Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 547
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Schrader Matthew - - 2009
The evolution of matrotrophy introduces the potential for genomic conflicts between mothers and embryos. These conflicts are hypothesized to accelerate the evolution of reproductive isolation and to influence the evolution of life-history traits, reproductive structures, and genomic imprinting. These hypotheses assume offspring can influence the amount of maternal investment they ...
Boama Vincent - - 2009
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set very high targets for women's reproductive health through reductions in maternal and infant mortality, among other things. Reductions in maternal mortality and morbidity can be achieved through various different approaches, such as the confidential review of maternal deaths, use of evidence-based treatments and interventions, ...
Rhind S M - - 2009
Fetal tissue concentrations of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and their relationship to maternal tissue concentrations, are largely unknown, in any species. In particular, the patterns of accumulation in the respective tissues following increased rates of environmental exposure are little known. This study was designed to determine fetal and maternal tissue ...
Gasem Turki - - 2009
Objective. The study evaluated the maternal and fetal outcome in 64 pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome. Methods. A retrospective analysis of the medical records was performed of patients with HELLP syndrome managed at this tertiary Obstetric unit between January 1996 and December 2005, who were admitted for preeclamsia/eclampsia and had ...
Anderson Frank W J - - 2009
Women continue to die from pregnancy-related causes at an alarming rate. Maternal mortality was first called a neglected epidemic in 1985, but to date, no significant improvements have been realized. Great disparity exists as lifetime risk of dying from pregnancy is 1 in 26 in Africa, 1 in 7300 in ...
Ho Simone S M - - 2009
AIMS: This article aims to review the literature published to date on the types, current use, the biomechanical effects and adverse effects of maternity support belts for low back pain during pregnancy, to identify future research directions. BACKGROUND: Lumbar/pelvic support belts are frequently recommended for the prevention and treatment of ...
Wu Danny - - 2009
The term fetal surgery is used widely for fetal intervention during pregnancy; maternal-fetal surgery may be more appropriate, because all these invasive procedures also affect the mother. Although there is no direct benefit to the mother from these procedures, the risk to her is for a purely altruistic purpose. It ...
Ali E Y - - 2009
Anaemia affects almost two-thirds of pregnant women in developing countries; it is associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Anaemia during pregnancy, through many endocrine alterations might influence maternal and fetal environment. This study was conducted to investigate the anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal profiles in paired maternal and cord blood ...
Wolf Jason B - - 2009
Maternal effects can play an important role in a diversity of ecological and evolutionary processes such as population dynamics, phenotypic plasticity, niche construction, life-history evolution and the evolutionary response to selection. However, although maternal effects were defined by quantitative geneticists well over half a century ago, there remains some confusion ...
Gordon, John David
The purpose of these studies was to assess the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and fetal effects of valproic acid (VPA) in pregnant sheep. Following i.v. bolus administration, the disposition of VPA was best described by a biexponential function with a t½β of 2.13 ± 0.49 h in maternal serum and 3.37 ± ...
Beloosesky Ron - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Maternal infection or inflammation may induce fetal inflammatory responses and potentially fetal brain injury. We sought to determine whether prophylactic n-acetylcysteine (NAC), a known antiinflammatory, may modulate the fetal cytokine response to maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS). STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats (20/21 days = 0.95 gestation; n = 35) ...
Ibrahim H N - - 2009
The outcome of pregnancy in kidney donors has generally been viewed to be favorable. We determined fetal and maternal outcomes in a large cohort of kidney donors. A total of 2102 women have donated a kidney at our institution; 1589 donors responded to our pregnancy surveys; 1085 reported 3213 pregnancies ...
Cole Zoe A ZA The MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, Untied - - 2009
Maternal nutrition is a potentially important determinant of intrauterine skeletal development. Previous studies have examined the effects of individual nutrients, but the pattern of food consumption may be of greater relevance. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy and bone mass of the offspring at 9 ...
Wang Zhenhua - - 2009
Exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in adult life. However, the time course relationship between prenatal hypoxia and the onset of atherosclerosis in offspring remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of reduced fetal oxygen supply on early ...
Kul Mustafa - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal risk factors, neonatal demographic features and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in a randomly selected group of pregnancies during delivery. The subjects were categorized into five groups as having: no maternal risk factor, maternal hypertension, gestational diabetes, maternal smoking ...
Zhu Liyan - - 2009
Angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone, and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are three major neuropeptides or hormones that are important in the control of body fluid regulation. Dehydration during pregnancy induces alterations in maternal-fetal fluid homeostasis. It is still not clear about effects and mechanisms of maternal water deprivation on fetal neuroendocrine and ...
Carlson William H - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine maternal and fetal demographic factors which predict the risk of increasing severity of hypospadias. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A population-based study using the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database was performed. Demographic variables of mothers and boys with hypospadias were obtained from 1980 to 2007 inclusive. Hypospadias was graded ...
