Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1069
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Fortier Marie-Eve - - 2004
An increased incidence of schizophrenia has been associated with several perinatal insults, most notably maternal infection during pregnancy and perinatal hypoxia. This study used a rat model to directly test if maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) during pregnancy alters behaviors relevant to schizophrenia, in offspring at adulthood. The ...
Gworys Bohdan - - 2004
The growth, changes in shape, topography and relation to the peritoneum of the descending colon were assessed on the basis of material taken from 178 foetuses of both sexes, aged from 72 to 236 days of pregnancy. The statistical analysis method demonstrated that the descending colon growth process occurs about ...
Meylan Sandrine - - 2004
Offspring phenotype can be affected by maternal history before and during gestation. Offspring sensitivity to maternal conditions is believed to have evolved to favor preadaptation of offspring to environmental factors they are likely to encounter. Because the locomotor capacity of an individual is likely to have important fitness consequences, we ...
Hwang Seung Jun - - 2004
The gender difference of corpus callosum is a long standing controversy. Some investigators have reported that adult females have a more bulbous splenium and larger area relative to brain size, but others failed to replicate this. Few studies have reported on sexual dimorphism during development. Midsagittal ultrasonographs were obtained through ...
Holbrook Glenn L - - 2004
Maternal effects, crossgenerational influences of the mother's phenotype on phenotypic variation in offspring, can profoundly influence the fitness of offspring. In insects especially, social interactions during larval development also can alter life-history traits. To date, however, no experimental design, to our knowledge, has manipulated the prenatal and postnatal environments independently ...
Reeder DeeAnn M - - 2004
Baseline and stress-responsive glucocorticoid (GC) levels were characterized during the active period in free-ranging male and reproductive female little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). Bats were trapped and blood was sampled within 3 min of capture at two maternity sites during the summer and at one swarming site prior to hibernation ...
Wenk Markus - - 2004
AIMS: To investigate the influence of St. John's wort (SJW) on CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities in healthy males and females. METHODS: Eight males and eight females were treated with SJW extract (3 x 300 mg day(-1)) for 14 days. Assessment of CYP1A2, NAT2, ...
Kurzrock Eric A - - 2004
Hypospadias is a congenital defect of the male urethra and phallus. Most boys with hypospadias have no other signs of under-masculinization or congenital malformations. The incidence appears to be increasing in the developed world. Evidence suggests that the etiology of hypospadias is multifactorial and that environmental conditions may have a ...
Kim Kun Suk - - 2004
We tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to synthetic estrogen can cause hypospadias in male offspring and defined the morphological changes in the disrupted urethral seam. Timed pregnant C57/6 mice were exposed to synthetic estrogens. The genital tubercles were examined for the presence of hypospadias using histology, three-dimensional computer reconstruction, ...
Jongbloet P H - - 2004
Current hypotheses do not explain the concerns about sex ratio modulation at conception, birth or during life, and particularly about sex ratio reversal, e.g. at very young or advanced maternal age, during 'anovulatory seasons', among those of low socio-economic status, or induced by specific lifestyles, etc. These modulations are explained ...
Ziegler Toni E - - 2004
In the cotton-top tamarin, a primate where paternal care is critical to the survival of the offspring, we found that expectant fathers experienced multiple hormonal changes during their mate's pregnancy. Fathers that had experienced several previous births showed significant changes in urinary estrogens, androgens, prolactin and cortisol in the last ...
Rodríguez Cilia - - 2004
The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is a sexually dimorphic structure which controls the inhibition/disinhibition of the medial preoptic area in the expression of maternal behavior. Therefore, in the present study we investigated sex differences and the modulation of gamma-aminobutiric-acid (GABA) in the BAOT during the first ...
Krahulcová Anna - - 2004
The versatility of the breeding system in the hybridogenous hexaploid, Hieracium rubrum, was demonstrated in emasculation and crossing experiments. The flow-cytometric ploidy analysis of 1095 seedlings amongst its' progeny enabled the determination and quantification of the reproductive pathway (apospory, haploid parthenogenesis, cross-fertilization of both reduced and unreduced female gametes) responsible ...
Vatten Lars J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: It takes a higher number of male than female embryos to produce a live born infant. The unbalanced pregnancy survival by offspring sex may also be reflected in higher proportion of preterm male births, and in unbalanced sex distribution in certain pregnancy conditions, such as preeclampsia. METHODS: We used ...
Amstislavsky Sergei Ya - - 2004
Long-term effects of in vivo exposures to proestrogen methoxychlor (MXC) or estradiol-17beta (E) were studied during early pregnancy (preimplantation) in ICR mice. Pregnant dams received either subcutaneous injections of 1 microg of E on Day 2 of pregnancy only (vaginal plug = Day 1), or 5.0mg of MXC on Days ...
Bonney Elizabeth A - - 2004
It has been suggested that the maternal immune system favors noncytotoxic, "TH-2" immune responses in order to tolerate the developing fetus. In some strains of mice, pregnant females will reject a male skin graft, even as they tolerate their male fetuses. This rejection is based on responsiveness to the male ...
