Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1030
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Honeycutt Hunter - - 2005
Infant mice (Mus musculus) born to dams housed in isolation throughout pregnancy (IsoPreg) begin differentially approaching homenest bedding over clean bedding on Postnatal Day 6. Offspring of dams housed with 2 other potentially pregnant conspecifics (SocPreg) display such homing behavior on Day 4. Earlier onset of homing reflects facilitated olfactory ...
Polan H Jonathan - - 2005
Newborn rats seek and attain contact with their mothers by orienting and primitive locomotor behaviors called maternally-directed orienting behaviors (MDOBs). By 2 days of age MDOBs are elicited specifically by maternal features and are heightened by a period of acute separation from the mother. This behavioral regulation by the mother's ...
Blumenstiel Justin P - - 2005
Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila is a syndrome of gonadal atrophy, sterility, and male recombination, and it occurs in the progeny of crosses between males that harbor certain transposable elements (TEs) and females that lack them. Known examples of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster result from mobilization of individual families of ...
Langkilde Tracy - - 2005
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has evolved independently in at least two lineages of viviparous Australian scincid lizards, but its adaptive significance remains unclear. We studied a montane lizard species (Eulamprus heatwolei) with TSD. Our data suggest that mothers can modify the body sizes of their offspring by selecting specific thermal ...
Becker Christian M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether endometriosis can be treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin and the effect of this treatment on fertility and reproduction. DESIGN: Pharmacologic intervention in a surgically induced model of endometriosis and in female mice undergoing mating. SETTING: Animal research facility. ANIMAL(S): Eight-week-old, female C57BL/6 and SCID mice. ...
Reebs S G - - 2005
The present study investigated the preference of male and female Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, for different types of running wheels. Hamsters were placed individually in sets of multiple cages linked by tunnels, each cage with a different running wheel. The number of wheel revolutions in each cage was tallied daily ...
Good Tatjana C - - 2005
Male and female mammals undergo profound hormonal changes during pregnancy, some of which are sufficiently dramatic to influence offspring survival. In order to understand the proximate mechanisms regulating the variability in reproductive success within and between individuals, we monitored changes in fecal corticosteroid concentrations over the reproductive cycle in male ...
David Clifton Justin - - 2006
Intergeneric androgenetic golden Buenos Aires tetra (BT), Hemigrammus caudovittatus was generated using sperm drawn from post-mortem males preserved at -20 degrees C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days or fresh sperm to activate the UV-irradiated oocytes of black widow tetra (WT), Gymnocorymbus ternetzi. UV-irradiation (4.2 W/m(2)) of the oocytes ...
Pampiglione S - - 2005
This paper deals with some internal anatomical features observed in histological sections and freshly dissected mounts of Tunga trimamillata, a Siphonaptera recently discovered in Andean regions of Ecuador from several mammals, including man. It was possible to study in males and also non-gravid and gravid females, the location and anatomy ...
Bales Karen L - - 2005
The steroid hormone cortisol has been associated with different levels of "stress" as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproductive status than of chronic stress. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wild golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus ...
Yan Zhen - - 2005
Fetal microchimerism, derived from fetal cells that persist after pregnancy, is usually evaluated by tests for male microchimerism in women who gave birth to sons. We investigated male microchimerism in women without sons and examined correlation with prior pregnancy history. Immunologic consequences of microchimerism are unknown. We studied healthy women ...
Chassaing Nicolas - - 2005
We describe a family with an X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia. Four males and six females were affected through four generations. Identification of skeletal abnormalities and hydrocephaly during the pregnancy of three male fetuses led to termination of the pregnancies. A fourth affected male died at 6 days of life. The four ...
Schwarz Aline - - 2005
Solanum lycocarpum St. Hil (Solanaceae) is an invasive and native shrub very common in the Brazilian savanna. It is well known that this plant contain steroidal glycoalkaloids that can be transformed into an intermediate for steroidal drugs production, like oral contraceptives. In this way, it is very possible that these ...
Kinsley Craig H - - 2006
Short-term fluctuations in steroid hormones such as estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) can affect the concentration of hippocampal dendritic spines in adult, cycling nulliparous female rats. Pregnancy is characterized by a significantly longer duration of substantially elevated E2 and P compared to the estrous cycle. Thus, even greater changes than ...
Reddy Gadi V P - - 2005
Monoterpenoid compounds extracted from wood of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L, synergized the attraction of the old-house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus (L), to the male pheromone (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone ((3R)-ketol) + 1-butanol. Glasshouse experiments using ground traps baited with extracts derived from Scots pine wood or the monoterpenes (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-verbenone, (-)-trans-pinocarveol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol ...
Guettier Catherine - - 2005
Male microchimerism is frequent in the adult female liver and is attributed to fetal cells originating from previous male offspring. It has never been studied in pregnant women, female children, or fetuses. We examined its frequency and cellular nature in normal and diseased female livers from fetal life to adulthood. ...
