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Bulla R - - 2012
An inflammatory-like process and vascular remodeling represent the main changes that occur in decidua in the early phase of pregnancy. These changes are partly induced by trophoblast cells that colonize the decidua and are also contributed by the complement system, which can easily be activated as a result of tissue ...
Miranda Rajesh C - - 2012
Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a stereotypic cluster of fetal craniofacial, cardiovascular, skeletal, and neurological deficits that are collectively termed the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Fetal ethanol exposure is a leading non-genetic cause of mental retardation. Mechanisms underlying the etiology of ethanol teratology are varied and ...
Luzzo Kerri M - - 2012
Maternal obesity is associated with poor outcomes across the reproductive spectrum including infertility, increased time to pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, fetal loss, congenital abnormalities and neonatal conditions. Furthermore, the proportion of reproductive-aged woman that are obese in the population is increasing sharply. From current studies it is not clear if ...
Brandley Matthew C - - 2012
Although the morphological and physiological changes involved in pregnancy in live-bearing reptiles are well studied, the genetic mechanisms that underlie these changes are not known. We used the viviparous African Ocellated Skink, Chalcides ocellatus, as a model to identify a near complete gene expression profile associated with pregnancy using RNA-Seq ...
Kanamarlapudi Venkateswarlu V Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom. - - 2012
ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) small GTP binding protein plays critical roles in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane trafficking, including internalisation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR). ARF6 operates by cycling between GDP-bound (inactive) and GTP-bound (active) forms and is a potential regulator of GPCR-mediated uterine activity during pregnancy and labour. ...
Craythorn R G - - 2011
Follistatin, an inhibitor of activin A, has key regulatory roles in the female reproductive tract. Follistatin has two splice variants: FST288, largely associated with cell surfaces, and FST315, the predominant circulating form. The mechanism regulating uterine expression of these variants is unknown. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure expression of ...
Mamo S - - 2011
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) comprise a large protein family of transmembrane receptors that sense molecules outside the cell to activate the signal transduction pathways inside and, ultimately, the cellular responses. They have a central role in various physiological systems that places them at the forefront of many drug target programs ...
Eiden Rina D - - 2011
This study examined sources of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy and misclassification of women as having no SHS exposure if partner smoking was used as the only measure of SHS exposure. We also examined changes in SHS exposure across the three trimesters of pregnancy. The sample consisted of ...
Hodes-Wertz Brooke - - 2011
Oocyte cryopreservation still bears the experimental label. Remarkable innovation in this field has led to immense improvement in clinical outcomes and has even resulted in outcomes comparable to those achieved following fresh embryo transfers. Such success has prompted this centre to investigate outcomes of cryopreservation options (oocyte versus pronuclear zygote ...
Miao Maohua - - 2011
To examine the effect of in utero BPA exposure on the birth weight of offspring, a total of 587 children from families in which parent(s) did or did not have occupational exposure to BPA were examined. Their birth weights were obtained by an in-person interview of the mother. Parental BPA ...
Todd Brian D - - 2011
There is growing recognition of the ways in which maternal effects can influence offspring size, physiological performance, and survival. Additionally, environmental contaminants increasingly act as stressors in maternal environments, possibly leading to maternal effects on subsequent offspring. Thus, it is important to determine whether contaminants and other stressors can contribute ...
Snijder Claudia A - - 2011
To study the influence of occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) on time to pregnancy (TTP). Cross-sectional analysis within a prospective, population-based cohort study. Medical center. Mothers and fathers who filled out a questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (response 77% and 82% of enrollment, respectively) were selected if the pregnancy was planned ...
Turner Michelle C - - 2011
It is a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous observational epidemiologic studies examining the relationship between residential pesticide exposures during critical exposure time windows (preconception, pregnancy, and childhood) and childhood leukemia. Searches of Medline and other electronic databases were performed (1950-2009). Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessment were performed ...
Miyake Yoshihiro - - 2011
To cite this article: Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Tanaka K, Hirota Y. Maternal B vitamin intake during pregnancy and wheeze and eczema in Japanese infants aged 16-24 months: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Pediatric Allergy Immunology 2011: 22: 69-74. ABSTRACT: It is uncertain whether B group vitamins are ...
Kim I H - - 2011
Earlier postpartum cyclicity based on hormonal analysis was related to the subsequent fertility, although it has not been clarified under field conditions. This field study examined the relationship between the detection of corpus luteum (CL) at the first post partum month and subsequent reproductive performance in dairy cows. Holstein dairy ...
Tersigni Chiara - - 2011
Adipose tissue is a specialized endocrine and paracrine organ producing specific factors called adipokines. It is well known that adipokines balance is fundamental to prevent obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. During the last years, new roles of adipokines have been emerging in the field of fertility and reproduction. Although ...