Atawi F Al FA College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi - - 2004
To determine the levels of leptin in pregnant females during different stages of pregnancy and to correlate these levels to maternal weight, body mass index (BMI), neonate weight and neonate BMI. A case control study was carried out in which 60 pregnant females were enrolled, but only 36 completed the ...
Cree Alison - - 2003
Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether ...
Zhang F - - 2003
The tachinid Celatoria compressa Wulp has been evaluated as a candidate biological control agent for the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgiferaLeConte, in Europe, where it is an invasive alien pest of maize. Special emphasis has been placed on understanding aspects of the parasitoid basic biology and on developing a ...
Verboven Nanette - - 2003
It has been proposed that the maternal androgens in avian egg yolk enhance offspring fitness by accelerating growth and improving competitive ability. Because egg quality is strongly influenced by maternal condition, we predicted that females in good condition would produce high-quality eggs with relatively high androgen content. We experimentally enhanced ...
Fernie Kim - - 2003
The development of second-generation nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) was altered by in ovo exposure of only one parent to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Polychlorinated biphenyls appear to alter nestling development through both maternally and paternally mediated effects. In 1998, F0 parent kestrels consumed approximately 5 to 7 microg total PCBs/g ...
Bulandra Andrzej M - - 2003
Measurements were made of the femoral shaft/neck angle (CCD angle) in 106 human foetuses, aged from 16 to 38 hbd, using a "FEM-GEO_03" computer program. The values of the CCD angle in the group under examination were: mean = 140.48 degrees, SD = 6.95 degrees, max = 157.90 degrees, min ...
Pickard Amanda R - - 2003
In this study, we quantitatively examined male sexual behavior in relation to fecal estrogen and progesterone concentrations in female Mohor gazelles. We investigated the hypothesis that, during natural mating, males detect cues relating to the potential for successful conception and pregnancy. Time series analysis revealed that males could detect the ...
Roy Vincent - - 2003
In rats, while pregnancy has been reported to increase emotional reactivity, postnatal handling, consisting in a short daily maternal separation during early life, has been shown to reduce it in several behavioural tests. In the present study, we investigated the potential effects of handling in pregnant rats confronted to various ...
Larson Shawn - - 2003
Noninvasive methods were validated for monitoring fecal metabolites of reproductive hormones (total estrogens and progestagens) in sea otters. Several captive female sea otters were sampled an average of two to three times per week over at least 1 year to document the reproductive hormone levels within each major reproductive event ...
Ben-Chetrit E - - 2003
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), amyloidosis, and colchicine may affect the reproductive system of male and female patients. Colchicine treatment improves female fertility and the outcome of pregnancy and may prevent the development of amyloidosis. However, colchicine may induce oligospermia/azoospermia, but this effect is rare. Overall, colchicine treatment improves the prognosis ...
Tonkiss John - - 2003
The male offspring of rats provided with a protein deficient diet (6% casein) for 5 weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy were subjected to a brief period of isolation and cooling at postnatal Days (P)7, 9, and 11, and their ultrasonic vocalizations were compared with those of well-nourished pups. ...
Prefumo F - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Recent reports have suggested that nuchal translucency (NT) measurements in the first trimester may be influenced by fetal gender. Since both NT and central venous blood flow are considered to be related to fetal cardiac function, we investigated gender-related differences in first-trimester ductus venosus Doppler indices. METHODS: A total ...
Chung H J - - 2003
Pregnancy block from exposure to foreign male mouse pheromones is sensitive to both male and female mating strain, as well as the foreign male pheromone-producing strain. Incidence of pregnancy block by male pheromones in mice is different depending on the combination of females, stud males and stimulus males. BALB/cA females ...
Wartella Jennifer - - 2003
The female brain is a dynamic structure, which expresses its plasticity most readily following reproductive experience (RE). In Experiment 1, we generated nulliparous (NP), primiparous (PP), and multiparous (MP) females (none, one, and two litters, respectively). Two weeks following the weaning of the first/second six-pup litters, the age-matched MP and ...
Martin Robert D - - 2003
Successful reconstruction of any aspect of human evolution requires broad-based comparisons with other primates and other eutherian mammals. If quantitative data are involved, the scaling influence of body size must be taken into account, and bivariate allometric analysis is a very useful tool. Broad-based comparisons lead to recognition of general ...
Nieto Ana I - - 2003
The inbred FVB/N mouse strain is widely used for creating transgenic mice. Over the past decade, persistent mammary hyperplasia has been detected in many multiparous FVB/N female mice sent to the University of California, Davis (UCD) Mutant Mouse Pathology Laboratory (MMPL) by a number of different laboratories. However, the experimental ...
Marchlewska-Koj Anna - - 2003
Field studies reveal that bank vole females' mobility and aggression increase during pregnancy. Here we investigated the reaction of pregnant females to social stress evoked by short but frequent meetings with another female at the same stage of pregnancy. The stress neither evoked pregnancy termination nor affected pregnancy duration but ...
Cutrera Ana Paula - - 2003
The effect of the mother's contact and huddling with nest mates on the mass-specific metabolic rate (RMR) and body temperature (T(b)) of pups of Ctenomys talarum from 2 to 45 days of age was evaluated at ambient temperatures (T(a)) within and below the adult thermoneutrality range (25 and 19 degrees ...