Gol Mert - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MshCG) levels are higher in pregnant women with female fetuses than in pregnant women with male fetuses in the third trimester of pregnancy. Our aim was to examine the effect of fetal sex on MshCG levels throughout the pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine uncomplicated ...
Kapoor Amita - - 2005
Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis ...
Wada Toshifumi - - 2005
We observed the reproductive behavior of the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana in captivity. The male used three different mating behaviors: male-parallel (MP), male-upturned (MU) and sneaking. Male competition over females frequently occurred before and during the female egg-laying period, and the outcome of most fights depended on male body size. ...
Koketsu Y - - 2005
Of 105 swine herds using a production record system for breeding female pigs, 95 farms were used to analyze nonproductive female days (NPD), the six component intervals of NPD, and related measurements. The NPD was defined as the days when mated gilts and sows were neither gestating nor lactating, and ...
Meylan Sandrine - - 2005
Hormones are an important interface between genome and environment, because of their ability to modify the phenotype. More particularly, glucocorticoids are known to affect both morphological, physiological and behavioral traits. Many studies suggest that prenatal stress (associated with an elevation of corticosterone) has deleterious effects on offspring, an altered physiology ...
Cunha Gerald R - - 2005
Studies were conducted to elucidate the importance of androgen-mediated induction of the extreme masculinization of the external genitalia in female spotted hyenas. Phallic size and shape; androgen receptor (AR) and alpha-actin expression; and sex-specific differences in phallic retractor musculature, erectile tissue, tunica albuginea, and urethra/urogenital sinus were examined in male ...
del Castillo Susan M - - 2005
Gestation and lactation can impose substantial energetic costs on female mammals. We developed a non-invasive means to determine reproductive condition in female giraffe using fecal steroid analysis. Giraffe may be especially challenged during their reproductive cycle because of two characteristics: they are impregnated while lactating and they do not breed ...
Snook R R - - 2005
Courtship song serves as a sexual signal and may contribute to reproductive isolation between closely related species. Using lines of Drosophila pseudoobscura experimentally selected under different sexual selection regimes, we tested whether increased promiscuity and enforced monogamy led to evolutionary changes in courtship song elements. In D. pseudoobscura, males produce ...
Cocco Pierluigi - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To explore reproductive outcomes in relation to occupational exposure to DDT. METHODS: We inquired into the reproductive history, including total number of children, sex distribution in the offspring, time-to-pregnancy, and number of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths, of the spouses of 105 men first exposed to DDT in a 1946-1950 ...
Cohen-Bendahan Celina C C - - 2005
Increased prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) in females of an opposite-sex (OS) twin pair may have an effect on the development of sex-typical cognitive and behavioral patterns. The prenatal exposure to T due to hormone transfer in OS twin females may occur in two ways, one directly via the feto-fetal ...
Kanazawa Satoshi - - 2005
This paper proposes the generalized Trivers-Willard hypothesis (gTWH), which suggests that parents who possess any heritable trait which increases male reproductive success at a greater rate than female reproductive success in a given environment will have a higher-than-expected offspring sex ratio, and parents who possess any heritable trait which increases ...
Fernández-Fernández R - - 2005
Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor, has been recently involved in a wide array of biological functions, including signaling of energy insufficiency and energy homeostasis. On the basis of the proven reproductive effects of other regulators of energy balance, such as the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, we hypothesized ...
Naguib Marc - - 2005
The nutritional and social conditions that individuals experience during early development can have profound effects on their morphology, physiology, behaviour and life history. Experimental increases in brood size in birds can result in reduced offspring condition and survival, indicating that developmental deficits in enlarged broods have negative fitness consequences within ...
Wewers Dirk - - 2005
The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that an application of an antiandrogen during pregnancy causes an infantilization of the male offsprings' behaviour later in life. The subjects studied were male guinea pigs whose mothers were either treated with an antiandrogen (flutamide and carrier) or a placebo (carrier ...
Krakauer Alan H - - 2005
In the few species of birds in which males form display partnerships to attract females, one male secures most or all of the copulations. This leads to the question of why subordinate males help in the absence of observable reproductive benefits. Hamilton's concept of kin selection, whereby individuals can benefit ...
Al Atawi F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Adult females have significantly more leptin than males. We investigated the effect of fetal sex on levels of leptin and other pregnancy hormones (progesterone, estradiol, FSH, LH and beta hCG) in pregnant females during different stages of pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum leptin levels in pregnant females followed at ...
Arthuri Mariana Trevisani - - 2005
The effect of sex hormones on orofacial pain modulation is poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of hormonal changes as a result of pregnancy, as well as that of the kappa (kappa) opioid receptor antagonist on female rats' sensitivity to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) formalin test. ...
Heifetz Yael Y Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2005
Proteins and peptides in Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid induce mated females to increase their rates of egg deposition. One seminal-fluid protein, ovulin (Acp26Aa), stimulates an early step in the egg-laying process, the release of oocytes by the ovary. Ovulin, upon transfer to females, is cleaved sequentially within the mated female's ...
