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Results 401 - 450 of 1118
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Yan Zhen Z Program in Human Immunogenetics, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Wash 98109, USA. - - 2005
Fetal microchimerism, derived from fetal cells that persist after pregnancy, is usually evaluated by tests for male microchimerism in women who gave birth to sons. We investigated male microchimerism in women without sons and examined correlation with prior pregnancy history. Immunologic consequences of microchimerism are unknown. We studied healthy women ...
Kinsley Craig H - - 2006
Short-term fluctuations in steroid hormones such as estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) can affect the concentration of hippocampal dendritic spines in adult, cycling nulliparous female rats. Pregnancy is characterized by a significantly longer duration of substantially elevated E2 and P compared to the estrous cycle. Thus, even greater changes than ...
Reddy Gadi V P - - 2005
Monoterpenoid compounds extracted from wood of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L, synergized the attraction of the old-house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus (L), to the male pheromone (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone ((3R)-ketol) + 1-butanol. Glasshouse experiments using ground traps baited with extracts derived from Scots pine wood or the monoterpenes (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-verbenone, (-)-trans-pinocarveol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol ...
Guettier Catherine - - 2005
Male microchimerism is frequent in the adult female liver and is attributed to fetal cells originating from previous male offspring. It has never been studied in pregnant women, female children, or fetuses. We examined its frequency and cellular nature in normal and diseased female livers from fetal life to adulthood. ...
Gol Mert - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MshCG) levels are higher in pregnant women with female fetuses than in pregnant women with male fetuses in the third trimester of pregnancy. Our aim was to examine the effect of fetal sex on MshCG levels throughout the pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine uncomplicated ...
Kapoor Amita - - 2005
Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis ...
Wada Toshifumi - - 2005
We observed the reproductive behavior of the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana in captivity. The male used three different mating behaviors: male-parallel (MP), male-upturned (MU) and sneaking. Male competition over females frequently occurred before and during the female egg-laying period, and the outcome of most fights depended on male body size. ...
Koketsu Y - - 2005
Of 105 swine herds using a production record system for breeding female pigs, 95 farms were used to analyze nonproductive female days (NPD), the six component intervals of NPD, and related measurements. The NPD was defined as the days when mated gilts and sows were neither gestating nor lactating, and ...
Meylan Sandrine - - 2005
Hormones are an important interface between genome and environment, because of their ability to modify the phenotype. More particularly, glucocorticoids are known to affect both morphological, physiological and behavioral traits. Many studies suggest that prenatal stress (associated with an elevation of corticosterone) has deleterious effects on offspring, an altered physiology ...
Cunha Gerald R - - 2005
Studies were conducted to elucidate the importance of androgen-mediated induction of the extreme masculinization of the external genitalia in female spotted hyenas. Phallic size and shape; androgen receptor (AR) and alpha-actin expression; and sex-specific differences in phallic retractor musculature, erectile tissue, tunica albuginea, and urethra/urogenital sinus were examined in male ...
del Castillo Susan M - - 2005
Gestation and lactation can impose substantial energetic costs on female mammals. We developed a non-invasive means to determine reproductive condition in female giraffe using fecal steroid analysis. Giraffe may be especially challenged during their reproductive cycle because of two characteristics: they are impregnated while lactating and they do not breed ...
Snook R R - - 2005
Courtship song serves as a sexual signal and may contribute to reproductive isolation between closely related species. Using lines of Drosophila pseudoobscura experimentally selected under different sexual selection regimes, we tested whether increased promiscuity and enforced monogamy led to evolutionary changes in courtship song elements. In D. pseudoobscura, males produce ...
Cocco Pierluigi - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To explore reproductive outcomes in relation to occupational exposure to DDT. METHODS: We inquired into the reproductive history, including total number of children, sex distribution in the offspring, time-to-pregnancy, and number of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths, of the spouses of 105 men first exposed to DDT in a 1946-1950 ...
Cohen-Bendahan Celina C C - - 2005
Increased prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) in females of an opposite-sex (OS) twin pair may have an effect on the development of sex-typical cognitive and behavioral patterns. The prenatal exposure to T due to hormone transfer in OS twin females may occur in two ways, one directly via the feto-fetal ...
Kanazawa Satoshi - - 2005
This paper proposes the generalized Trivers-Willard hypothesis (gTWH), which suggests that parents who possess any heritable trait which increases male reproductive success at a greater rate than female reproductive success in a given environment will have a higher-than-expected offspring sex ratio, and parents who possess any heritable trait which increases ...
Fernández-Fernández R - - 2005
Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor, has been recently involved in a wide array of biological functions, including signaling of energy insufficiency and energy homeostasis. On the basis of the proven reproductive effects of other regulators of energy balance, such as the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, we hypothesized ...
Naguib Marc - - 2005
The nutritional and social conditions that individuals experience during early development can have profound effects on their morphology, physiology, behaviour and life history. Experimental increases in brood size in birds can result in reduced offspring condition and survival, indicating that developmental deficits in enlarged broods have negative fitness consequences within ...
Wewers Dirk - - 2005
The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that an application of an antiandrogen during pregnancy causes an infantilization of the male offsprings' behaviour later in life. The subjects studied were male guinea pigs whose mothers were either treated with an antiandrogen (flutamide and carrier) or a placebo (carrier ...
Krakauer Alan H - - 2005
In the few species of birds in which males form display partnerships to attract females, one male secures most or all of the copulations. This leads to the question of why subordinate males help in the absence of observable reproductive benefits. Hamilton's concept of kin selection, whereby individuals can benefit ...
Al Atawi F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Adult females have significantly more leptin than males. We investigated the effect of fetal sex on levels of leptin and other pregnancy hormones (progesterone, estradiol, FSH, LH and beta hCG) in pregnant females during different stages of pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum leptin levels in pregnant females followed at ...
Arthuri Mariana Trevisani - - 2005
The effect of sex hormones on orofacial pain modulation is poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of hormonal changes as a result of pregnancy, as well as that of the kappa (kappa) opioid receptor antagonist on female rats' sensitivity to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) formalin test. ...
Heifetz Yael Y Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2005
Proteins and peptides in Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid induce mated females to increase their rates of egg deposition. One seminal-fluid protein, ovulin (Acp26Aa), stimulates an early step in the egg-laying process, the release of oocytes by the ovary. Ovulin, upon transfer to females, is cleaved sequentially within the mated female's ...
Menon Balakrishnan - - 2005
A young female patient of 30 years of age previously asymptomatic presented with complaints of exertional dyspnoea and hemoptysis with a normal chest roentgenogram. She was eventually diagnosed to have lymphangioleiomyomatosis, a rare pulmonary disorder. In this patient it occurred without any history of current pregnancy or estrogen consumption, as ...
Luke Barbara - - 2005
This study evaluated the effect of gender mix (the gender combinations of twin pairs) on fetal growth and length of gestation, and reviewed the literature on the long-term effects of this altered fetal milieu on cancer risk. In singletons, it is well established that females weigh less than males at ...
Darmani Homa - - 2005
The present study evaluated the effect of triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) on mouse fertility. Adult male mice were administered TEGDMA (0, 25 and 100 microg kg(-1)) intragastrically daily for 28 days and then allowed to mate for 10 days with sexually mature untreated female mice; fertility was assessed after a further ...
Boklage Charles E - - 2005
Live human births are usually more than half male, in spite of excess losses of males throughout fetal development. These observations together demand an excess of males near the beginning of pregnancy greater than that seen at birth. Reductions of the usual excess of males among human live births have ...
Della Seta Daniele - - 2005
In mammals, endogenous estrogens are crucial for sexual differentiation during the perinatal period, and the modulation in adulthood of many neuroendocrine and behavioral functions involved in reproduction. In rats, the estrogenic environment during pregnancy and lactation affects directly maternal behavior. This experiment was aimed to test whether the exposure to ...
Saltzman Wendy - - 2005
Common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) live in small groups in which, usually, only a single female breeds and all group members provide infant care. When two females breed concurrently, however, they may commonly kill one another's infants, especially during the peripartum period. To investigate the mechanisms underlying infanticide by breeding ...
Huang Da-Ji - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chlordane and lindane on morphological changes and endocrine disruption in male Green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata). In this experiment, individuals of N. denticulata, a common inhabitant of freshwater systems in Taiwan, were exposed to chlordane (1 and 10 ng/l ...
Sharma Krishan - - 2004
The possible differential effects of ABO blood group materno-paternal (fetal) incompatibility on completed reproductive performance were investigated on a sample of 100 couples (100 fathers and 100 mothers) from three villages in the Jind district of Haryana state, India. The average number of live births per mating couple was slightly ...
Nutter Felicia B - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine reproductive capacity of naturally breeding free-roaming domestic cats and kitten survival rate. DESIGN: Prospective cohort and retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: 2,332 female cats brought to a trap-neuter-return clinic for neutering and 71 female cats and 171 kittens comprising 50 litters from a cohort study of feral cats ...
Johnson Sarah A - - 2004
Nhlh2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family and is expressed in developing and adult neuroendocrine tissues such as the pituitary and hypothalamus. Targeted deletion of Nhlh2 (N2KO) in mice results in hypogonadism and obesity. While gonadally intact male N2KO mice are infertile and lack male ...
Longo Monica - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Transgenic mice that lack endothelial nitric oxide synthase have offspring with growth deficiency and abnormal vascular reactivity in later life. Our objective was to evaluate the role of parity in the modulation of the fetal programming of growth and vascular responses in these transgenic mice. STUDY DESIGN: Oligoparous (0-2 ...
de Vylder A - - 2004
During the last 40 years more and more myelomeningocele (MMC) patients have survived to adulthood and since the 1980s there is growing interest in sexual functioning of these patients. However, most of what is known about the impact of MMC on sexual functioning pertains to males. We have reviewed the ...