Cecatti Jose G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the study of women who survive life-threatening complications related to pregnancy (maternal near-miss cases) may represent a practical alternative to surveillance of maternal morbidity/mortality since the number of cases is higher and the woman herself is able to provide information on the difficulties she ...
Fuksman Rosa B - - 2009
Immature delivery is frequently associated with a maternal-fetal inflammatory response at the placental level. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, staging, and grading of histological findings (associated with acute maternal-fetal inflammatory response syndrome) in placentas of immature fetuses and to establish the relationship between maternal and ...
Kramer Hannah M C - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence and risk factors of maternal mortality and severe morbidity from sepsis in the Netherlands. DESIGN: A nationwide confidential enquiry into maternal mortality from 1993 to 2006 and severe maternal morbidity from 2004 to 2006. SETTING: All 98 Dutch maternity units in the Netherlands. POPULATION: All pregnant ...
Schlabritz-Loutsevitch Natalia E - - 2009
Maternal obesity represents a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Glucocorticoids are known to promote obesity in adults. We evaluated maternal and fetal metabolic changes during and after 3 weekly courses of betamethasone administered to pregnant baboons (Papio subspecies) at doses equivalent to those given to pregnant women. Betamethasone administration during ...
Nassar Anwar H - - 2009
In addition to the possible association between pregnancy in women with advanced maternal age and increased rates of obstetric and perinatal complications, those women and their children might suffer from long-term sequelae. In this review, the long-term consequences of delayed motherhood on the offspring and the possible association between advanced ...
Ege M J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Various studies have found reduced prevalences of atopic sensitization and atopic diseases in children previously exposed to infections or living conditions with a high microbial burden, such as the farming environment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the relationships of cord blood immunoglobulin E (IgE) with maternal health conditions before ...
Love Oliver P - - 2008
The question of why maternal stress influences offspring phenotype is of significant interest to evolutionary physiologists. Although embryonic exposure to maternally derived glucocorticoids (i.e., corticosterone) generally reduces offspring quality, effects may adaptively match maternal quality with offspring demand. We present results from an interannual field experiment in European starlings (Sturnus ...
Harkness M - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine how many UK maternity units have implemented National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance for routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP). In May 2002, the NICE recommended a policy of RAADP for RhD-negative pregnant women. The policy has the potential to reduce maternal ...
Pilkington Hugo - - 2008
As in many other countries, the number of maternity units has diminished substantially in France, raising concerns about the reduced accessibility of obstetric services. We describe here the impact of closures on distance and mean travel time between pregnant women's homes and maternity units. We used data from the 1998 ...
- - 2008
Elevated maternal phenylalanine concentrations during pregnancy are teratogenic and may result in growth retardation, microcephaly, significant developmental delays, and birth defects in the offspring of women with poorly controlled phenylketonuria during pregnancy. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as mild hyperphenylalaninemia, should receive ...
Lai Beatrice Pui-yee - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study examined the negative impact of postnatal bulimic symptoms on parenting behavior. METHOD: Ninety-one Chinese mothers were assessed with self-report questionnaires during pregnancy (T1) and telephone interviewed at 6 months (T2) and 1 year postnatal (T3). RESULTS: Bivariate correlation analyses showed that parenting behavior at T3 was ...
Marinoni Emanuela E Centre for Scientific Research, San Pietro Hospital, Fatebenefratelli, Rome, Italy. - - 2008
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of in vivo administration of prenatal betamethasone on leptin and adiponectin concentration in maternal and fetal circulation. Blood samples were collected from 35 pregnant women receiving betamethasone for threatened preterm delivery before and at different time points after drug administration. ...
Alhusen Jeanne L - - 2008
To critically review and synthesize original research published since 2000 designed to measure factors that influence maternal-fetal attachment. EBSCOhost Research Databases that included PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS were searched for journal articles published in the past 7 years (2000-2007) that examined variables thought to increase, decrease, or cause ...
Klinich Kathleen DeSantis - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This project was undertaken to improve understanding of factors associated with adverse fetal outcomes of pregnant occupants involved in motor-vehicle crashes. STUDY DESIGN: In-depth investigations of crashes involving 57 pregnant occupants were performed. Maternal and fetal injuries, restraint information, measures of external and internal vehicle damage, and details about ...
Gillespie Duncan O S - - 2008
Maternal fitness should be maximized by the optimal division of reproductive investment between offspring number and offspring quality. While evidence for this is abundant in many taxa, there have been fewer tests in mammals, and in particular, humans. We used a dataset of humans spanning three generations from pre-industrial Finland ...
Momoi Nobuo - - 2008
Caffeine consumption during pregnancy is reported to increase the risk of in utero growth restriction and spontaneous abortion. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that modest maternal caffeine exposure affects in utero developing embryonic cardiovascular (CV) function and growth without altering maternal hemodynamics. Caffeine (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) subcutaneous) was ...
