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Results 451 - 500 of 590
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Rosenblatt J S - - 1994
Psychobiological studies of maternal behavior among non-primate mammals have arrived at several general conclusions that may aid in our understanding of human maternal behavior and in the clinical treatment of parenting disorders. The hormonal basis of maternal behavior arises during pregnancy and consists of a hormonal priming phase, extending over ...
Whincup P - - 1994
It has been suggested that risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease begin in utero and that maternal nutrition plays an important role. We have examined the relation between maternal factors and BP in a study of 1,311 children in which physical measurements at 9-11 years of age have been linked ...
Dahia P L - - 1994
Association of pheochromocytoma and pregnancy is rare and usually related to high maternal and fetal mortality rates. Maternal effects of the tumor have been studied extensively and the clinical outcome has markedly improved during the last decade. However, the role of excess catecholamines on fetal development has been discussed very ...
Zachariah R - - 1994
Intergenerational attachment relationships between the pregnant woman and her mother, her husband, and her fetus were examined. Self-completed instruments were used to measure the attachment variables for a convenience sample of 115 middle-class mothers who attended urban prenatal classes. Results supported the hypothesis that mother-daughter and husband-wife attachment were correlated ...
Wynn S W - - 1994
Records of the diets of 513 London mothers towards the end of the first trimester of pregnancy have been reported previously to show the maternal nutritional intakes associated with birthweight in the optimum range, which may be assumed to approximate to basic maternal needs for reproduction. The diets associated with ...
Lubenko A - - 1994
The relationship of haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) to the transplacental passage of the four IgG subclasses was assessed at various gestational ages by comparing the maternal and fetal IgG subclass concentrations in 34 pregnancies at risk of HDN with those in 30 pregnancies not at risk. Higher maternal ...
Haig D - - 1993
Pregnancy has commonly been viewed as a cooperative interaction between a mother and her fetus. The effects of natural selection on genes expressed in fetuses, however, may be opposed by the effects of natural selection on genes expressed in mothers. In this sense, a genetic conflict can be said to ...
Fuller S G - - 1993
Although the development of a positive relationship between the mother and infant most likely begins during pregnancy, the correlates of maternal-fetal attachment are poorly understood. This study examined the influence of family functioning on maternal-fetal attachment in a sample of varied ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. The authors surveyed 339 pregnant ...
Koch R - - 1993
Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria (PKU) has created an unexpected problem as females with PKU are reaching childbearing age. Surveys have revealed that maternal phenylalanine blood concentrations above 1200 mumol/L are associated with microcephaly, mental retardation, congenital heart defects, and intrauterine growth retardation among their offspring. It is estimated that as ...
Corodimas K P - - 1993
Expanding on research showing that radio-frequency-induced lesions of the habenular complex disrupt the hormonal onset of maternal behavior in rats, we explored the importance of neurons in the lateral (Lhb) subdivision of the habenular complex for the onset of maternal behavior. On Day 12 of pregnancy, bilateral cytotoxic lesions were ...
Bocking A D - - 1993
Experiments were conducted in 14 pregnant sheep to determine the effect of a 1-h maternal infusion of ethanol (1 g/kg maternal body wt) on placental efflux of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), umbilical blood flow (Qum), and carbohydrate metabolism at 123-130 days gestation. This ethanol dosage regimen produced peak ethanol concentrations in ...
Roehe R - - 1993
The influence of maternal genetic effects on response to selection was examined by stochastic simulation. The selection process of a closed herd of 120 sows, with 24 boars entering the breeding herd each year, was simulated over 10 yr. Effects of different magnitudes of maternal heritability (0, .025, .05), genetic ...
Huch R - - 1993
Erythropoietin (EPO) is of special interest in the perinatal period in the mother and fetus. On the one hand, thanks to the recent development of highly sensitive radio-immunoassays and the ability to monitor endogenous EPO production, we can now study the physiological aspects of maternal and fetal erythropoiesis and materno-fetal ...
Lupoglazoff J M - - 1993
1. We have measured endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity (EDLI), in mothers and infants, during normal/pathological pregnancies and at birth. 2. During pregnancy, EDLI was measured in 38 maternal-fetal pairs. At the time of fetal sampling, maternal age was 29 (s.d. 6) years and gestational age was 28 (s.d. 6) weeks. EDLI ...
Mayer A D - - 1993
Two experiments explored the effects on subsequent maternal aggression of interspersing 5-24 days between pregnancy termination and pup exposure to elicit maternal behavior. Pregnancy-terminated females displaying maternal behavior were compared to nonpregnant females also stimulated by pups to behave maternally and to pregnancy-terminated groups that were not exposed to pups. ...
Foley G L - - 1993
We utilized the chronically catheterized bovine fetus to compare maternal and fetal responses to maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. Our hypothesis was that LPS-induced abortion was primarily a maternal luteolytic event with minimal transplacental fetal exposure. Fetal tibial arteries, amniotic, allantoic cavities and maternal carotid arteries were catheterized. Three cows had ...
Katakura Y - - 1993
The distribution of 14C after the administration of 14C-formaldehyde was studied in pregnant mice by a whole body low temperature autoradiographic technique. The concentrations of formaldehyde and its metabolites in maternal and fetal blood and tissues were determined in unsectioned tissues by liquid scintillation spectrophotometry. The binding of 14C from ...
Fisch R O - - 1993
Maternal phenylketonuria, PKU, has a detrimental effect on embryogenesis. Infant pathology is independent of fetal genotype, but is directly correlated with excessive phenylalaninaemia throughout pregnancy. Although normal children have been delivered by affected mothers who either had benign hyperphenylalaninaemia or in whom strict diet has apparently maintained maternal phenylalaninaemia in ...
Ashmead G G - - 1993
The maternal-fetal relationship of metabolic substrates was examined in 12 mothers undergoing cordocentesis for clinical reasons between 23 and 36 weeks' gestation. Twenty cordocentesis procedures were performed. Blood glucose, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol and lactate were measured in simultaneously obtained maternal and fetal samples. There was a linear correlation between fetal ...
Fauveau V - - 1993
Maternal tetanus, defined as tetanus occurring during pregnancy or within 6 weeks after any type of pregnancy termination, is one of the most easily preventable causes of maternal mortality. It includes postpartum or puerperal tetanus resulting from septic procedures during delivery, postabortal tetanus resulting from septic abortion and tetanus incidental ...
Kecskemethy H H - - 1993
Maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) represents a high risk for birth defects, including mental retardation, in offspring. Thus, it could cancel gains represented by the prevention of PKU-induced mental retardation in the current generation. Effective dietary treatment of maternal PKU pregnancies could avoid this potentially tragic occurrence. However, dietary compliance is often ...
Levy H L - - 1992
Two children, one with phenylketonuria (PKU) and the other nonphenylketonuric, from untreated pregnancies in a mother with PKU provided the opportunity to compare the degree of damage from maternal PKU between these genotypically different fetuses. Both the phenylketonuric offspring and her nonphenylketonuric sib were microcephalic at birth and had congenital ...
Fleming A S - - 1992
While the onset of maternal behavior at parturition is mediated by hormones, the maintenance of maternal behavior during the first few postpartum weeks depends on experiences acquired while the dam interacts with pups (Rosenblatt, 1990). In fact, if female rats are permitted as little as 2 h or maternal experience ...
Ober C - - 1992
Although the mechanisms by which the fetal allograft escapes rejection are still poorly understood, abundant evidence has accumulated suggesting multiple roles for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in pregnancy. Specific maternal MHC genotypes and maternal-fetal histocompatibility have been associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion, decreased fecundity, segregation distortions, altered sex ratios, ...
King N M - - 1991
The problem of maternal-fetal conflict presents both ethical and legal challenges to birth attendants as well as to policymakers. This essay suggests that a crisis intervention approach to such conflicts fosters an adversarial view of the relationship between the pregnant woman and her fetus, which can be divisive and counterproductive. ...
Wachtel S - - 1991
During pregnancy, nucleated fetal erythrocytes enter the maternal circulation and can be isolated efficiently from the maternal cells by multiparameter flow cytometry. Male DNA, implying presence of a male fetus, can be identified in flow-sorted maternal blood by polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers flanking single-copy Y-specific DNA sequences. Among ...
Wright D W - - 1991
Variance and covariance components were estimated for weaning weight from Senepol field data for use in the reduced animal model for a maternally influenced trait. The 4,634 weaning records were used to evaluate 113 sires and 1,406 dams on the island of St. Croix. Estimates of direct additive genetic variance ...
Lee W - - 1991
Maternal cardiorespiratory changes can hinder satisfactory evaluation of gravid women. Alterations in the maternal cardiorespiratory system may be further modified by pain, labor, surgery, maternal posture, and gestational age. Critical illness during pregnancy demands an aggressive multidisciplinary approach by health care professionals who are familiar with these changes. This article ...
Khera K S - - 1991
Possible relationships between maternal acid-base-electrolyte imbalance, histological changes in the maternal/extraembryonic tissues (decidua, placenta, membranes enclosing cavities), and fetal anomalies induced by maternotoxic doses of ethylene glycol, sodium salicylate, and cadmium chloride in rats were investigated. Acid-base-electrolyte, histologic and, teratologic studies were conducted concurrently with, as far as feasible, a ...
Hoff W S - - 1991
Trauma complicates 6 to 7 per cent of all pregnancies, but fetal demise secondary to maternal trauma occurs much less frequently. This study was done to analyze the incidence of fetal demise as a function of 21 maternal characteristics determined within the first 24 hours after trauma. Nine instances of ...
Swain S - - 1991
Two hundred and forty seven pregnant women at term and their offsprings were studied. Maternal skinfold thickness was measured from ten different sites and newborn skinfold thickness was measured from four different sites in each set of cases. Maternal skinfold thickness was positively correlated with the birthweight and skinfold thickness ...
Phelan E A - - 1991
This study surveyed 15 Boston area hospitals in order to assess the existence and nature of maternity leave policies at these institutions. In addition, it examined attitudes of administrators, program directors, and residents regarding pregnancy in women residents. Sixty-six percent of the hospitals surveyed had written policies specific to maternity ...
Boldsen J L - - 1990
Analyses of the height variation in a large contemporary British sample found evidence for maternal inheritance of female height, because the mother-daughter correlation coefficient was significantly higher than the father-daughter value. Further evidence for a maternal effect came from the comparison of the daughter's stature with the difference in parental ...
Mayer A D - - 1990
A 16-day treatment of nonpregnant, ovariectomized rats using 5-mm Silastic implants of estradiol (E), daily injections of 4 mg of progesterone (P), and terminal injections of 5 micrograms/kg of estradiol benzoate (EB) to provide a pregnancy-like pattern of hormone exposure, stimulates (a) home-cage aggression toward unfamiliar intruder rats, (b) short-latency ...
Danielsson B R - - 1990
The distribution of mercury after inhalation of metallic mercury vapour (6-8 mumols 203Hg0/kg b.wt.) was studied in pregnant mice (day 17 of gestation) after pretreatment with selenite (10 mumols Se/kg b.wt. intraperitoneally 1 hr before inhalation), thiram, disulfiram or diethyldithiocarbamate (1 mmol/kg orally 2 hr before inhalation of Hg0). For ...
Spirt B A - - 1990
In 1987 to obtain information regarding pregnancy and maternity leave policies in academic and private radiology departments, the American Association of Women Radiologists (AAWR) surveyed academic and private diagnostic radiology departments and academic radiation oncology departments in the United States and Canada. One hundred thirty-one diagnostic radiology departments and 30 ...
Kurzel R B - - 1990
This is the third case reported of maternal acetaminophen overdose during pregnancy. Such overdose may be associated with maternal liver toxicity. Fetal hepatotoxicity may be seen in association with maternal hepatotoxicity. As a result, the infant's blood coagulation times may be prolonged, and intracranial hemorrhage at delivery is a concern. ...