Menon Balakrishnan - - 2005
A young female patient of 30 years of age previously asymptomatic presented with complaints of exertional dyspnoea and hemoptysis with a normal chest roentgenogram. She was eventually diagnosed to have lymphangioleiomyomatosis, a rare pulmonary disorder. In this patient it occurred without any history of current pregnancy or estrogen consumption, as ...
Luke Barbara - - 2005
This study evaluated the effect of gender mix (the gender combinations of twin pairs) on fetal growth and length of gestation, and reviewed the literature on the long-term effects of this altered fetal milieu on cancer risk. In singletons, it is well established that females weigh less than males at ...
Darmani Homa - - 2005
The present study evaluated the effect of triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) on mouse fertility. Adult male mice were administered TEGDMA (0, 25 and 100 microg kg(-1)) intragastrically daily for 28 days and then allowed to mate for 10 days with sexually mature untreated female mice; fertility was assessed after a further ...
Boklage Charles E - - 2005
Live human births are usually more than half male, in spite of excess losses of males throughout fetal development. These observations together demand an excess of males near the beginning of pregnancy greater than that seen at birth. Reductions of the usual excess of males among human live births have ...
Della Seta Daniele - - 2005
In mammals, endogenous estrogens are crucial for sexual differentiation during the perinatal period, and the modulation in adulthood of many neuroendocrine and behavioral functions involved in reproduction. In rats, the estrogenic environment during pregnancy and lactation affects directly maternal behavior. This experiment was aimed to test whether the exposure to ...
Saltzman Wendy - - 2005
Common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) live in small groups in which, usually, only a single female breeds and all group members provide infant care. When two females breed concurrently, however, they may commonly kill one another's infants, especially during the peripartum period. To investigate the mechanisms underlying infanticide by breeding ...
Huang Da-Ji - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chlordane and lindane on morphological changes and endocrine disruption in male Green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata). In this experiment, individuals of N. denticulata, a common inhabitant of freshwater systems in Taiwan, were exposed to chlordane (1 and 10 ng/l ...
Sharma Krishan - - 2004
The possible differential effects of ABO blood group materno-paternal (fetal) incompatibility on completed reproductive performance were investigated on a sample of 100 couples (100 fathers and 100 mothers) from three villages in the Jind district of Haryana state, India. The average number of live births per mating couple was slightly ...
Nutter Felicia B - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine reproductive capacity of naturally breeding free-roaming domestic cats and kitten survival rate. DESIGN: Prospective cohort and retrospective cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: 2,332 female cats brought to a trap-neuter-return clinic for neutering and 71 female cats and 171 kittens comprising 50 litters from a cohort study of feral cats ...
Johnson Sarah A - - 2004
Nhlh2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family and is expressed in developing and adult neuroendocrine tissues such as the pituitary and hypothalamus. Targeted deletion of Nhlh2 (N2KO) in mice results in hypogonadism and obesity. While gonadally intact male N2KO mice are infertile and lack male ...
Longo Monica - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Transgenic mice that lack endothelial nitric oxide synthase have offspring with growth deficiency and abnormal vascular reactivity in later life. Our objective was to evaluate the role of parity in the modulation of the fetal programming of growth and vascular responses in these transgenic mice. STUDY DESIGN: Oligoparous (0-2 ...
de Vylder A - - 2004
During the last 40 years more and more myelomeningocele (MMC) patients have survived to adulthood and since the 1980s there is growing interest in sexual functioning of these patients. However, most of what is known about the impact of MMC on sexual functioning pertains to males. We have reviewed the ...
Feldheim Kevin A - - 2004
Because sharks possess an unusual suite of reproductive characteristics, including internal fertilization, sperm storage, relatively low fecundity, and reproductive modes that range from oviparity to viviparity, they can provide important insight into the evolution of mating systems and sexual selection. Yet, to date, few studies have characterized behavioral and genetic ...
McMullen Sarah - - 2005
Animal models support human epidemiological studies in demonstrating a relationship between impaired fetal growth and risk of adult hypertension. Undernutrition during pregnancy exerts programming effects on the developing kidney, and modulation of angiotensin receptor (ATR) expression has been observed persisting into adult life. Fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids is thought to ...
Burbacher Thomas M - - 2004
The present study was designed to characterize maternal reproductive performance and early offspring effects following exposure to methanol (MeOH) vapor in a nonhuman primate model. The two-cohort study design used 48 adult female Macaca fascicularis (24/cohort) monkeys exposed to 0, 200, 600, or 1800 ppm MeOH vapor for approximately 2.5 ...
deCatanzaro Denys - - 2004
Experiment 1 replicated the Bruce effect, showing pregnancy termination in CF1 strain female mice (Mus musculus) housed underneath novel heterogeneous strain (HS) males. In a 4-arm maze in Experiment 2, inseminated CF1 females approached novel HS males more often than CF1 sires or unfamiliar CF1 males. In Experiment 3, inseminated ...
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