Mesquita F F - - 2010
Maternal dietary protein restriction during pregnancy is associated with low fetal birth weight and leads to renal morphological and physiological changes. Different mechanisms can contribute to this phenotype: exposure to fetal glucocorticoid, alterations in the components of the renin-angiotensin system, apoptosis, and DNA methylation. A low-protein diet during gestation decreases ...
Crume T L - - 2011
To evaluate whether exposure to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adiposity and fat distribution in a multiethnic population of children. Retrospective cohort study of 82 children exposed to maternal GDM and 379 unexposed youths 6-13 years of age with measured BMI, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, and visceral and ...
Tsoi Elly - - 2010
The prevalence of maternal obesity is rising, up to 20% in some antenatal clinics, in line with the prevalence of obesity in the general population. Maternal obesity poses significant risks for all aspects of pregnancy. There are risks to the mother with increased maternal mortality, pre-eclampsia, diabetes and thromboembolic disorders. ...
Van Calsteren K - - 2010
The paucity of data on the fetal effects of prenatal exposure to chemotherapy prompted us to study transplacental transport of chemotherapeutic agents. Fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (FEC) and doxorubicin-bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) were administered to pregnant baboons. At predefined time points over the first 25 h after drug administration, fetal and maternal blood samples, amniotic ...
Valsamakis G - - 2010
During pregnancy, important changes take place in maternal metabolism because of the growing fetus and placental formation. The increase in insulin resistance during pregnancy is paralleled by the progressive increase of maternal adipose tissue deposition. This review examines the topography of fat mass deposition during pregnancy in relation to factors ...
Smith Gordon C S - - 2010
Stillbirth affects approximately 1 in 200 pregnancies and is one of the most common serious complications of pregnancy. Stillbirth can occur as a consequence of diverse processes, including fetal abnormality, isoimmunization, infection, maternal preeclampsia, placental abruption, maternal medical conditions, complications of labor and delivery, growth restriction, and also often occurs ...
Haggarty Paul - - 2010
Deposition of fat in the fetus increases exponentially with gestational age, reaching its maximal rate-around 7 g/day or 90% of energy deposition-at term. In late pregnancy, many women consuming contemporary Western diets may not be able to meet the fetal demand for n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) from ...
Parrish Marc - - 2010
Hyperuricemia has received much attention and debate recently with regard to its utility as a marker for preeclampsia and as a predictor of adverse maternal-fetal outcome. This investigation was undertaken in patients with severe/superimposed preeclampsia to determine whether the maternal uric acid (UA) level at initial hospital admission is a ...
Kramer Michael S - - 2010
During pregnancy, most maternal corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted by the placenta, not the hypothalamus. Second trimester maternal CRH concentration is robustly associated with the subsequent risk of preterm birth, and it is often assumed that physiological and/or psychological stress stimulates placental CRH release. Evidence supporting the latter assumption is ...
Fattah Chro - - 2011
Background. Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. Objective. We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, ...
Szucs Kinga A - - 2010
Despite the fact that exclusive breastfeeding is the gold standard for feeding babies through 6 months of age, there is a notable paucity of information regarding the effect of various chronic maternal illnesses on lactation. With increasingly effective obstetrical and subspecialty management of pregnancy in these women, a growing number ...
van Dillen Jeroen - - 2010
Sepsis is a major cause of maternal death worldwide. Little is known on the incidence of severe maternal morbidity related to sepsis. In this review, we focus on new findings concerning epidemiology, etiology and outcome of maternal sepsis in low-income as well as high-income countries. It is estimated that puerperal ...
Larsen Caroline M - - 2010
High prolactin during pregnancy, which is essential for normal postpartum maternal behavior, increases neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) of the maternal brain. Because SVZ mitogenesis generates new olfactory neurons and may contribute to perception of novel odorants, we hypothesized that the prolactin-induced increase in SVZ ...
Freiberger T - - 2010
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays a critical role in maternal-fetal IgG transfer. Recently, a functionally active promoter polymorphism in the FCRN gene, represented by variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), has been described. We analysed 103 single fetal samples and 103 paired maternal and fetal samples collected from umbilical ...
Ackerman C M CM Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Tarry 15-717, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2010
Context: The high incidence of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in Western societies and their impact on quality of life emphasize the importance of identifying underlying susceptibility loci for metabolic diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) susceptibility locus D19S884 allele 8 (A8) is associated with measures of ...
Glynn Laura M - - 2010
Mammalian pregnancy produces alterations in maternal physiology that are necessary for maintaining gestation, fetal development and parturition. These changes also may prepare the maternal brain for the unique demands of motherhood. Parous rodents exhibit long-term changes in neurological structure and function and human work suggests that other landmark events in ...
Abu-Saad Kathleen - - 2010
In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference ...
