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Results 401 - 450 of 1044
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Ben-Chetrit E - - 2003
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), amyloidosis, and colchicine may affect the reproductive system of male and female patients. Colchicine treatment improves female fertility and the outcome of pregnancy and may prevent the development of amyloidosis. However, colchicine may induce oligospermia/azoospermia, but this effect is rare. Overall, colchicine treatment improves the prognosis ...
Tonkiss John - - 2003
The male offspring of rats provided with a protein deficient diet (6% casein) for 5 weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy were subjected to a brief period of isolation and cooling at postnatal Days (P)7, 9, and 11, and their ultrasonic vocalizations were compared with those of well-nourished pups. ...
Prefumo F - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Recent reports have suggested that nuchal translucency (NT) measurements in the first trimester may be influenced by fetal gender. Since both NT and central venous blood flow are considered to be related to fetal cardiac function, we investigated gender-related differences in first-trimester ductus venosus Doppler indices. METHODS: A total ...
Chung H J - - 2003
Pregnancy block from exposure to foreign male mouse pheromones is sensitive to both male and female mating strain, as well as the foreign male pheromone-producing strain. Incidence of pregnancy block by male pheromones in mice is different depending on the combination of females, stud males and stimulus males. BALB/cA females ...
Wartella Jennifer - - 2003
The female brain is a dynamic structure, which expresses its plasticity most readily following reproductive experience (RE). In Experiment 1, we generated nulliparous (NP), primiparous (PP), and multiparous (MP) females (none, one, and two litters, respectively). Two weeks following the weaning of the first/second six-pup litters, the age-matched MP and ...
Martin Robert D - - 2003
Successful reconstruction of any aspect of human evolution requires broad-based comparisons with other primates and other eutherian mammals. If quantitative data are involved, the scaling influence of body size must be taken into account, and bivariate allometric analysis is a very useful tool. Broad-based comparisons lead to recognition of general ...
Nieto Ana I - - 2003
The inbred FVB/N mouse strain is widely used for creating transgenic mice. Over the past decade, persistent mammary hyperplasia has been detected in many multiparous FVB/N female mice sent to the University of California, Davis (UCD) Mutant Mouse Pathology Laboratory (MMPL) by a number of different laboratories. However, the experimental ...
Marchlewska-Koj Anna - - 2003
Field studies reveal that bank vole females' mobility and aggression increase during pregnancy. Here we investigated the reaction of pregnant females to social stress evoked by short but frequent meetings with another female at the same stage of pregnancy. The stress neither evoked pregnancy termination nor affected pregnancy duration but ...
Cutrera Ana Paula - - 2003
The effect of the mother's contact and huddling with nest mates on the mass-specific metabolic rate (RMR) and body temperature (T(b)) of pups of Ctenomys talarum from 2 to 45 days of age was evaluated at ambient temperatures (T(a)) within and below the adult thermoneutrality range (25 and 19 degrees ...
Widayati Diah Tri - - 2003
Reproductive features of newly bred Russian voles (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis) as a laboratory animal were studied. This species is a copulatory ovulator, and most couples copulated 6 to 16 h after pairing. The gestation period varied from 18 to 22 days (mean +/- SD: 20.6 +/- 0.9, n = 72), and ...
Rummens Katrien - - 2003
Fetal mineralization appears to be driven by the pregnancy-induced stimulation of intestinal Ca absorption. We thus hypothesized that mineralization would be impaired in fetuses of mice that lack the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Here we report on the maternal response to pregnancy, and the fetal mineralization, in mice with a ...
de la Fuente S G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal pneumoperitoneum produces early postnatal behavior deficits in the offspring. METHODS: Time-dated pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 45 min of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum at a pressure of 7 mmHg. There was no manipulation of the control animals. On postnatal ...
Madsen Claus - - 2003
In humans, maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy promotes microscopical fatty streaks in the children. The mechanism is unknown. Fatty streaks are clinically silent, and many of them regress and never develop into advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypercholesterolemia in pregnant mice induced more advanced atherosclerosis ...
