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Results 251 - 300 of 1019
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Weatherhead Patrick James - - 2006
Variation in intrauterine exposure to hormones associated with variation in the sex of litter mates has well-established and far-reaching effects on sexual development in some mammals. Research on this phenomenon in reptiles is scant, but suggests that lizards may follow the mammalian model whereas snakes may be affected differently. We ...
Wood S L - - 2006
Our objective was to examine whether mouse lines divergently selected for response to fescue toxicosis differed in the impact of increasing reproductive intensity on growth, final weight or first and second parity reproduction. Resistant (R) and susceptible (S) females were never mated (NR), mated only once (low reproduction, LR), mated ...
Anway Matthew D - - 2006
The current study was designed to examine the actions of a model endocrine disruptor on embryonic testis development and male fertility. Pregnant rats (F0) that received a transient embryonic exposure to an environmental endocrine disruptor, vinclozolin, had male offspring (F1) with reduced spermatogenic capacity. The reduced spermatogenetic capacity observed in ...
Wells Timothy S - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Following the 1991 Gulf War, some veterans expressed concerns regarding their reproductive health. Our objective was to assess whether an association exists between deployment to the 1991 Gulf War and self-reported adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Using a modified Dillman technique with telephone follow-up, we conducted a survey via a ...
Goel R K - - 2006
Asparagus racemosus (AR) is a herb used as a rasayana in Ayurveda and is considered both general and female reproductive tonic. Methanolic extract of A. racemosus roots (ARM; 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days) showed teratological disorders in terms of increased resorption of fetuses, gross malformations e.g. swelling in legs and ...
Allsop D J - - 2006
Under certain environmental situations, selection may favour the ability of females to adjust the sex ratio of their offspring. Two recent studies have suggested that viviparous scincid lizards can modify the sex ratio of the offspring they produce in response to the operational sex ratio (OSR). Both of the species ...
Buck Louis Germaine M - - 2006
An increasing body of evidence suggests that environmental exposures are adversely influencing female fecundity and fertility. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are of particular concern, due to their ability to interfere with the body's hormonal milieu. An overview of the literature regarding the effect of EDCs on female fecundity and fertility end ...
MacNeil M D - - 2006
The objectives of this research were to partition variation in ovulatory follicle size into genetic and nongenetic components and to assess the utility of ovulatory follicle size as an indicator trait associated with reproductive success in beef cattle. Data were collected during the years 2002 to 2005 from 780 beef ...
Prado Rogilene - - 2006
Adult males of Eidmanacris corumbatai Garcia have reduced tegmina without stridulatory apparatus. For this reason, they developed other means ofintra-specific communication. During courtship, the males use a combination of foreleg drumming and waving of the antennae, in addition to chemical signaling through pheromones. The females become receptive to copulation when ...
Ziegler Toni E - - 2006
Paternal behaviour is critical for the survival of offspring in many monogamous species. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) fathers spend as much or more time caring for infants than mothers. Expectant males of both species showed significant increases in weight across the pregnancy whereas control males ...
Shine Richard - - 2006
Pregnant females modify their thermoregulatory behaviour in many species of viviparous (live-bearing) reptiles, typically maintaining higher and more stable body temperatures at this time. Such modifications often have been interpreted as adaptations to viviparity, functioning to accelerate embryonic development and/or modify phenotypic traits of hatchlings. An alternative possibility is that ...
Naves P - - 2006
The pine sawyer Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier) is the vector of the introduced pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Bührer) Nickle in Portugal, and until recently was considered a secondary forest insect. Under laboratory conditions, a study of biological and reproductive traits of 37 insect pairs was conducted. The longevity ...
Hunt Kathleen E - - 2006
Very little is known about the endocrinology of the baleen whales. The highly endangered North Atlantic right whale (NARW; Eubalaena glacialis) is a good model species, because most NARW individuals are photo-identified with known histories. We used an 125I corticosterone assay, shown to reliably measure cortisol metabolites, to determine glucocorticoid ...
Rülicke T - - 2006
Confronting a recently mated female with a strange male can induce a pregnancy block ('Bruce effect'). The physiology of this effect is well studied, but its functional significance is still not fully understood. The 'anticipated infanticide hypothesis' suggests that the pregnancy block serves to avoid the cost of embryogenesis and ...
Wu Zhuochun - - 2006
This study analysed the relative contributions of three possible determinants to the high sex ratio among newborns in rural China - under-reporting of female births, abortions of female fetuses and excess early female neonatal mortality. A cohort of 3,697 pregnancies collected at village level in 20 rural townships from a ...
Dloniak S M - - 2006
Within any hierarchical society, an individual's social rank can have profound effects on its health and reproductive success, and rank-related variation in these traits is often mediated by variation in endocrine function. Maternal effects mediated by prenatal hormone exposure are potentially important for non-genetic inheritance of phenotypic traits related to ...
Holmes Megan C - - 2006
Low birth weight associates with increased susceptibility to adult cardiometabolic and affective disorders spawning the notion of fetal "programming." Prenatal exposure to excess glucocorticoids may be causal. In support, maternal stress or treatment during pregnancy with dexamethasone (which crosses the placenta) or inhibitors of fetoplacental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2), ...