Feldheim Kevin A - - 2004
Because sharks possess an unusual suite of reproductive characteristics, including internal fertilization, sperm storage, relatively low fecundity, and reproductive modes that range from oviparity to viviparity, they can provide important insight into the evolution of mating systems and sexual selection. Yet, to date, few studies have characterized behavioral and genetic ...
McMullen Sarah - - 2005
Animal models support human epidemiological studies in demonstrating a relationship between impaired fetal growth and risk of adult hypertension. Undernutrition during pregnancy exerts programming effects on the developing kidney, and modulation of angiotensin receptor (ATR) expression has been observed persisting into adult life. Fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids is thought to ...
Burbacher Thomas M - - 2004
The present study was designed to characterize maternal reproductive performance and early offspring effects following exposure to methanol (MeOH) vapor in a nonhuman primate model. The two-cohort study design used 48 adult female Macaca fascicularis (24/cohort) monkeys exposed to 0, 200, 600, or 1800 ppm MeOH vapor for approximately 2.5 ...
deCatanzaro Denys - - 2004
Experiment 1 replicated the Bruce effect, showing pregnancy termination in CF1 strain female mice (Mus musculus) housed underneath novel heterogeneous strain (HS) males. In a 4-arm maze in Experiment 2, inseminated CF1 females approached novel HS males more often than CF1 sires or unfamiliar CF1 males. In Experiment 3, inseminated ...
Altmann Jeanne - - 2004
Steroid concentrations during late pregnancy and early lactation may be affected by both a female's reproductive history and her current condition, and may in turn predict subsequent life-history events, such as offspring survival. This study investigated these relationships in a wild primate population through the use of fecal steroid analysis ...
Erskine Mary S - - 2004
This paper will review both new and old data that address the question of whether brain mechanisms involved in reproductive function act in a coordinated way to control female sexual behavior and the induction of pregnancy/pseudopregnancy (P/PSP) by vaginocervical stimulation. Although it is clear that female sexual behavior, including pacing ...
Ford Alex T - - 2004
Intersexuality has been found in both males and females of the marine/estuarine amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus, at polluted and reference sites in East Scotland. Polluted sites had significantly more intersex specimens than reference sites, however the cause of intersexuality is unclear. Discriminant analysis of morphometric data showed that normal male specimens ...
Showler Allan T - - 2004
Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coloeoptera: Curculionidae), populations in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas increase strongly during the squaring stage, and preemptive insecticide sprays at the pinhead square stage were designed to capitalize on that association. Laboratory assays showed that cotton plant volatiles, or leaves as a ...
Hermes R - - 2004
Problems attributable to long-term captivity have been identified and are responsible for the difficulties in establishing successful reproduction in captive populations of wildlife, specifically, elephants and rhinoceroses. Historically, non-reproductive periods of 10-15 years in nulliparous female rhinoceroses and elephants have not been considered problematic. New evidence suggests that prolonged exposure ...
Kraaijeveld K - - 2004
We studied patterns of parentage in 85 broods (332 cygnets) of black swans during three breeding seasons, using a set of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers. We detected both intraspecific brood parasitism (IBP; < 5% of cygnets per year) and extra-pair paternity (EPP). In these years, 10-17% (mean = 15.1%) of ...
Klowden Marc J - - 2004
The effect of mating on egg development and the size of the female accessory glands during the gonotrophic cycle of Anopheles gambiae was investigated. Although females that received a measured meal of blood were more likely to produce an egg batch when they were mated, the increased reproduction was not ...
Brown William D - - 2004
Understanding the evolution of polyandry (mating with multiple males) is a major issue in the study of animal breeding systems. We examined the adaptive significance of polyandry in Drosophila melanogaster, a species with well-documented costs of mating in which males generally cannot force copulations. We found no direct fitness advantages ...
Bakos Jan - - 2004
It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the possible consequences for offspring from chronic inflammation during pregnancy. Chronic ...
Erhard Hans W - - 2004
The experiment reported was designed to test two hypotheses: that prenatal undernutrition (a) increases emotional reactivity and (b) impairs cognitive flexibility in sheep. The mothers of one group were fed live weight maintenance requirements throughout pregnancy (control, C) while those of another group were fed 50% of that amount from ...
Holt M - - 2004
The aim of the present study was to evaluate how ovulation rate and survival rate through pregnancy had been affected by more than 110 generations of upwards selection on litter size in mice. The mean number of pups born alive was 22 in the high line (selected line) and 11 ...
Fortier Marie-Eve - - 2004
An increased incidence of schizophrenia has been associated with several perinatal insults, most notably maternal infection during pregnancy and perinatal hypoxia. This study used a rat model to directly test if maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) during pregnancy alters behaviors relevant to schizophrenia, in offspring at adulthood. The ...
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