Andersson Johan - - 2003
Male Pieris napi butterflies previously have been shown to synthesize and transfer an antiaphrodisiac, methyl salicylate (MeS), to females at mating. This substance curtails courtship and decreases the likelihood of female remating. Here, we show that similar systems occur in Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae. In P. rapae, 13C-labeling studies ...
Ankley Gerald T - - 2003
Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic steroid that is extensively used in the United States as a growth promoter in beef cattle. The acetate is administered to livestock via slow-release implants; some is converted by the animal to 17-beta-trenbolone, a relatively potent androgen receptor agonist in mammalian systems. Recent studies indicate ...
Collins Thomas F X - - 2003
Flaxseed, a rich source of reportedly beneficial n-3 fatty acid and phytoestrogens, has not been thoroughly tested for reproductive effects. High levels of flaxseed (FS, 20 or 40%) or defatted flaxseed meal (FLM, 13 or 26%) added to AIN-93 diet were evaluated in a two-phase study: dosed during gestation only ...
Rasmussen L E L - - 2003
Musth is an important male phenomenon affecting many aspects of elephant society including reproduction. During musth, the temporal gland secretions (as well as the urine and breath) of adult male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) discharge a variety of malodorous compounds together with the bicyclic ketal, frontalin. In contrast, teenage male ...
Jones Adam G - - 2003
The phenomenon of male pregnancy in the family Syngnathidae (seahorses, pipefishes, and sea dragons) undeniably has sculpted the course of behavioral evolution in these fishes. Here we explore another potentially important but previously unrecognized consequence of male pregnancy: a predisposition for sympatric speciation. We present microsatellite data on genetic parentage ...
Ostner Julia - - 2003
In order to characterize the endocrine changes associated with ovarian function and pregnancy in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus), profiles of immunoreactive 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha-ol-20-one (5-P-3OH) and total estrogens (E(t)) in feces were generated during the breeding season and gestation. HPLC data confirmed the presence of high amounts of 5-P-3OH in ...
Ellison Peter T - - 2003
Natural selection favors the optimal allocation of energy and other limiting resources to reproduction. Human reproductive physiology displays characteristic patterns that can be viewed as mechanisms that help optimize reproductive effort in the face of environmental energetic constraints. Female ovarian function is particularly sensitive to energy balance and energy flux, ...
Cagnacci A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In accordance with a presumed greater fragility of male versus female pregnancies, we tested whether sex ratio (male/female ratio) of vital pregnancies is higher in seasons more favourable for reproduction. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 14,310 births which had occurred in our institute between 1995-2001. For each ...
Badyaev Alexander V - - 2003
Maternal phenotype and maternal environment can profoundly affect the phenotype and fitness of offspring. Yet the causes of variation in such maternal effects are rarely known. Embryos in avian eggs cannot develop without being incubated and this creates an opportunity for maternal control of duration and onset of offspring development. ...
Strassmann J E - - 2003
The resolution of social conflict in colonies may accord with the interests of the most numerous party. In social insect colonies with single once-mated queens, workers are more closely related to the workers' sons than they are to the queens' sons. Therefore, they should prefer workers to produce males, against ...
Cisneros F Javier - - 2003
The objective was to evaluate the effects of 5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR) on postnatal development and reproductive capacity. Pregnant mice were administered 1 mg kg-1 5-AZA-CdR at gestation day 10. The body weights of F1 control and treated (in uterine-exposed) pups were recorded. To evaluate the reproductive capacity, 5-AZA-CdR F1 males and ...
Green Daniel M - - 2003
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the effect, if any, on pregnancy loss, live births, and birthweight of treatment for cancer diagnosed during childhood or adolescence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed pregnancy outcome among sexually active male Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) participants who responded to a questionnaire before ...