Denison F C - - 2010
Maternal obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for both mother and offspring. The mechanisms underlying the increased risk associated with maternal obesity are not well understood. In non-pregnant populations, many of the complications of obesity are thought to be mediated in part by inflammation and its sequelae. Recent ...
Walsh Judi - - 2010
Since Cranley's conceptualization in 1981, which produced a useful measure to investigate the construct, maternal-fetal relationships have most often been referred to as maternal-fetal, antenatal or prenatal "attachment". However, critical analysis of the literature suggests that this relationship is not an attachment relationship at all, as Bowlby and Ainsworth first ...
Thompson John M D - - 2010
Maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy is important for the growth and development of the fetus. The effects of pre-pregnancy nutrition (estimated by maternal size) are well documented. There is little information in today's Western society on the effect of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on the fetus. The aim ...
Hocher Berthold - - 2010
It was suggested that fetal sex may substantially affect maternal glycemic control during pregnancy in genetically susceptible mothers. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2) Pro12Ala polymorphism is known to affect glycemic control and may act in a sex-specific manner. This polymorphism is thus an attractive candidate to test this hypothesis ...
Mortensen Kristian Havmand - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pregnancy rarely occurs in women with Turner syndrome, and poor maternal outcomes are prominent in these women. CASES: We report two women with 45,X Turner syndrome who had a total of four spontaneous pregnancies. Maternal and fetal outcomes were good despite maternal comorbidities. Cesarean deliveries were performed in ...
Zielinsky Paulo - - 2010
Fetal ductus arteriosus constriction is a clinical disorder that occurs as a result of inhibition of the prostaglandin synthesis pathway, and has long been associated to maternal intake of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in late pregnancy. As a consequence of an increased right ventricular pressure, with tricuspid regurgitation and heart failure, ...
Lee C Y W - - 2010
Obesity is an important public health issue not only in the general population, but also among pregnant women. Maternal obesity is associated with potential risks and complications for both the mother and the fetus. In this review, an update on the reproductive risks of maternal obesity and the role of ...
Cramer J S - - 2010
Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet influencing fetal sex in ...
Wouldes Trecia A TA Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, New Zealand. t.wouldes@auckland.ac.nz - - 2010
In recent decades there has been an increase in the methadone dosages prescribed for opioid dependent women during pregnancy. Using prospective longitudinal data from a cohort of 32 methadone exposed and 42 non-methadone exposed infants, this study examined the relationship between maternal methadone dose during pregnancy and a range of ...
- - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether higher maternal body mass index (BMI), independent of maternal glycaemia, is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Fifteen centres in nine countries. POPULATION: Eligible pregnant women. METHODS: A 75-g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed between 24 and 32 weeks ...
Chen Tianhui - - 2010
Little is known about correlates of first-trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first-trimester maternal concentrations of four hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth ...
Dipietro Janet A - - 2010
The earliest relationship does not begin with birth. Pregnant women construct mental representations of the fetus, and feelings of affiliation or "maternal-fetal attachment" generally increase over the course of gestation. While there is a fairly substantial literature on the development and moderation of psychological features of the maternal-fetal relationship, including ...
Paumgartten Francisco J R - - 2010
The relevance of fetal abnormalities noted at maternally toxic doses is a long-standing issue regarding the interpretation of findings of segment II studies. A number of diseases and conditions during pregnancy are known to adversely affect embryo/fetal development, and along this line many scientists believe that any marked disturbance of ...
Leiss Jack K - - 2010
We sought to advance understanding of linkage error in U.S. maternally linked datasets and how the error might affect results of studies based on the linked data. North Carolina birth and fetal death records for 1988-1997 were maternally linked (n=1,030,029). The maternal set probability, defined as the probability that all ...
Palmer Christina G S - - 2010
Prenatal/obstetric complications are implicated in schizophrenia susceptibility. Some complications may arise from maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility, a term used to describe maternal-fetal genotype combinations that produce an adverse prenatal environment. A review of maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility studies suggests that schizophrenia susceptibility is increased by maternal-fetal genotype combinations at the RHD and ...
Hewitt Amy J - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Ethanol neurobehavioural teratogenicity is a leading cause of developmental mental deficiency, in which the hippocampus is a target site of injury. The multi-faceted mechanism of ethanol teratogenicity is not completely understood. This study tested the hypothesis that chronic ethanol exposure (CEE), via chronic maternal ethanol administration, increases cytochrome P450 ...
Nelson Scott M SM Division of Developmental Medicine, Reproductive and Maternal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. - - 2010
Obesity among pregnant women is highly prevalent worldwide and is associated in a linear manner with markedly increased risk of adverse outcome for mother and infant. Obesity in the mother may also independently confer risk of obesity to her child. The role of maternal metabolism in determining these outcomes and ...
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