Lawlor Debbie A DA Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom. - - 2008
The developmental overnutrition hypothesis suggests that greater maternal obesity during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity in later life. If true, this would result in the obesity epidemic progressing across generations irrespective of environmental or genetic changes. It is therefore important to robustly test this hypothesis. We explored this hypothesis ...
van Goor Saskia A - - 2008
We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from day 3 prior to conception till ...
Grosso Laura M - - 2008
We sought to examine associations among measures of caffeine exposure, including maternal urine, umbilical cord blood, and maternal self report. Pregnant women were recruited from 56 obstetric practices and 15 clinics associated with six hospitals in Connecticut and Massachusetts between September 1996 and January 2000; 3633 women were enrolled. Maternal ...
Workman Joanna L - - 2008
This study investigated the effect of maternal pinealectomy and postnatal pinealectomy on affective responses. Siberian hamsters were born to either pinealectomized or sham-operated dams and then underwent pinealectomy or a sham operation. Maternal pinealectomy increased depressive-like responses of offspring in the forced swim test. Maternal pinealectomy increased rearing behaviour and ...
Marshall Dustin J - - 2008
Maternal effects can have dramatic influences on the phenotype of offspring. Maternal effects can act as a conduit by which the maternal environment negatively affects offspring fitness, but they can also buffer offspring from environmental change by altering the phenotype of offspring according to local environmental conditions and as such, ...
Ohta Hidenobu - - 2008
It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD) cycle. To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the ...
Lain Kristine Y - - 2007
Maternal metabolism changes substantially during pregnancy. Early gestation can be viewed as an anabolic state in the mother with an increase in maternal fat stores and small increases in insulin sensitivity. Hence, nutrients are stored in early pregnancy to meet the feto-placental and maternal demands of late gestation and lactation. ...
Ostrovsky Andrew N - - 2007
We studied by SEM the external morphology of the ooecium in eight bryozoans of the genus Cauloramphus (Cheilostomata, Calloporidae): C. spinifer, C. variegatus, C. magnus, C. multiavicularia, C. tortilis, C. cryptoarmatus, C. niger, and C. multispinosus, and by sectioning and light microscopy the anatomy of the brooding apparatus of C. ...
Cecatti Jose Guilherme - - 2007
The occurrence of complications during pregnancy depends less on the degree of human development than differences in the way complications in pregnancy are detected and managed. It is the quick diagnosis and correct management that really contribute to the enormous differences in maternal mortality ratios between countries and regions. Understanding ...
Coutellier Laurence - - 2008
According to the maternal mediation hypothesis, brain and behavioural development in rodents is affected by environment-dependent variations in maternal care. Thus, it has been shown that early handling results in reduced behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to stressors and that these effects are associated with increased maternal care received during infancy. ...
Yang Jian - - 2008
Total and subcellular renal Zn, Cu, Se, Mn, V, Hg, Cd and Ag were determined by a mother-fetus pair of Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli). All element concentrations in the maternal individual were higher than those in the fetal individual. Most of total renal elements studied were present in the cytosol ...
Jonakait G Miller - - 2007
That maternal inflammation adversely affects fetal brain development is well established. Less well understood are the mechanisms that account for neurodevelopmental disorders arising from maternal inflammation. This review seeks to begin an examination of possible sites and mechanisms of action whereby inflammatory cytokines - produced by the mother or by ...
Miller Warren Bailley - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Few studies examine the consequences of unwanted pregnancy on child development, and most of those that do, use measures of pregnancy intention. Here we use measures of pregnancy wantedness, together with measures of maternal motivation, to examine the potential effect of wantedness on the child's attachment relationship with its ...
Brian Susan Riddle - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the first case of the successful use of pegvisomant during pregnancy in a woman with acromegaly. DESIGN: We present the case of a 26-yr-old female with acromegaly who had failed surgical and subsequent medical therapy but whose disease was well controlled on pegvisomant. She ...
Huppertz Berthold - - 2007
Human implantation and placentation comprise the direct contact of fetal with maternal tissues culminating in the erosion of maternal tissues by fetal cells. A complex interplay of maternal and fetal factors is key to maintain pregnancy until delivery. Immunological interactions can be found at different stages, such as blastocyst attachment, ...
Prickett Timothy C R - - 2007
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has a crucial role in postnatal endochondral bone growth and is rapidly responsive to changes in nutrition. Although CNP is expressed in the placenta, little is known about the regulation and role of CNP in fetal-maternal health. We hypothesized that CNP may be similarly responsive to ...
Ethier-Chiasson M - - 2007
Maternal hyperlipidemia is a characteristic feature during pregnancy, it has been reported that modification of the maternal lipid profile can induce disturbance during pregnancy. In this study, we evaluated the impact of maternal lipid profile on the placental protein expression of two major receptors in cholesterol metabolism, the low density ...
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