Ostner Julia - - 2003
Masculinization of female genitalia and female intersexual dominance distinguish spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and Malagasy primates (Lemuriformes) from most other mammals. An unusual prenatal endocrine environment has been proposed to proximately underlie the development of these traits in hyenas. To examine whether female dominance and genital masculinization are similarly enhanced ...
Stockley P - - 2003
Female promiscuity is widespread among mammals, although its function is poorly understood. Recently, much interest has been generated by the hypothesis that female promiscuity, combined with post-copulatory paternity-biasing mechanisms, may function to reduce the costs of reproductive failure resulting from genetic incompatibility. Here, a comparative approach is used to determine ...
Tregenza Tom - - 2003
Direct costs and benefits to females of multiple mating have been shown to have large effects on female fecundity and longevity in several species. However, with the exception of studies examining genetic benefits of polyandry, little attention has been paid to the possible effects on offspring of multiple mating by ...
Brennan P A - - 2003
Male mouse urine contains a pregnancy-blocking chemosignal that causes pre-implantation pregnancy failure in recently mated female mice. However, females are able to recognize the chemosignal of the male with which they mated, preventing it from aborting his own offspring. The individuality of the pregnancy-blocking chemosignal is influenced by genes of ...
Al-Merestani M R - - 2003
Seventy-five female Damascus goats aged between 1.5 and 5.5 years were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intravaginal sponges and prostaglandin analogue on oestrous synchronization and fecundity; to diagnose pregnancy and to monitor the resumption of the luteal activity. Females were divided randomly, during the breeding season, into three ...
Shingo Tetsuro - - 2003
Neurogenesis occurs in the olfactory system of the adult brain throughout life, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, but its physiological regulation is not understood. We show that the production of neuronal progenitors is stimulated in the forebrain subventricular zone of female mice during pregnancy and that this effect is mediated ...
Vaughan J L - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine relationships between mating behaviour, ovarian follicular state and successful conception in receptive female alpacas. PROCEDURE: Seventy pen matings were observed at a commercial alpaca stud in south-western Victoria. The behaviours observed included time taken to assume sternal recumbency, mating duration, and evidence of nonreceptive behaviour such as ...
Armstrong Linlea - - 2003
The relationship between phenotype and Xq duplications in females remains unclear. Some females are normal; some have short stature; and others have features such as microcephaly, developmental delay/mental retardation, body asymmetries, and gonadal dysgenesis. There are several hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain this variability. We describe a 7-year-old ...
Kusui Takashi - - 2003
The distribution and abundance of marine litter on 26 beaches along the Sea of Japan were investigated from September to November 2000. The mean concentration of stranded litter in Japan and Russia was 2144 and 1344 g/100 m(2), respectively. The mean number of pieces of stranded litter in Japan and ...
Aller Juan F - - 2003
Ultrasonography is widely used in domestic species of camelids, but there is no information about the use of this technique for pregnancy diagnosis and determination of embryonic or fetal losses in the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). The study was performed in 202 vicuñas (3-year-old females, n = 31; adult females, n ...
Levin R J - - 2003
This article reviews critically studies that describe changes occurring in the female genital tract and pelvic musculature from sexual reflexes activated by stimuli that mimic coitus or induced by sexual arousal. I conclude that apart from the normal erotic pleasure, women gain and maintain vaginal and pelvic functionality from these ...
Johansson Agneta - - 2003
An epidemiological study was performed on a representative sample of the Norwegian youth population (12-18 years; n=3237; response rate 45.2%). The proportion that never gambled was 17.6% and a majority (57.5%) gambled seldom, whereas 24.9% gambled weekly (36.2% of the males and 13.1% of the females). In relation to problematic ...
Ema Makoto - - 2002
Developmental toxicity following administration of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and its major metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBuP), by gavage was determined in Wistar rats. DBP on days 0-8 of pregnancy induced an increase in the incidence of preimplantation loss at 1250 mg/kg and higher and postimplantation loss at 750 mg/kg and higher. ...
