Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 547
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Adebami Olusegun J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The main objective of the study was to determine the role of maternal factors in the etiology of fetal malnutrition (FM) in Nigeria. Neonatal and Maternity Units of the Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, Nigeria, a unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife was the setting for ...
Sedlmayr Peter - - 2007
The mechanism of maternal immunotolerance of the semiallogeneic fetus has been a matter of intense investigation. The tryptophan-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is reported to be critically implicated. This article discusses findings pertaining to the role of IDO in pregnancy, its location at the feto-maternal interface, systemic induction of IDO ...
Khoury J - - 2007
To study the effect of an antiatherogenic diet on maternal and cord blood concentrations of systemic biomarkers of endothelial cell activation, haemostasis and inflammation. Single blinded randomised controlled clinical trial. Obstetric outpatient clinic and maternity unit of a university hospital in Norway. Nonsmoking pregnant women aged 21-38 years carrying a ...
Gregg Christopher - - 2007
Myelination, the process in which oligodendrocytes coat CNS axons with a myelin sheath, represents an important but poorly understood form of neural plasticity that may be sexually dimorphic in the adult CNS. Remission of multiple sclerosis during pregnancy led us to hypothesize that remyelination is enhanced in the maternal brain. ...
Carere Claudio - - 2007
Avian embryos are exposed not only to endogenous sex steroids, which are produced by their gonads and have a key role in sexual differentiation, but also to maternal steroids transferred into the egg yolk, which can modulate the development of individual differences in behavior. Studies of maternal hormones have primarily ...
Bacigalupe Leonardo D - - 2007
What are the consequences of the natural variation in maternal body mass on offspring energetic performance? How are performance traits related to thermal physiology and energetics phenotypically integrated on offspring? To answer these questions, fifty breeding pairs of the common terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis were set up in the lab. ...
de Haan Timo R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To correlate quantitative maternal and fetal parvovirus B19 (B19V) viral loads and antibody levels at intrauterine transfusion (IUT) as a predictor of fetal morbidity. METHODS: Prospectively collected clinical data and quantitative B19V viral load and specific IgM and IgG values in fetal and maternal blood samples taken during IUT. ...
Drake Emily E - - 2007
PURPOSE: To explore maternal responsiveness in the first 2 to 4 months after delivery and to evaluate potential predictors of maternal responsiveness, including infant feeding, maternal characteristics, and demographic factors such as age, socioeconomic status, and educational level. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey design was used to assess the ...
Greig Denise J - - 2007
The transplacental transfer of organochlorines (OCs) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was investigated by analyzing blubber samples from 20 female sea lions and their fetuses during the last trimester of pregnancy. A rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic, photodiode-array method was used to measure blubber concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including ...
Tschirren Barbara - - 2007
The decision of how far to disperse from the natal territory has profound and long-lasting consequences for young animals, yet the optimal dispersal behavior often depends on environmental factors that are difficult or impossible to assess by inexperienced juveniles. Natural selection thus favors mechanisms that allow the adaptive and flexible ...
Menard J L - - 2007
Natural variations of maternal care in the rat influence the development of neuronal systems that regulate defensive responses to threat. Thus, as adults, rats that received higher levels of maternal licking/grooming (LG) in infancy display dramatic reductions in burying in the shock-probe test, relative to offspring of low LG mothers. ...
Beloosesky Ron - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that maternal infections may induce fetal inflammatory responses. Because cytokine actions may be mediated by oxidative stress, we determined whether N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, can blunt fetal inflammatory responses to maternal lipopolysaccharide. STUDY DESIGN: Sprague Dawley near-term rats (n = 16) received intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (100 microg/kg) at 30 ...
Catalano P M - - 2006
Obesity's increasing prevalence has reached epidemic proportions in the USA, with close to one-third of the adult population affected in 2000. Additionally, there is increasing prevalence of obesity in other industrialised areas of the world such as Europe. Of potentially more concern is the potential risks associated with obesity and ...
Gale Catharine R CR MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, UK. - - 2006
Autopsy studies show that intimal lipid accumulations in arteries are often present at birth, suggesting that the prenatal environment plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In animal models, a restricted or unbalanced maternal diet during gestation can influence susceptibility to atherosclerosis, but the relation in humans between maternal ...
Lenz Kathryn M - - 2006
Maternal licking of pups' perineal regions affects the development of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB), a sexually dimorphic motor nucleus in the lumbar spinal cord that controls penile reflexes involved with copulation. Maternal licking influences SNB motoneuron number, with reductions in licking resulting in fewer motoneurons. Reduced maternal ...
Kind Karen L - - 2006
Substrate supply to the fetus is a major regulator of prenatal growth. Maternal nutrition influences the availability of nutrients for transfer to the fetus. Animal experiments demonstrate that restriction of maternal protein or energy intake can retard fetal growth. Effects of maternal nutrition vary with the type and timing of ...
