Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 578
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Ege M J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Various studies have found reduced prevalences of atopic sensitization and atopic diseases in children previously exposed to infections or living conditions with a high microbial burden, such as the farming environment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the relationships of cord blood immunoglobulin E (IgE) with maternal health conditions before ...
Love Oliver P - - 2008
The question of why maternal stress influences offspring phenotype is of significant interest to evolutionary physiologists. Although embryonic exposure to maternally derived glucocorticoids (i.e., corticosterone) generally reduces offspring quality, effects may adaptively match maternal quality with offspring demand. We present results from an interannual field experiment in European starlings (Sturnus ...
Harkness M - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine how many UK maternity units have implemented National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance for routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP). In May 2002, the NICE recommended a policy of RAADP for RhD-negative pregnant women. The policy has the potential to reduce maternal ...
Pilkington Hugo - - 2008
As in many other countries, the number of maternity units has diminished substantially in France, raising concerns about the reduced accessibility of obstetric services. We describe here the impact of closures on distance and mean travel time between pregnant women's homes and maternity units. We used data from the 1998 ...
- - 2008
Elevated maternal phenylalanine concentrations during pregnancy are teratogenic and may result in growth retardation, microcephaly, significant developmental delays, and birth defects in the offspring of women with poorly controlled phenylketonuria during pregnancy. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as mild hyperphenylalaninemia, should receive ...
Lai Beatrice Pui-yee - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study examined the negative impact of postnatal bulimic symptoms on parenting behavior. METHOD: Ninety-one Chinese mothers were assessed with self-report questionnaires during pregnancy (T1) and telephone interviewed at 6 months (T2) and 1 year postnatal (T3). RESULTS: Bivariate correlation analyses showed that parenting behavior at T3 was ...
Marinoni Emanuela E Centre for Scientific Research, San Pietro Hospital, Fatebenefratelli, Rome, Italy. - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of in vivo administration of prenatal betamethasone on leptin and adiponectin concentration in maternal and fetal circulation. Blood samples were collected from 35 pregnant women receiving betamethasone for threatened preterm delivery before and at different time points after drug administration. ...
Alhusen Jeanne L - - 2008
To critically review and synthesize original research published since 2000 designed to measure factors that influence maternal-fetal attachment. EBSCOhost Research Databases that included PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS were searched for journal articles published in the past 7 years (2000-2007) that examined variables thought to increase, decrease, or cause ...
Klinich Kathleen DeSantis - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This project was undertaken to improve understanding of factors associated with adverse fetal outcomes of pregnant occupants involved in motor-vehicle crashes. STUDY DESIGN: In-depth investigations of crashes involving 57 pregnant occupants were performed. Maternal and fetal injuries, restraint information, measures of external and internal vehicle damage, and details about ...
Gillespie Duncan O S - - 2008
Maternal fitness should be maximized by the optimal division of reproductive investment between offspring number and offspring quality. While evidence for this is abundant in many taxa, there have been fewer tests in mammals, and in particular, humans. We used a dataset of humans spanning three generations from pre-industrial Finland ...
Momoi Nobuo - - 2008
Caffeine consumption during pregnancy is reported to increase the risk of in utero growth restriction and spontaneous abortion. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that modest maternal caffeine exposure affects in utero developing embryonic cardiovascular (CV) function and growth without altering maternal hemodynamics. Caffeine (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) subcutaneous) was ...
Lawlor Debbie A DA Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom. - - 2008
The developmental overnutrition hypothesis suggests that greater maternal obesity during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity in later life. If true, this would result in the obesity epidemic progressing across generations irrespective of environmental or genetic changes. It is therefore important to robustly test this hypothesis. We explored this hypothesis ...
van Goor Saskia A - - 2008
We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from day 3 prior to conception till ...
Grosso Laura M - - 2008
We sought to examine associations among measures of caffeine exposure, including maternal urine, umbilical cord blood, and maternal self report. Pregnant women were recruited from 56 obstetric practices and 15 clinics associated with six hospitals in Connecticut and Massachusetts between September 1996 and January 2000; 3633 women were enrolled. Maternal ...
Workman Joanna L - - 2008
This study investigated the effect of maternal pinealectomy and postnatal pinealectomy on affective responses. Siberian hamsters were born to either pinealectomized or sham-operated dams and then underwent pinealectomy or a sham operation. Maternal pinealectomy increased depressive-like responses of offspring in the forced swim test. Maternal pinealectomy increased rearing behaviour and ...
Marshall Dustin J - - 2008
Maternal effects can have dramatic influences on the phenotype of offspring. Maternal effects can act as a conduit by which the maternal environment negatively affects offspring fitness, but they can also buffer offspring from environmental change by altering the phenotype of offspring according to local environmental conditions and as such, ...
Ohta Hidenobu - - 2008
It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD) cycle. To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the ...
