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Lingis Melissa - - 2012
In ovine pregnancy, as in human pregnancy, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal activity is chronically increased. These studies were designed to test the hypotheses that expression of serotonergic genes and responsiveness to serotonin are increased in pregnancy. We tested the stimulatory effect of an acute, intracerebroventricular injection of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine on ...
Männik Jaana - - 2012
The human GH/CSH cluster consisting of one pituitary-expressed (GH1) and four placenta-expressed loci has been implicated in maternal metabolic adaptation to pregnancy, regulation of intrauterine and postnatal growth. We investigated how the mRNA expression profile of placental GH2, CSH1 and CSH2 genes and their alternative transcripts correlates with maternal pre-eclampsia ...
Escobar Javier - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute a family of channel proteins implicated in transmembrane water transport. Thirteen different AQPs (AQP0-12) have been described but their precise biologic function still remains unclear. AQPs 1, 3, 4, 8, and 9 expression has been described in human chorion, amnion and placenta; however, AQP4 is the ...
Soo Poh S - - 2012
Poor nutrition is a major cause of fetal growth restriction which increases neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as the risk of adult onset diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of maternal undernutrition on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in the placenta and the brain of both ...
Verduzco Adriana - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence and localisation of the principal steroidogenic proteins in bovine placenta from Day 50 to Day 120 of pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, at all stages investigated, bovine steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P45011A1 and hydroxy-δ-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3β- and steroid ...
Schmedt Anna - - 2012
Early expression of syndecan-1, a regulator of growth factor and chemokine function, in animal and human abortuses or placenta at delivery suggests a potential role during embryonic development. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between early placental syndecan expression and fetal outcome in ongoing pregnancies. Prospective ...
Chen Xi - - 2012
It is thought that a shallow invasion of the maternal decidua by extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) is associated with the development of pre-eclampsia. Here, we focus on the expression of the proangiogenic proteins Cyr61 and CTGF in the human placenta during normal pregnancy compared with that in the late pre-eclamptic placenta. ...
Bainbridge Shannon A - - 2012
Preeclampsia is a life-threatening disorder characterized by maternal gestational hypertension and proteinuria that results from placental dysfunction. Placental abnormalities include abnormal syncytiotrophoblast and a 50% reduction in placental expression of the transcription factor Gcm1. In mice, homozygous deletion of Gcm1 prevents syncytiotrophoblast differentiation and is embryonic lethal. We used heterozygous ...
Drever Nathan - - 2012
Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase prevent cellular damage produced by free radicals. Our objective was to evaluate if prenatal alcohol exposure decreased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the brain, liver, or placenta of fetal mice. Timed, pregnant C57BL6/J mice were treated on gestational day 8 with intraperitoneal injection ...
Naidansuren P J - - 2012
The enzyme 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD) catalyzes the conversion of progesterone to its inactive form, 20α-hydroxyprogesterone. This enzyme has been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of luteal function in experimental animals. In this study, we cloned and expressed the gene encoding elk deer 20α-HSD from reproductive placental ...
Yin Y - - 2012
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a reversible cholestatic liver disease of undefined etiology and pathogenesis. It is likely associated with dyslipidemia. However, the explanation for the role of dyslipidemia is not clear. We hypothesized that an increased oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) may play ...
Godosis Dimitrios - - 2012
Gestation is a period of significant physiological changes that can severely affect the function of many systems, including the cardiovascular. The deviation from the standard that occurs during pregnancy may cause the deterioration of pre-existent cardiovascular diseases or the appearance of new ones. In this review we will present the ...
Fernandes de Abreu Diana Andrea - - 2012
In a previous study, we demonstrated that mouse adult F(1) offspring, exposed to a vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, developed a less severe and delayed Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), when compared with control offspring. We then wondered whether a similar response was observed in the subsequent generation. To answer this ...
Lorenzi Teresa - - 2012
The etiology of miscarriage is often multifactorial. One major cause, immunological rejection of the fetus, has not been clearly elucidated. Our aim was to establish whether the semaphorin CD100, its natural receptor CD72, and the glycoprotein CD45, implicated in immune mechanisms, are involved in pregnancy loss by examining their placental ...
Ashur-Fabian Osnat - - 2012
Preeclampsia, a severe unpredictable complication of pregnancy, occurs in 6% of pregnancies, usually in the second or third trimester. The specific etiology of preeclampsia remains unclear, although the pathophysiological hallmark of this condition appears to be an inadequate blood supply to the placenta. As a result of the impaired placental ...
Schonkeren Dorrith - - 2012
In pregnancies achieved after egg donation (ED) tolerance towards a completely allogeneic fetus is mediated by several complex immunoregulatory mechanisms, of which numerous aspects are still unknown. A distinct lesion not described previously in the literature, was repeatedly found in the chorionic plate in a substantial portion of placentas from ...
Raz Tal - - 2012
In mammalian pregnancy, maternal cardiovascular adaptations must match the requirements of the growing fetus(es), and respond to physiologic and pathologic conditions. Such adaptations are particularly demanding for mammals bearing large-litter pregnancies, with their inherent conflict between the interests of each individual fetus and the welfare of the entire progeny. The ...
