Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1091
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Saltzman Wendy - - 2005
Common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) live in small groups in which, usually, only a single female breeds and all group members provide infant care. When two females breed concurrently, however, they may commonly kill one another's infants, especially during the peripartum period. To investigate the mechanisms underlying infanticide by breeding ...
Huang Da-Ji - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chlordane and lindane on morphological changes and endocrine disruption in male Green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata). In this experiment, individuals of N. denticulata, a common inhabitant of freshwater systems in Taiwan, were exposed to chlordane (1 and 10 ng/l ...
Sharma Krishan - - 2004
The possible differential effects of ABO blood group materno-paternal (fetal) incompatibility on completed reproductive performance were investigated on a sample of 100 couples (100 fathers and 100 mothers) from three villages in the Jind district of Haryana state, India. The average number of live births per mating couple was slightly ...
Nutter Felicia B - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine reproductive capacity of naturally breeding free-roaming domestic cats and kitten survival rate. DESIGN: Prospective cohort and retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: 2,332 female cats brought to a trap-neuter-return clinic for neutering and 71 female cats and 171 kittens comprising 50 litters from a cohort study of feral cats ...
Johnson Sarah A - - 2004
Nhlh2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family and is expressed in developing and adult neuroendocrine tissues such as the pituitary and hypothalamus. Targeted deletion of Nhlh2 (N2KO) in mice results in hypogonadism and obesity. While gonadally intact male N2KO mice are infertile and lack male ...
Longo Monica - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Transgenic mice that lack endothelial nitric oxide synthase have offspring with growth deficiency and abnormal vascular reactivity in later life. Our objective was to evaluate the role of parity in the modulation of the fetal programming of growth and vascular responses in these transgenic mice. STUDY DESIGN: Oligoparous (0-2 ...
de Vylder A - - 2004
During the last 40 years more and more myelomeningocele (MMC) patients have survived to adulthood and since the 1980s there is growing interest in sexual functioning of these patients. However, most of what is known about the impact of MMC on sexual functioning pertains to males. We have reviewed the ...
Feldheim Kevin A - - 2004
Because sharks possess an unusual suite of reproductive characteristics, including internal fertilization, sperm storage, relatively low fecundity, and reproductive modes that range from oviparity to viviparity, they can provide important insight into the evolution of mating systems and sexual selection. Yet, to date, few studies have characterized behavioral and genetic ...
McMullen Sarah - - 2005
Animal models support human epidemiological studies in demonstrating a relationship between impaired fetal growth and risk of adult hypertension. Undernutrition during pregnancy exerts programming effects on the developing kidney, and modulation of angiotensin receptor (ATR) expression has been observed persisting into adult life. Fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids is thought to ...
Burbacher Thomas M - - 2004
The present study was designed to characterize maternal reproductive performance and early offspring effects following exposure to methanol (MeOH) vapor in a nonhuman primate model. The two-cohort study design used 48 adult female Macaca fascicularis (24/cohort) monkeys exposed to 0, 200, 600, or 1800 ppm MeOH vapor for approximately 2.5 ...
deCatanzaro Denys - - 2004
Experiment 1 replicated the Bruce effect, showing pregnancy termination in CF1 strain female mice (Mus musculus) housed underneath novel heterogeneous strain (HS) males. In a 4-arm maze in Experiment 2, inseminated CF1 females approached novel HS males more often than CF1 sires or unfamiliar CF1 males. In Experiment 3, inseminated ...
Altmann Jeanne - - 2004
Steroid concentrations during late pregnancy and early lactation may be affected by both a female's reproductive history and her current condition, and may in turn predict subsequent life-history events, such as offspring survival. This study investigated these relationships in a wild primate population through the use of fecal steroid analysis ...
Erskine Mary S - - 2004
This paper will review both new and old data that address the question of whether brain mechanisms involved in reproductive function act in a coordinated way to control female sexual behavior and the induction of pregnancy/pseudopregnancy (P/PSP) by vaginocervical stimulation. Although it is clear that female sexual behavior, including pacing ...
Ford Alex T - - 2004
Intersexuality has been found in both males and females of the marine/estuarine amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus, at polluted and reference sites in East Scotland. Polluted sites had significantly more intersex specimens than reference sites, however the cause of intersexuality is unclear. Discriminant analysis of morphometric data showed that normal male specimens ...
Showler Allan T - - 2004
Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coloeoptera: Curculionidae), populations in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas increase strongly during the squaring stage, and preemptive insecticide sprays at the pinhead square stage were designed to capitalize on that association. Laboratory assays showed that cotton plant volatiles, or leaves as a ...
Hermes R - - 2004
Problems attributable to long-term captivity have been identified and are responsible for the difficulties in establishing successful reproduction in captive populations of wildlife, specifically, elephants and rhinoceroses. Historically, non-reproductive periods of 10-15 years in nulliparous female rhinoceroses and elephants have not been considered problematic. New evidence suggests that prolonged exposure ...