Little Anthony C - - 2002
Masculinity and distinctiveness have been found to influence the attractiveness of human male faces. The relationship between masculinity and distinctiveness, however, has received little attention. In Expt 1, we examine how current averaging techniques and manipulated sexual dimorphism influence ratings of attractiveness, masculinity, and distinctiveness. In agreement with previous studies, ...
Shah Akeel - - 2002
We examined the effects of odor exposure in the nest on the offspring's subsequent adult responsivity to pups scented with the same odor or a different odor. It was hypothesized that animals receiving exposure to the odor in the nest would be more maternally responsive to pups scented with the ...
Scott Karen C - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics of free-roaming cats evaluated in a trap-neuter-return program. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: 5,323 free-roaming cats. PROCEDURE: Data collected included sex, maturity, pregnancy status, number of fetuses per pregnancy, cryptorchidism, and occurrence of complications or euthanasia. RESULTS: Adult cats represented 85% of the population, and 57% were ...
Divon Michael Y - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between fetal gender and prolonged pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: All deliveries in Sweden between 1987 and 1996 were evaluated for participation in this study. Inclusion criteria included (1) singleton pregnancy, (2) the absence of apparent congenital or chromosomal anomalies, (3) ...
Horiguchi T - - 2002
Two-month flow-through exposure experiments of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were conducted with abalone, Haliotis gigantea. Nominal concentrations of 100 ng TBT/l and 100 ng TPhT/l caused significant spermatogenesis in ovaries of exposed females. There were also significantly more contracted primary oocytes observed in females exposed to either TBT or ...
Morales J - - 2002
Cuentepec is a rural village of central Mexico, where 1300 pigs were bred at the time of the study in conditions that favor Taenia solium transmission. The tongues of 1087 (84%) of these pigs were visually examined and 33% were found to be cysticercotic. Castration of male pigs increased prevalence ...
Feldheim Kevin A - - 2002
Surprisingly little is known about the reproductive behaviour and breeding biology of most shark species, especially in natural populations. Here, we characterize reproductive patterns and use of a natal nursery at Bimini, Bahamas by lemon sharks, Negaprion brevirostris. We systematically and exhaustively sampled young lemon sharks at Bimini annually from ...
Evans Jennifer A - - 2002
In several mammalian species, circadian pacemakers of breeding females synchronize the developing clocks of offspring by as of yet unspecified mechanisms. The present study assessed whether maternal communication of circadian rhythms extends beyond setting pacemaker phase to include transfer of a fundamental reorganization of component circadian oscillators from dams to ...
Ohnishi Yasuyuki - - 2002
Three groups of ICR male and female mice were exposed to 50-Hz, sinusoidal, alternating, horizontal magnetic fields of 0.0 mT (sham), 0.5 mT and 5.0 mT (rms) for 9 and 2 weeks prior to mating for males and females, respectively, through fertilization and until cesarean sectioning. Fetuses were collected by ...
McAllan B M - - 2002
Antechinus stuartii is a small marsupial with a brief, highly synchronised mating period believed to be controlled by the rate of change of photoperiod. Two experiments were performed to explore aspects of photoperiodic control of the seasonal cycle. In the first experiment the pineal hormone, melatonin, administered in the drinking ...
Cho Fumiaki - - 2002
This paper reports the results of reproduction with 45 wild African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) (36 females and 9 males) during the nine years from 1981 to 1989 under indoor individually-caged conditions. In 206 cases of menstruation observed, menstrual discharge lasted for 2.5 +/- 1.2 days in cycles of 22-48 ...
Greydanus Donald E - - 2002
As the twentieth century progressed, the female athlete became an accepted participant of sports at all levels. This article reviews various aspects of female sports participation. After an historical perspective, selected comments are provided on psychologic and physiologic aspects. Concepts of adolescent gynecology are reviewed, including breast and menstrual problems ...
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