Brown Stephen D - - 2006
As therapeutic interventions that are designed for the direct benefit of the fetus have evolved, pediatric specialists along with obstetricians have become increasingly engaged in the management of pregnancies that are complicated by fetal disorders. Do the 2 groups of medical specialists hold differing "world views" on the nature of ...
Hava Golan - - 2006
Maternal intrauterine inflammation during pregnancy poses a major threat of neurodevelopmental brain damage in offspring and may cause poor cognitive and perceptual outcomes. In mice, we have previously shown that maternal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at gestation day 17th increased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the ...
Tower Clare - - 2006
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) predisposes to significant short- and long-term health problems. Epidemiological studies have suggested a role for inherited factors in its pathogenesis. The angiotensin II receptor genes, AGTR1 and AGTR2, are candidate genes because they mediate processes that are important for placentation. This study investigated AGTR1 and AGTR2 ...
Ashdown H - - 2006
Maternal infections with bacterial or viral agents during pregnancy are associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring at adulthood although little is known about the mechanism by which maternal infection might affect fetal neurodevelopment. Exposure of pregnant rodents to the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), results in behavioral ...
Radaelli Tatjana - - 2006
Fetal overgrowth and higher adiposity are hallmarks of pregnancy with maternal obesity and poor glucose tolerance, two conditions associated with decreased maternal insulin sensitivity. In non-pregnant individuals, adipokines, vasoactive peptides, and components of the immune system crosstalk with metabolic factors to generate signals triggering obesity and impaired insulin action. We ...
Matonia A - - 2006
At present, noninvasive recording of abdominal fetal electrocardiogram and analysis of the fetal heart rate variability seems to be the most promising method to detect the fetal hypoxia. The main problem is to obtain a good quality fetal ECG, which is strongly distorted by maternal component of dominating energy. The ...
Kirigia Joses M - - 2006
WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the ...
Ho-Chen Jennifer K - - 2006
Establishment of proper oxygen and nutrient supply to the fetus is essential for a successful pregnancy. The maternal-fetal interface is the site of vascular modifications, providing a conduit for the delivery of essential nutrients to the developing fetus. Pregnancy-dependent adaptive vascular responses within the uteroplacental compartment can be exaggerated by ...
Brakman Sarah-Vaughan - - 2006
We criticize a view of maternity that equates the natural with the genetic and biological and show how such a practice overdetermines the maternal body and the maternal experience for women who are mothers through adoption and ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies). As an alternative, we propose a new framework designed ...
Dozois Eric J - - 2006
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported high morbidity and mortality in mothers and their offspring after colectomy for ulcerative colitis during pregnancy. This study was designed to assess the maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnant females undergoing colectomy for ulcerative colitis in the current era. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed ...
Kannekens E M - - 2006
The feto-maternal relationships within the bovine placentome at 135 days gestation were investigated using unbiased stereology. This provides an estimate of the feto-maternal interface without physically separating these. The functional surface area, the volume of the fetal and maternal components, volumetric tissue shrinkage due to processing, and the feto-maternal surface ...
Dimas V V - - 2005
The objective of this study was to characterize the transfer of flecainide across the placenta and determine the fetal: maternal ratio of flecainide in the gravid baboon. Flecainide acetate has been especially successful for the treatment of fetal supraventricular tachycardia associated with hydrops fetalis. However, the degree of transplacental transmission ...
Albright Craig D - - 2005
Alterations in maternal dietary choline availability during days 12-17 of pregnancy led to an increase in the level of immunoreactive netrin-1 and a decrease in the level of DCC protein in the developing fetal mouse brain hippocampus compared with controls. Changes in the expression of cell migration cues during development ...
Sandmire Herbert F - - 2005
To determine whether there is direct evidence that Erb's palsy is caused by clinician-applied excessive lateral traction on the fetal head and neck, a literature review was performed. Both the medical literature outlining the maternal forces generated from uterine contractions and maternal pushing and limited reports on clinician-applied forces were ...
Willer C J - - 2005
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been reported to facilitate the long-term tolerance of fetal or maternally derived stem cells exchanged during pregnancy. Furthermore, such compatibility has been suggested to play a role in fetal viability. An increase in maternal - fetal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility for class II ...
Friese Greg - - 2005
To summarize: The best fetal protection is proper maternal use of seat belt restraints. All pregnant occupants in a motor vehicle crash require physician evaluation. Focus on maternal assessment. Maternal stability is the best indicator of fetal stability. Key treatments are high-flow oxygen, i.v. fluid loading and immobilizing in left ...
Kaplan Joseph - - 2005
To investigate the relationship between maternal-fetal histocompatibility and maternal microchimerism, we developed a sensitive quantitative PCR assay for the neomycin resistance gene (neoR), and, in a mouse model system, used neoR as a noninherited maternal allele marker of maternal cells to detect and quantitate maternal microchimerism in tissues of neoR(-/-) ...