Lain Kristine Y - - 2007
Maternal metabolism changes substantially during pregnancy. Early gestation can be viewed as an anabolic state in the mother with an increase in maternal fat stores and small increases in insulin sensitivity. Hence, nutrients are stored in early pregnancy to meet the feto-placental and maternal demands of late gestation and lactation. ...
Ostrovsky Andrew N - - 2007
We studied by SEM the external morphology of the ooecium in eight bryozoans of the genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata, Calloporidae): C. spinifer, C. variegatus, C. magnus, C. multiavicularia, C. tortilis, C. cryptoarmatus, C. niger, and C. multispinosus, and by sectioning and light microscopy the anatomy of the brooding apparatus of C. ...
Cecatti Jose Guilherme - - 2007
The occurrence of complications during pregnancy depends less on the degree of human development than differences in the way complications in pregnancy are detected and managed. It is the quick diagnosis and correct management that really contribute to the enormous differences in maternal mortality ratios between countries and regions. Understanding ...
Coutellier Laurence - - 2008
According to the maternal mediation hypothesis, brain and behavioural development in rodents is affected by environment-dependent variations in maternal care. Thus, it has been shown that early handling results in reduced behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to stressors and that these effects are associated with increased maternal care received during infancy. ...
Yang Jian - - 2008
Total and subcellular renal Zn, Cu, Se, Mn, V, Hg, Cd and Ag were determined by a mother-fetus pair of Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli). All element concentrations in the maternal individual were higher than those in the fetal individual. Most of total renal elements studied were present in the cytosol ...
Jonakait G Miller - - 2007
That maternal inflammation adversely affects fetal brain development is well established. Less well understood are the mechanisms that account for neurodevelopmental disorders arising from maternal inflammation. This review seeks to begin an examination of possible sites and mechanisms of action whereby inflammatory cytokines - produced by the mother or by ...
Miller Warren Bailley - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Few studies examine the consequences of unwanted pregnancy on child development, and most of those that do, use measures of pregnancy intention. Here we use measures of pregnancy wantedness, together with measures of maternal motivation, to examine the potential effect of wantedness on the child's attachment relationship with its ...
Brian Susan Riddle - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the first case of the successful use of pegvisomant during pregnancy in a woman with acromegaly. DESIGN: We present the case of a 26-yr-old female with acromegaly who had failed surgical and subsequent medical therapy but whose disease was well controlled on pegvisomant. She ...
Huppertz Berthold - - 2007
Human implantation and placentation comprise the direct contact of fetal with maternal tissues culminating in the erosion of maternal tissues by fetal cells. A complex interplay of maternal and fetal factors is key to maintain pregnancy until delivery. Immunological interactions can be found at different stages, such as blastocyst attachment, ...
Prickett Timothy C R - - 2007
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has a crucial role in postnatal endochondral bone growth and is rapidly responsive to changes in nutrition. Although CNP is expressed in the placenta, little is known about the regulation and role of CNP in fetal-maternal health. We hypothesized that CNP may be similarly responsive to ...
Ethier-Chiasson M - - 2007
Maternal hyperlipidemia is a characteristic feature during pregnancy, it has been reported that modification of the maternal lipid profile can induce disturbance during pregnancy. In this study, we evaluated the impact of maternal lipid profile on the placental protein expression of two major receptors in cholesterol metabolism, the low density ...
Adebami Olusegun J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The main objective of the study was to determine the role of maternal factors in the etiology of fetal malnutrition (FM) in Nigeria. Neonatal and Maternity Units of the Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, Nigeria, a unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife was the setting for ...
Sedlmayr Peter - - 2007
The mechanism of maternal immunotolerance of the semiallogeneic fetus has been a matter of intense investigation. The tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is reported to be critically implicated. This article discusses findings pertaining to the role of IDO in pregnancy, its location at the feto-maternal interface, systemic induction of IDO ...
Khoury J - - 2007
To study the effect of an antiatherogenic diet on maternal and cord blood concentrations of systemic biomarkers of endothelial cell activation, haemostasis and inflammation. Single blinded randomised controlled clinical trial. Obstetric outpatient clinic and maternity unit of a university hospital in Norway. Nonsmoking pregnant women aged 21-38 years carrying a ...
Gregg Christopher - - 2007
Myelination, the process in which oligodendrocytes coat CNS axons with a myelin sheath, represents an important but poorly understood form of neural plasticity that may be sexually dimorphic in the adult CNS. Remission of multiple sclerosis during pregnancy led us to hypothesize that remyelination is enhanced in the maternal brain. ...
Carere Claudio - - 2007
Avian embryos are exposed not only to endogenous sex steroids, which are produced by their gonads and have a key role in sexual differentiation, but also to maternal steroids transferred into the egg yolk, which can modulate the development of individual differences in behavior. Studies of maternal hormones have primarily ...