Kraaijeveld K - - 2004
We studied patterns of parentage in 85 broods (332 cygnets) of black swans during three breeding seasons, using a set of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers. We detected both intraspecific brood parasitism (IBP; < 5% of cygnets per year) and extra-pair paternity (EPP). In these years, 10-17% (mean = 15.1%) of ...
Klowden Marc J - - 2004
The effect of mating on egg development and the size of the female accessory glands during the gonotrophic cycle of Anopheles gambiae was investigated. Although females that received a measured meal of blood were more likely to produce an egg batch when they were mated, the increased reproduction was not ...
Brown William D - - 2004
Understanding the evolution of polyandry (mating with multiple males) is a major issue in the study of animal breeding systems. We examined the adaptive significance of polyandry in Drosophila melanogaster, a species with well-documented costs of mating in which males generally cannot force copulations. We found no direct fitness advantages ...
Bakos Jan - - 2004
It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the possible consequences for offspring from chronic inflammation during pregnancy. Chronic ...
Erhard Hans W - - 2004
The experiment reported was designed to test two hypotheses: that prenatal undernutrition (a) increases emotional reactivity and (b) impairs cognitive flexibility in sheep. The mothers of one group were fed live weight maintenance requirements throughout pregnancy (control, C) while those of another group were fed 50% of that amount from ...
Holt M - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to evaluate how ovulation rate and survival rate through pregnancy had been affected by more than 110 generations of upwards selection on litter size in mice. The mean number of pups born alive was 22 in the high line (selected line) and 11 ...
Fortier Marie-Eve - - 2004
An increased incidence of schizophrenia has been associated with several perinatal insults, most notably maternal infection during pregnancy and perinatal hypoxia. This study used a rat model to directly test if maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) during pregnancy alters behaviors relevant to schizophrenia, in offspring at adulthood. The ...
Gworys Bohdan - - 2004
The growth, changes in shape, topography and relation to the peritoneum of the descending colon were assessed on the basis of material taken from 178 foetuses of both sexes, aged from 72 to 236 days of pregnancy. The statistical analysis method demonstrated that the descending colon growth process occurs about ...
Meylan Sandrine - - 2004
Offspring phenotype can be affected by maternal history before and during gestation. Offspring sensitivity to maternal conditions is believed to have evolved to favor preadaptation of offspring to environmental factors they are likely to encounter. Because the locomotor capacity of an individual is likely to have important fitness consequences, we ...
Hwang Seung Jun - - 2004
The gender difference of corpus callosum is a long standing controversy. Some investigators have reported that adult females have a more bulbous splenium and larger area relative to brain size, but others failed to replicate this. Few studies have reported on sexual dimorphism during development. Midsagittal ultrasonographs were obtained through ...
Holbrook Glenn L - - 2004
Maternal effects, crossgenerational influences of the mother's phenotype on phenotypic variation in offspring, can profoundly influence the fitness of offspring. In insects especially, social interactions during larval development also can alter life-history traits. To date, however, no experimental design, to our knowledge, has manipulated the prenatal and postnatal environments independently ...
Reeder DeeAnn M - - 2004
Baseline and stress-responsive glucocorticoid (GC) levels were characterized during the active period in free-ranging male and reproductive female little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). Bats were trapped and blood was sampled within 3 min of capture at two maternity sites during the summer and at one swarming site prior to hibernation ...
Wenk Markus - - 2004
AIMS: To investigate the influence of St. John's wort (SJW) on CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities in healthy males and females. METHODS: Eight males and eight females were treated with SJW extract (3 x 300 mg day(-1)) for 14 days. Assessment of CYP1A2, NAT2, ...
Kurzrock Eric A - - 2004
Hypospadias is a congenital defect of the male urethra and phallus. Most boys with hypospadias have no other signs of under-masculinization or congenital malformations. The incidence appears to be increasing in the developed world. Evidence suggests that the etiology of hypospadias is multifactorial and that environmental conditions may have a ...
Kim Kun Suk - - 2004
We tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to synthetic estrogen can cause hypospadias in male offspring and defined the morphological changes in the disrupted urethral seam. Timed pregnant C57/6 mice were exposed to synthetic estrogens. The genital tubercles were examined for the presence of hypospadias using histology, three-dimensional computer reconstruction, ...
Jongbloet P H - - 2004
Current hypotheses do not explain the concerns about sex ratio modulation at conception, birth or during life, and particularly about sex ratio reversal, e.g. at very young or advanced maternal age, during 'anovulatory seasons', among those of low socio-economic status, or induced by specific lifestyles, etc. These modulations are explained ...
Ziegler Toni E - - 2004
In the cotton-top tamarin, a primate where paternal care is critical to the survival of the offspring, we found that expectant fathers experienced multiple hormonal changes during their mate's pregnancy. Fathers that had experienced several previous births showed significant changes in urinary estrogens, androgens, prolactin and cortisol in the last ...