Leary S D - - 2005
Associations between maternal nutrient intakes in late pregnancy and offspring blood pressure at 7(1/2) years were investigated in 6944 singletons from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The only finding was a weak inverse association with omega-3 fatty acids that was lost after adjustment for potential confounders, suggesting ...
Ward B S - - 2005
This study aimed to determine whether there is a maternofetal potential difference (PD) in the mouse. The mean (+/- SEM) in vivo electrical potential difference (PD(sa)) between saline filled catheters in the maternal subcutaneous space (s) and the fetal amniotic sac (a) measured, according to strict criteria, in anaesthetised MF1 ...
Rujiwetpongstorn Jittima - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and volume of feto-maternal hemorrhage following cordocentesis. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred and sixteen asymptomatic non-anemic pregnant women with an indication for cordocentesis at 18-22 weeks of gestation between January and June 2004 were recruited. Maternal blood samples were obtained immediately ...
Groothuis Ton G G - - 2005
Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal hormones and so provide an excellent model to study hormone-mediated maternal effects. We review this new and rapidly evolving field, taking an ecological and evolutionary approach and focusing on effects and function of maternal androgens in offspring development. Manipulation of yolk levels of ...
Chang SoonBok - - 2004
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of Taegyo-focused prenatal classes on maternal-fetal attachment and self-efficacy related to childbirth. METHODS: Over 4 weeks, 49 women, 20 to 36 weeks of gestation participated in a prenatal program led by the nurse who developed it. In addition to Lamaze content it included; understanding ability ...
Samtani Mahesh N - - 2004
PURPOSE: The pharmacokinetics of corticosteroids in pregnancy were analyzed to assess maternal/fetal disposition and factors controlling fetal exposure. Area/Moment equations and compartmental models for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters from single dose data during pregnancy were developed. METHODS: Betamethasone in the maternal/fetal circulations of sheep was measured by HPLC after maternal intramuscular ...
Gilmore John H - - 2005
Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (poly I:C) or saline was administered to rats to model maternal infection; levels of TNFalpha, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) were determined by ELISA. TNFalpha was significantly increased in maternal plasma, placenta, ...
Martindale Sheelagh - - 2005
Two thousand women were recruited for a prospective investigation of the influence of maternal antioxidant intake in pregnancy on the development of asthma and eczema in children. A food frequency questionnaire was used to characterize diet during pregnancy and blood antioxidant levels were measured. Postal questionnaires were used to follow ...
López-Bermejo A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and adiponectin are strongly related to insulin sensitivity; insulin resistance of pregnancy is a major determinant of infant's birthweight. We aimed to study the contributions of maternal serum concentrations of soluble TNF-alpha receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) and adiponectin to infant's birthweight. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, hospital-based ...
Turan Tanya N - - 2004
Stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium is a rare but serious cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Pregnancy-associated maternal changes should remain additional considerations in the evaluation and treatment of the pregnant patient who has stroke and not preclude a comprehensive stroke evaluation. Instead, the approach to the pregnant patient ...
Gluckman Peter D - - 2004
The major non-genetic factor determining the size of the fetus at term is maternal constraint. This term refers to a set of poorly defined processes by which maternal and uteroplacental factors act to limit the growth of the fetus, presumably by limiting nutrient availability and/or the metabolic-hormonal drive to grow. ...
Jimoh, AAG; Obstetrics and ...
This study is aimed to determine the effects of maternal and fetal parasitaemia on maternal and fetal haemoglobin. A nine-month (January - September 1997) prospective study was carried out at the labour unit of the Regional Hospital in Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. One hundred and twenty-four patients with singleton deliveries were ...
Karimi Prameela - - 2004
Traumatic injury following a motor vehicle accident during pregnancy has an enormous potential for fetal injury and demise. With the advent of seat belts, shoulder restraints and airbags, and improved maternal survival, the most common cause of fetal loss is placental injury. However, the safety of airbag deployment during pregnancy ...
Nicolaidis Christina - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal ...
Poole Judith H - - 2004
MODS is a rare but potentially lethal complication of pregnancy. Pregnancy induces physiologic changes in all major maternal organ systems that mimic early changes seen in SIRS and MODS. When a potentially life-threatening event occurs, such as hemorrhage,sepsis, or severe preeclampsia, the perinatal nurse must monitor subtle changes in maternal ...
Yang Jian - - 2004
Total and subcellular hepatic Zn, Cu, Se, Mn, V, Hg, Cd, and Ag were determined in a mother-fetus pair of Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli). Except for higher fetal Cu concentration, all maternal elements were higher. Elements existed mostly in the cytosol of both animals except in the case of maternal ...
Berry Stanley M - - 2004
For investigating the possible influence of maternal-fetal HLA compatibility on maternal microchimerism, DNA samples from blood of 120 maternal-fetal pairs were genotyped at two polymorphic loci: glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Informative pairs (mother heterozygous/fetus homozygous at one of the two loci) were then tested by quantitative real-time ...
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