Widayati Diah Tri DT Laboratory of Animal Morphology and Function, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, - - 2003
Reproductive features of newly bred Russian voles (Microtus rossiaemeridionalis) as a laboratory animal were studied. This species is a copulatory ovulator, and most couples copulated 6 to 16 h after pairing. The gestation period varied from 18 to 22 days (mean +/- SD: 20.6 +/- 0.9, n = 72), and ...
Rummens Katrien - - 2003
Fetal mineralization appears to be driven by the pregnancy-induced stimulation of intestinal Ca absorption. We thus hypothesized that mineralization would be impaired in fetuses of mice that lack the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Here we report on the maternal response to pregnancy, and the fetal mineralization, in mice with a ...
de la Fuente S G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal pneumoperitoneum produces early postnatal behavior deficits in the offspring. METHODS: Time-dated pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 45 min of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum at a pressure of 7 mmHg. There was no manipulation of the control animals. On postnatal ...
Madsen Claus - - 2003
In humans, maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy promotes microscopical fatty streaks in the children. The mechanism is unknown. Fatty streaks are clinically silent, and many of them regress and never develop into advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypercholesterolemia in pregnant mice induced more advanced atherosclerosis ...
Andersson Johan - - 2003
Male Pieris napi butterflies previously have been shown to synthesize and transfer an antiaphrodisiac, methyl salicylate (MeS), to females at mating. This substance curtails courtship and decreases the likelihood of female remating. Here, we show that similar systems occur in Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae. In P. rapae, 13C-labeling studies ...
Ankley Gerald T - - 2003
Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic steroid that is extensively used in the United States as a growth promoter in beef cattle. The acetate is administered to livestock via slow-release implants; some is converted by the animal to 17-beta-trenbolone, a relatively potent androgen receptor agonist in mammalian systems. Recent studies indicate ...
Collins Thomas F X - - 2003
Flaxseed, a rich source of reportedly beneficial n-3 fatty acid and phytoestrogens, has not been thoroughly tested for reproductive effects. High levels of flaxseed (FS, 20 or 40%) or defatted flaxseed meal (FLM, 13 or 26%) added to AIN-93 diet were evaluated in a two-phase study: dosed during gestation only ...
Rasmussen L E L - - 2003
Musth is an important male phenomenon affecting many aspects of elephant society including reproduction. During musth, the temporal gland secretions (as well as the urine and breath) of adult male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) discharge a variety of malodorous compounds together with the bicyclic ketal, frontalin. In contrast, teenage male ...
Jones Adam G - - 2003
The phenomenon of male pregnancy in the family Syngnathidae (seahorses, pipefishes, and sea dragons) undeniably has sculpted the course of behavioral evolution in these fishes. Here we explore another potentially important but previously unrecognized consequence of male pregnancy: a predisposition for sympatric speciation. We present microsatellite data on genetic parentage ...
Ostner Julia - - 2003
In order to characterize the endocrine changes associated with ovarian function and pregnancy in wild redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus), profiles of immunoreactive 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha-ol-20-one (5-P-3OH) and total estrogens (E(t)) in feces were generated during the breeding season and gestation. HPLC data confirmed the presence of high amounts of 5-P-3OH in ...
Ellison Peter T - - 2003
Natural selection favors the optimal allocation of energy and other limiting resources to reproduction. Human reproductive physiology displays characteristic patterns that can be viewed as mechanisms that help optimize reproductive effort in the face of environmental energetic constraints. Female ovarian function is particularly sensitive to energy balance and energy flux, ...
Cagnacci A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In accordance with a presumed greater fragility of male versus female pregnancies, we tested whether sex ratio (male/female ratio) of vital pregnancies is higher in seasons more favourable for reproduction. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 14,310 births which had occurred in our institute between 1995-2001. For each ...
Badyaev Alexander V - - 2003
Maternal phenotype and maternal environment can profoundly affect the phenotype and fitness of offspring. Yet the causes of variation in such maternal effects are rarely known. Embryos in avian eggs cannot develop without being incubated and this creates an opportunity for maternal control of duration and onset of offspring development. ...
Strassmann J E - - 2003
The resolution of social conflict in colonies may accord with the interests of the most numerous party. In social insect colonies with single once-mated queens, workers are more closely related to the workers' sons than they are to the queens' sons. Therefore, they should prefer workers to produce males, against ...
Cisneros F Javier - - 2003
The objective was to evaluate the effects of 5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR) on postnatal development and reproductive capacity. Pregnant mice were administered 1 mg kg-1 5-AZA-CdR at gestation day 10. The body weights of F1 control and treated (in uterine-exposed) pups were recorded. To evaluate the reproductive capacity, 5-AZA-CdR F1 males and ...
Green Daniel M - - 2003
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the effect, if any, on pregnancy loss, live births, and birthweight of treatment for cancer diagnosed during childhood or adolescence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed pregnancy outcome among sexually active male Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) participants who responded to a questionnaire before ...
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