Rodríguez Cilia - - 2004
The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is a sexually dimorphic structure which controls the inhibition/disinhibition of the medial preoptic area in the expression of maternal behavior. Therefore, in the present study we investigated sex differences and the modulation of gamma-aminobutiric-acid (GABA) in the BAOT during the first ...
Krahulcová Anna - - 2004
The versatility of the breeding system in the hybridogenous hexaploid, Hieracium rubrum, was demonstrated in emasculation and crossing experiments. The flow-cytometric ploidy analysis of 1095 seedlings amongst its' progeny enabled the determination and quantification of the reproductive pathway (apospory, haploid parthenogenesis, cross-fertilization of both reduced and unreduced female gametes) responsible ...
Vatten Lars J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: It takes a higher number of male than female embryos to produce a live born infant. The unbalanced pregnancy survival by offspring sex may also be reflected in higher proportion of preterm male births, and in unbalanced sex distribution in certain pregnancy conditions, such as preeclampsia. METHODS: We used ...
Amstislavsky Sergei Ya - - 2004
Long-term effects of in vivo exposures to proestrogen methoxychlor (MXC) or estradiol-17beta (E) were studied during early pregnancy (preimplantation) in ICR mice. Pregnant dams received either subcutaneous injections of 1 microg of E on Day 2 of pregnancy only (vaginal plug = Day 1), or 5.0mg of MXC on Days ...
Bonney Elizabeth A - - 2004
It has been suggested that the maternal immune system favors noncytotoxic, "TH-2" immune responses in order to tolerate the developing fetus. In some strains of mice, pregnant females will reject a male skin graft, even as they tolerate their male fetuses. This rejection is based on responsiveness to the male ...
Atawi F Al FA College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi - - 2004
To determine the levels of leptin in pregnant females during different stages of pregnancy and to correlate these levels to maternal weight, body mass index (BMI), neonate weight and neonate BMI. A case control study was carried out in which 60 pregnant females were enrolled, but only 36 completed the ...
Cree Alison - - 2003
Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether ...
Zhang F - - 2003
The tachinid Celatoria compressa Wulp has been evaluated as a candidate biological control agent for the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgiferaLeConte, in Europe, where it is an invasive alien pest of maize. Special emphasis has been placed on understanding aspects of the parasitoid basic biology and on developing a ...
Verboven Nanette - - 2003
It has been proposed that the maternal androgens in avian egg yolk enhance offspring fitness by accelerating growth and improving competitive ability. Because egg quality is strongly influenced by maternal condition, we predicted that females in good condition would produce high-quality eggs with relatively high androgen content. We experimentally enhanced ...
Fernie Kim - - 2003
The development of second-generation nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) was altered by in ovo exposure of only one parent to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Polychlorinated biphenyls appear to alter nestling development through both maternally and paternally mediated effects. In 1998, F0 parent kestrels consumed approximately 5 to 7 microg total PCBs/g ...
Bulandra Andrzej M - - 2003
Measurements were made of the femoral shaft/neck angle (CCD angle) in 106 human foetuses, aged from 16 to 38 hbd, using a "FEM-GEO_03" computer program. The values of the CCD angle in the group under examination were: mean = 140.48 degrees, SD = 6.95 degrees, max = 157.90 degrees, min ...
Pickard Amanda R - - 2003
In this study, we quantitatively examined male sexual behavior in relation to fecal estrogen and progesterone concentrations in female Mohor gazelles. We investigated the hypothesis that, during natural mating, males detect cues relating to the potential for successful conception and pregnancy. Time series analysis revealed that males could detect the ...
Roy Vincent - - 2003
In rats, while pregnancy has been reported to increase emotional reactivity, postnatal handling, consisting in a short daily maternal separation during early life, has been shown to reduce it in several behavioural tests. In the present study, we investigated the potential effects of handling in pregnant rats confronted to various ...
Larson Shawn - - 2003
Noninvasive methods were validated for monitoring fecal metabolites of reproductive hormones (total estrogens and progestagens) in sea otters. Several captive female sea otters were sampled an average of two to three times per week over at least 1 year to document the reproductive hormone levels within each major reproductive event ...
Ben-Chetrit E - - 2003
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), amyloidosis, and colchicine may affect the reproductive system of male and female patients. Colchicine treatment improves female fertility and the outcome of pregnancy and may prevent the development of amyloidosis. However, colchicine may induce oligospermia/azoospermia, but this effect is rare. Overall, colchicine treatment improves the prognosis ...
Tonkiss John - - 2003
The male offspring of rats provided with a protein deficient diet (6% casein) for 5 weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy were subjected to a brief period of isolation and cooling at postnatal Days (P)7, 9, and 11, and their ultrasonic vocalizations were compared with those of well-nourished pups. ...
Prefumo F - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Recent reports have suggested that nuchal translucency (NT) measurements in the first trimester may be influenced by fetal gender. Since both NT and central venous blood flow are considered to be related to fetal cardiac function, we investigated gender-related differences in first-trimester ductus venosus Doppler indices. METHODS: A total ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >