent vasodilator known to be a key modulator of both maternal and fetal vascular tone. However, the mechanisms underlying the maternal circulatory adaptations and the ...
Palmer Christina G S - - 2002
Fetal events and obstetric complications are associated with schizophrenia. Here we report the results of a family-based candidate-gene study that assesses the role of maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility at the RHD locus in schizophrenia. We adapted the case-parent-trio log-linear modeling approach to test for RHD maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility and to distinguish ...
Reinhold K - - 2002
Using literature data on reciprocal crosses, I estimated the influence of maternal effects on morphological and behavioral traits and compared these effects between mammals, birds, insects with homogametic females, and butterflies. In birds and in both groups of insects, no detectable difference between the reciprocal hybrids was observed on average, ...
Dekker Gus - - 2002
The etiology of preeclampsia is often considered to be purely maternal, i.e. maternal constitutional factors that impair maternal cardiovascular/endothelial mechanisms normally required to cope with the specific pregnancy demands, being primarily a generalised inflammatory response and a hyperdynamic circulation. Recent data strongly indicate an important role for the male partner ...
Palinski Wulf - - 2002
It has long been postulated that pathogenic events during fetal development influence atherosclerosis-related diseases later in life, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. This review focuses on the evidence indicating that maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy is responsible for one cascade of pathogenic events. Maternal hypercholesterolemia is associated with greatly increased ...
Magee A C - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) can result in multiple congenital anomalies. In Northern Ireland, the prevalence of PKU is relatively high at 1 in 4000. OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome of 39 pregnancies in 20 mothers. RESULTS: Dietary control was established before conception in 17 pregnancies (44%). Five mothers with hyperphenylalaninaemia ...
Jensen E C - - 2002
Exposure of the fetus to excess maternal glucocorticoids has been postulated to alter fetal growth and development, and thus provide a possible mechanism for the link between impaired fetal growth and altered postnatal physiology. However, the effects of exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids on fetal physiology and metabolism in utero ...
Roberts Joyce E - - 2002
Recognition that the available evidence does not support arbitrary time limits for the second stage of labor has led to reconsideration of the influence of maternal bearing down efforts on fetal/newborn status as well as on maternal pelvic structural integrity. The evidence that the duration of 'active' pushing is associated ...
Warland Jane - - 2002
This literature review highlights that research about the effect of maternal hypotension in pregnancy has either concentrated on an acute hypotensive episode, or looked at the influence of persistent maternal hypotension on fetal growth and/or premature birth. Whilst there is some German literature no published English study has specifically examined ...
Cho S - - 2001
The genetic mouse model BTBR-Pah(enu2) was used to more thoroughly investigate the pathogenesis of maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU). More specifically, it was used to examine the effect of maternal blood phenylalanine (PHE) level on the pregnancy outcome of MPKU offspring as determined by certain key measures of development at birth (i.e., ...
Lyerly A D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: We examined the attitudes of members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine regarding the clinical, scientific, ethical, and policy issues in maternal-fetal surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A 43-question survey was distributed to all members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Two mailings and one electronic mail reminder were sent, each ...
Lyerly A D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Important clinical, social, and ethical questions are associated with the evaluation and use of surgical approaches aimed at correcting fetal anatomic abnormalities. In particular, the expansion of maternal-fetal surgery to ameliorate nonlethal fetal conditions has intensified the need to address issues about the adequacy of technology assessment and the ...
Slamberová R - - 2001
The present study tested the hypothesis that repeated administration of morphine on days 11-18 of pregnancy alters maternal behavior. Saline- and morphine-treated mothers were observed with their pups in two experiments. Rats were always tested twice a day during the light and dark phases of the reverse light/dark cycle. In ...
Lovic V - - 2001
Although there is considerable research on the phenomenology, neuroendocrinology, neuroanatomy, and sensory control of maternal behavior, little is known about the influences of early postnatal and postweaning experiences on the development of maternal behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess how early life separation from the mother rat ...
Tomkins A - - 2001
Nearly 600 000 women die every year from pregnancy related conditions and the maternal mortality rates (MMR = deaths per 100 000 live births) in developing countries may be as high as 1000 compared with less than ten in industrialised countries. In the light of the striking impact of deficiencies ...
Gressens P - - 2001
Foetal and neonatal brain is under the influence of environmental factors from maternal and extra-maternal origin. Based on the available data, these environmental factors can be classified into three arbitrary groups: (i) factors and maternal status with a demonstrated deleterious effect on the foetal brain (i.e. ethanol, cocaine, some drugs ...
- - 2001
Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic and may result in growth retardation, significant psychomotor handicaps, and birth defects in the offspring of unmonitored and untreated pregnancies. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninemia, should receive counseling concerning their risks for ...
Mann P E - - 2001
Biological factors can profoundly affect a mother's response to her young. For example, it is well known that the hormones of pregnancy act on the maternal brain to stimulate the spontaneous onset of maternal behavior at parturition. Studies in the rat have provided an excellent model to investigate maternal behavior ...
Brennan P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Studies indicate that maternal-fetal incompatibility of HLA-DR and DQ antigens may be associated with a decreased risk of disease activity during pregnancy in women with rheumatoid arthritis. We attempted to replicate these findings in a large cohort of women with inflammatory polyarthritis. METHODS: Women with an inflammatory polyarthritis were ...
Luck M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To review the findings of safe motherhood intervention studies conducted in African settings. DATA SOURCES: Published literature regarding interventions designed to reduce maternal mortality in African settings. STUDY SELECTION: Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the effects of interventions designed to reduce maternal mortality. DATA EXTRACTION: Search of ...
Thureen P J - - 2000
We tested the hypothesis that decreased fetal amino acid (AA) supply, produced by maternal hypoaminoacidemia (low AA) during hyperglycemia (HG), is reversible with maternal AA infusion and regulates fetal insulin concentration ([I]). We measured net uterine and umbilical AA uptakes during maternal HG/low AA concentration ([AA]) and after maternal intravenous ...
Sheard N F - - 2000
Diet has long been recognized as the primary treatment modality for individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) during infancy and childhood. Recent findings from the Maternal PKU Collaborative Study clearly indicate that dietary restriction of phenylalanine is also necessary to prevent the adverse effects of an elevated plasma phenylalanine concentration during pregnancy, ...
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