Struble Evi Budo - - 2012
Despite increased use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody therapies, including during pregnancy, there is little data on appropriate animal models that could humanely be used to understand determinants of protection and to evaluate safety of these biologics in the mother and the developing fetus. Here, we demonstrate that pregnant guinea ...
Chung Eunhee - - 2012
Although the hypertrophic responses of the heart to pregnancy and exercise are both considered to be physiological processes, they occur in quite different hormonal and temporal settings. In this study, we have compared the global transcriptional profiles of left ventricular tissues at various time points during the progression of hypertrophy ...
Lv Fang - - 2012
In this study, we aimed to establish a mouse model of repeated medical termination of pregnancy in order to determine subsequent outcomes. A model of mifepristone (RU 486)-induced medical abortion was established in BALB/c mice to facilitate the investigation of the impact of medical abortion on subsequent pregnancies, including litter ...
Bulla R - - 2012
An inflammatory-like process and vascular remodeling represent the main changes that occur in decidua in the early phase of pregnancy. These changes are partly induced by trophoblast cells that colonize the decidua and are also contributed by the complement system, which can easily be activated as a result of tissue ...
Miranda Rajesh C - - 2012
Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a stereotypic cluster of fetal craniofacial, cardiovascular, skeletal, and neurological deficits that are collectively termed the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Fetal ethanol exposure is a leading non-genetic cause of mental retardation. Mechanisms underlying the etiology of ethanol teratology are varied and ...
Luzzo Kerri M - - 2012
Maternal obesity is associated with poor outcomes across the reproductive spectrum including infertility, increased time to pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, fetal loss, congenital abnormalities and neonatal conditions. Furthermore, the proportion of reproductive-aged woman that are obese in the population is increasing sharply. From current studies it is not clear if ...
Brandley Matthew C - - 2012
Although the morphological and physiological changes involved in pregnancy in live-bearing reptiles are well studied, the genetic mechanisms that underlie these changes are not known. We used the viviparous African Ocellated Skink, Chalcides ocellatus, as a model to identify a near complete gene expression profile associated with pregnancy using RNA-Seq ...
Kanamarlapudi Venkateswarlu V Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom. - - 2012
ARF6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) small GTP binding protein plays critical roles in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane trafficking, including internalisation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR). ARF6 operates by cycling between GDP-bound (inactive) and GTP-bound (active) forms and is a potential regulator of GPCR-mediated uterine activity during pregnancy and labour. ...
Craythorn R G - - 2011
Follistatin, an inhibitor of activin A, has key regulatory roles in the female reproductive tract. Follistatin has two splice variants: FST288, largely associated with cell surfaces, and FST315, the predominant circulating form. The mechanism regulating uterine expression of these variants is unknown. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure expression of ...
Mamo S - - 2011
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) comprise a large protein family of transmembrane receptors that sense molecules outside the cell to activate the signal transduction pathways inside and, ultimately, the cellular responses. They have a central role in various physiological systems that places them at the forefront of many drug target programs ...
Eiden Rina D RD Research Institute on Addictions, 1021 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA. - - 2011
This study examined sources of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy and misclassification of women as having no SHS exposure if partner smoking was used as the only measure of SHS exposure. We also examined changes in SHS exposure across the three trimesters of pregnancy. The sample consisted of ...
Hodes-Wertz Brooke - - 2011
Oocyte cryopreservation still bears the experimental label. Remarkable innovation in this field has led to immense improvement in clinical outcomes and has even resulted in outcomes comparable to those achieved following fresh embryo transfers. Such success has prompted this centre to investigate outcomes of cryopreservation options (oocyte versus pronuclear zygote ...
Miao Maohua - - 2011
To examine the effect of in utero BPA exposure on the birth weight of offspring, a total of 587 children from families in which parent(s) did or did not have occupational exposure to BPA were examined. Their birth weights were obtained by an in-person interview of the mother. Parental BPA ...
Todd Brian D - - 2011
There is growing recognition of the ways in which maternal effects can influence offspring size, physiological performance, and survival. Additionally, environmental contaminants increasingly act as stressors in maternal environments, possibly leading to maternal effects on subsequent offspring. Thus, it is important to determine whether contaminants and other stressors can contribute ...
Snijder Claudia A - - 2011
To study the influence of occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) on time to pregnancy (TTP). Cross-sectional analysis within a prospective, population-based cohort study. Medical center. Mothers and fathers who filled out a questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (response 77% and 82% of enrollment, respectively) were selected if the pregnancy was planned ...
Turner Michelle C - - 2011
It is a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous observational epidemiologic studies examining the relationship between residential pesticide exposures during critical exposure time windows (preconception, pregnancy, and childhood) and childhood leukemia. Searches of Medline and other electronic databases were performed (1950-2009). Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessment were performed ...