Bacigalupe Leonardo D - - 2007
What are the consequences of the natural variation in maternal body mass on offspring energetic performance? How are performance traits related to thermal physiology and energetics phenotypically integrated on offspring? To answer these questions, fifty breeding pairs of the common terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis were set up in the lab. ...
de Haan Timo R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To correlate quantitative maternal and fetal parvovirus B19 (B19V) viral loads and antibody levels at intrauterine transfusion (IUT) as a predictor of fetal morbidity. METHODS: Prospectively collected clinical data and quantitative B19V viral load and specific IgM and IgG values in fetal and maternal blood samples taken during IUT. ...
Drake Emily E - - 2007
PURPOSE: To explore maternal responsiveness in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery and to evaluate potential predictors of maternal responsiveness, including infant feeding, maternal characteristics, and demographic factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and educational level. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey design was used to assess the ...
Greig Denise J - - 2007
The transplacental transfer of organochlorines (OCs) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was investigated by analyzing blubber samples from 20 female sea lions and their fetuses during the last trimester of pregnancy. A rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic, photodiode-array method was used to measure blubber concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including ...
Goto Masahiro M Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Hachioji Children's Hospital, Tokyo, Japan ; Human Genetics Division, University of Southampton, United - - 2007
Investigation of early human fetal tissue has helped us elucidate the onset of the activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis during human development. Adrenal steroidogenesis and ACTH secretion from the pituitary starts at 7-8 weeks postconception, providing the rationale for prenatal treatment using dexamethasone offered to fetuses at risk of 21-hydroxylase ...
Tschirren Barbara - - 2007
The decision of how far to disperse from the natal territory has profound and long-lasting consequences for young animals, yet the optimal dispersal behavior often depends on environmental factors that are difficult or impossible to assess by inexperienced juveniles. Natural selection thus favors mechanisms that allow the adaptive and flexible ...
Menard J L - - 2007
Natural variations of maternal care in the rat influence the development of neuronal systems that regulate defensive responses to threat. Thus, as adults, rats that received higher levels of maternal licking/grooming (LG) in infancy display dramatic reductions in burying in the shock-probe test, relative to offspring of low LG mothers. ...
Beloosesky Ron - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that maternal infections may induce fetal inflammatory responses. Because cytokine actions may be mediated by oxidative stress, we determined whether N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, can blunt fetal inflammatory responses to maternal lipopolysaccharide. STUDY DESIGN: Sprague Dawley near-term rats (n = 16) received intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (100 microg/kg) at 30 ...
Catalano P M - - 2006
Obesity's increasing prevalence has reached epidemic proportions in the USA, with close to one-third of the adult population affected in 2000. Additionally, there is increasing prevalence of obesity in other industrialised areas of the world such as Europe. Of potentially more concern is the potential risks associated with obesity and ...
Gale Catharine R CR MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, UK. - - 2006
Autopsy studies show that intimal lipid accumulations in arteries are often present at birth, suggesting that the prenatal environment plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In animal models, a restricted or unbalanced maternal diet during gestation can influence susceptibility to atherosclerosis, but the relation in humans between maternal ...
Lenz Kathryn M - - 2006
Maternal licking of pups' perineal regions affects the development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus in the lumbar spinal cord that controls penile reflexes involved with copulation. Maternal licking influences SNB motoneuron number, with reductions in licking resulting in fewer motoneurons. Reduced maternal ...
Kind Karen L - - 2006
Substrate supply to the fetus is a major regulator of prenatal growth. Maternal nutrition influences the availability of nutrients for transfer to the fetus. Animal experiments demonstrate that restriction of maternal protein or energy intake can retard fetal growth. Effects of maternal nutrition vary with the type and timing of ...
Brown Stephen D - - 2006
As therapeutic interventions that are designed for the direct benefit of the fetus have evolved, pediatric specialists along with obstetricians have become increasingly engaged in the management of pregnancies that are complicated by fetal disorders. Do the 2 groups of medical specialists hold differing "world views" on the nature of ...
Hava Golan - - 2006
Maternal intrauterine inflammation during pregnancy poses a major threat of neurodevelopmental brain damage in offspring and may cause poor cognitive and perceptual outcomes. In mice, we have previously shown that maternal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at gestation day 17th increased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the ...
Tower Clare - - 2006
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) predisposes to significant short- and long-term health problems. Epidemiological studies have suggested a role for inherited factors in its pathogenesis. The angiotensin II receptor genes, AGTR1 and AGTR2, are candidate genes because they mediate processes that are important for placentation. This study investigated AGTR1 and AGTR2 ...
Ashdown H - - 2006
Maternal infections with bacterial or viral agents during pregnancy are associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring at adulthood although little is known about the mechanism by which maternal infection might affect fetal neurodevelopment. Exposure of pregnant rodents to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), results in behavioral ...
Radaelli Tatjana - - 2006
Fetal overgrowth and higher adiposity are hallmarks of pregnancy with maternal obesity and poor glucose tolerance, two conditions associated with decreased maternal insulin sensitivity. In non-pregnant individuals, adipokines, vasoactive peptides, and components of the immune system crosstalk with metabolic factors to generate signals triggering obesity and impaired insulin action. We ...
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