Burkett G - - 1990
Hemodynamic overload, cardiac ischemia, and arrhythmia are postulated to originate from "sex-cocaine" syndrome resulting in maternal and fetal death. High concentrations of cocaine and metabolites in maternal blood, urine, and nasal secretions confirmed recent ingestion. Changes in the maternal life-style may have contributed to the poor pregnancy outcome.
Farmer D L - - 1990
Conventional surgical wisdom is that fetal death is a predictable consequence of severe maternal injury. In order to define the natural history of maternal-fetal trauma and better formulate management strategies, we reviewed our recent experience with 32 cases of maternal trauma at a major trauma center. There were three cases ...
Sorell T L - - 1990
To study the effect of cadmium exposure on maternal and fetal zinc metabolism, rats were exposed to 0, 5, 50, or 100 ppm Cd in the drinking water on Days 6 through 20 of pregnancy. In comparison to controls, fetal and maternal weights were slightly reduced in the 50- and ...
Woody R C - - 1990
We report the association of telencephalic dysgeneses (expected to occur around week 6 of gestation) with presumptive maternal carbon monoxide intoxication. This case supports the hypothesis that carbon monoxide intoxication at critical periods of human brain development may lead not only to decreased brain size and hypoxic-ischemic lesions, but also ...
Güttler F - - 1990
A survey is given of literature reports on the effect of performance in offspring from 26 maternal PKU pregnancies treated prior to conception. The survey includes two women who were referred to us for genetic counselling because they had both given birth to microcephalic, mentally retarded children. The women were ...
Miller G - - 1990
Maternal reproductive histories of fetal wastage in 36 cases of ataxic cerebral palsy and in a control group of 60 mothers were compared. There was no significant difference between the groups. A history of fetal loss did not accompany this cerebral palsy syndrome where prenatal factors play an important role.
Snyder J L - - 1990
A critical review of the current literature on aerobic exercise during pregnancy shows a lack of conclusive evidence supporting either the safety or danger of exercise to the fetal-maternal unit. There is no clinically significant effect on fetal outcome. The recommendations of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists are ...
Grace J T - - 1989
The Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) was administered monthly to gravidas (N = 69) from the onset of prenatal care until delivery. Individual total and subscale scores across gestation were relatively stable, with the weakest correlations occurring between 16-week gestation scores and subsequent measures. Total MFAS and subscales scores, except Giving ...
Paton J B - - 1989
We examined the effects of maternal sodium beta-hydroxybutyrate (NaBOHB) on the primate fetus to investigate the impact of ketosis not associated with acidosis on fetal metabolism. After a loading dose (600 mg/kg), NaBOHB was infused for 70 min (300 mg/kg.hr) into the maternal femoral vein of eight pregnant baboons, and ...
Lerum C W - - 1989
In a study of maternal-fetal attachment we explored three variables that could influence such attachment: maternal age, the experience of quickening, and the physical symptoms of pregnancy. A convenience sample of 80 pregnant women filled out the Cranley maternal-fetal attachment scale and the pregnancy symptoms checklist. Maternal age and physical ...
Meneguz A - - 1989
Previous work in this laboratory showed that during intoxication of rats with diisopropyl fluorophosphate at day 20 of pregnancy the recovery of ChE activity was faster in fetal than in maternal brain. In the present study the differences between recovery rats in dam and fetus brain were evaluated in terms ...
Clark K E - - 1988
Studies with pregnant sheep are reviewed, which were designed to investigate whether short-term episodes of maternal hyperglycemia or hyperketonemia were detrimental to the fetus, whether ketones can cross the ovine placenta, and whether the combination of maternal hyperglycemia and hyperketonemia would contribute to an increased risk of fetal morbidity. It ...
Bartle E J - - 1988
A study conducted by the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center Burn Center of 42 burned pregnant patients indicates that the mortality of both the fetus and mother is dependent upon the percent body burn of the mother. Aggressive surgical therapy, including debridement with eschar excision and skin grafting, increases ...
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