Miyake Yoshihiro - - 2011
To cite this article: Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Tanaka K, Hirota Y. Maternal B vitamin intake during pregnancy and wheeze and eczema in Japanese infants aged 16-24 months: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Pediatric Allergy Immunology 2011: 22: 69-74. ABSTRACT: It is uncertain whether B group vitamins are ...
Kim I H - - 2011
Earlier postpartum cyclicity based on hormonal analysis was related to the subsequent fertility, although it has not been clarified under field conditions. This field study examined the relationship between the detection of corpus luteum (CL) at the first post partum month and subsequent reproductive performance in dairy cows. Holstein dairy ...
Tersigni Chiara C Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, - - 2011
Adipose tissue is a specialized endocrine and paracrine organ producing specific factors called adipokines. It is well known that adipokines balance is fundamental to prevent obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. During the last years, new roles of adipokines have been emerging in the field of fertility and reproduction. Although ...
Mesquita F F - - 2010
Maternal dietary protein restriction during pregnancy is associated with low fetal birth weight and leads to renal morphological and physiological changes. Different mechanisms can contribute to this phenotype: exposure to fetal glucocorticoid, alterations in the components of the renin-angiotensin system, apoptosis, and DNA methylation. A low-protein diet during gestation decreases ...
Crume T L - - 2011
To evaluate whether exposure to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adiposity and fat distribution in a multiethnic population of children. Retrospective cohort study of 82 children exposed to maternal GDM and 379 unexposed youths 6-13 years of age with measured BMI, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, and visceral and ...
Tsoi Elly - - 2010
The prevalence of maternal obesity is rising, up to 20% in some antenatal clinics, in line with the prevalence of obesity in the general population. Maternal obesity poses significant risks for all aspects of pregnancy. There are risks to the mother with increased maternal mortality, pre-eclampsia, diabetes and thromboembolic disorders. ...
Van Calsteren K - - 2010
The paucity of data on the fetal effects of prenatal exposure to chemotherapy prompted us to study transplacental transport of chemotherapeutic agents. Fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (FEC) and doxorubicin-bleomycin-vinblastine-dacarbazine (ABVD) were administered to pregnant baboons. At predefined time points over the first 25 h after drug administration, fetal and maternal blood samples, amniotic ...
Valsamakis G - - 2010
During pregnancy, important changes take place in maternal metabolism because of the growing fetus and placental formation. The increase in insulin resistance during pregnancy is paralleled by the progressive increase of maternal adipose tissue deposition. This review examines the topography of fat mass deposition during pregnancy in relation to factors ...
Smith Gordon C S - - 2010
Stillbirth affects approximately 1 in 200 pregnancies and is one of the most common serious complications of pregnancy. Stillbirth can occur as a consequence of diverse processes, including fetal abnormality, isoimmunization, infection, maternal preeclampsia, placental abruption, maternal medical conditions, complications of labor and delivery, growth restriction, and also often occurs ...
Haggarty Paul - - 2010
Deposition of fat in the fetus increases exponentially with gestational age, reaching its maximal rate-around 7 g/day or 90% of energy deposition-at term. In late pregnancy, many women consuming contemporary Western diets may not be able to meet the fetal demand for n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) from ...
Parrish Marc - - 2010
Hyperuricemia has received much attention and debate recently with regard to its utility as a marker for preeclampsia and as a predictor of adverse maternal-fetal outcome. This investigation was undertaken in patients with severe/superimposed preeclampsia to determine whether the maternal uric acid (UA) level at initial hospital admission is a ...
Kramer Michael S - - 2010
During pregnancy, most maternal corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted by the placenta, not the hypothalamus. Second trimester maternal CRH concentration is robustly associated with the subsequent risk of preterm birth, and it is often assumed that physiological and/or psychological stress stimulates placental CRH release. Evidence supporting the latter assumption is ...
Fattah Chro - - 2011
Background. Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. Objective. We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, ...
Szucs Kinga A - - 2010
Despite the fact that exclusive breastfeeding is the gold standard for feeding babies through 6 months of age, there is a notable paucity of information regarding the effect of various chronic maternal illnesses on lactation. With increasingly effective obstetrical and subspecialty management of pregnancy in these women, a growing number ...
van Dillen Jeroen - - 2010
Sepsis is a major cause of maternal death worldwide. Little is known on the incidence of severe maternal morbidity related to sepsis. In this review, we focus on new findings concerning epidemiology, etiology and outcome of maternal sepsis in low-income as well as high-income countries. It is estimated that puerperal ...
Larsen Caroline M - - 2010
High prolactin during pregnancy, which is essential for normal postpartum maternal behavior, increases neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) of the maternal brain. Because SVZ mitogenesis generates new olfactory neurons and may contribute to perception of novel odorants, we hypothesized that the prolactin-induced increase in SVZ ...
Freiberger T - - 2010
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays a critical role in maternal-fetal IgG transfer. Recently, a functionally active promoter polymorphism in the FCRN gene, represented by variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), has been described. We analysed 103 single fetal samples and 103 paired maternal and fetal samples collected from umbilical ...
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