Rosenthal Harriet E S - - 2006
The authors aimed to establish whether interventions designed to reduce intergroup bias could be applied to the stereotype threat domain. In three experiments, the hypothesis was tested that blurring intergroup boundaries would reduce stereotype threat. In the first study, it was found that female participants who thought about characteristics shared ...
Skarda J - - 2006
This study tested and compared the anti-proliferative and proliferative activities of two anti-oestrogens and three anti-progestins on four separate mouse model systems: young intact and adult ovariectomized (OV-X) females, and young intact and adult castrated males. Pure steroidal anti-oestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) decreased mammary and uterine growth stimulated by endogenous ...
Zinner Dietmar - - 2006
We present data on sexual maturity in young hamadryas baboon males (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) and its reproductive consequences in a large captive baboon colony. Hamadryas baboons live in a multilevel social system, with one-male units (OMUs) as the smallest social entity. Male leaders of OMUs are believed to monopolize matings ...
Jud Corinne - - 2006
A genetic approach was used to investigate whether the emergence of circadian rhythms in murine pups is dependent on a functional maternal clock. Arrhythmic females bearing either the mPer1Brdm1/Per2Brdm1 or mPer2Brdm1/Cry1-/- double-mutant genotype were crossed with wild-type males under constant darkness. The heterozygous offspring have the genetic constitution for a ...
Diamond David A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Sex assignment to newborns with ambiguous genitalia is controversial. Our objective was to determine the attitudes and practices of pediatric urologists on this subject. STUDY DESIGN: A survey of fellows in the Urology Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics was completed by 185/228 (81%). The survey referred to ...
Hayes Tyrone B - - 2006
Atrazine is a potent endocrine disruptor that both chemically castrates and feminizes male amphibians. It depletes androgens in adult frogs and reduces androgen-dependent growth of the larynx in developing male larvae. It also disrupts normal gonadal development and feminizes the gonads of developing males. Gonadal malformations induced by atrazine include ...
Künzle H - - 2007
The gestation length (GL) of Tenrecs (Tenrecinae, Afrotheria) is still uncertain. This lack of knowledge also applies to the lesser hedgehog tenrec, Echinops telfairi, the species most commonly bred and maintained in captivity. The animals used in this study were held under controlled conditions (light, temperature and humidity). In order ...
Cocco Pierluigi - - 2006
We used official statistics of births and stillbirths in 1945-1954 to evaluate reproductive outcomes in the general population following use of DDT during a 1946-1950 anti-malarial campaign in the Italian region of Sardinia. Due to the disruption of registration systems in the World War II years, data in the pre-DDT ...
Willis Craig K R - - 2006
Many mammals save energy during food shortage or harsh weather using controlled reductions in body temperature and metabolism called torpor. However, torpor slows offspring growth, and reproductive individuals are thought to avoid using it because of reduced fitness resulting from delayed offspring development. We tested this hypothesis by investigating torpor ...
Tsunoda Masashi - - 2006
Tributyltin (TBT) compounds have been used as anti-fouling agents and the central nervous system is one of its target organs. TBT-induced modulations of neurotransmitters in the brains of adult mice have been reported. However, little is known about the developmental neurotoxicity of TBT. In this study, we evaluated the effects ...
Ault Patricia - - 2006
PURPOSE: Imatinib has potential teratogenicity in animals, but the effect of exposure to imatinib during conception and pregnancy in humans is not known. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of all patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treated with imatinib were reviewed. We report the experience on 19 pregnancies involving 18 ...
Webb Jonathan K - - 2006
Phylogenetic transitions from oviparity to viviparity in reptiles generally have occurred in cold climates, apparently driven by selective advantages accruing from maternal regulation of incubation temperature. But why, then, are viviparous reptiles so successful in tropical climates? Viviparity might enhance fitness in the tropics via the same pathway as in ...
Pawluski Jodi L - - 2006
Pregnancy and mothering result in a number of hormonal, neurological, and behavioral changes that are necessary to ensure reproductive success. With subsequent reproductive experience (multiparity and mothering), further neurological and behavioral changes may result. Recent research has shown that previous motherhood enhances both hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and long-term potentiation ...
McKenna D S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Many expecting parents wish to ascertain fetal gender early in pregnancy. Our goal was to determine whether fetal heart rate (FHR) of males and females during the first trimester is significantly different. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 1997 to February 2003 we enrolled pregnant women with singleton gestations who ...
Basolo Alexandra L - - 2006
Maternal investment in offspring is constrained by a variety of trade-offs, and the investment pattern expressed by an individual can have important fitness consequences. The authors investigate two maternal investment tradeoffs in the southern platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus: investment in offspring size versus number, and investment in sons versus daughters. Variation ...
Dixon Marjorie E - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Uterine vascular remodeling at mid gestation includes the thinning of the vessel walls and, typically, an increase in lumen diameter. This study aimed to elucidate any differences in structural remodeling in normal murine pregnancies versus those differences that resulted from the crossing of CBA/J female mice by DBA/2 male ...
Larke Amiee - - 2006
Throughout the living world trade-offs between reproductive success and longevity have been observed. In general, two extremes of life history patterning are reported, r- and K-selected species. The latter tend toward larger body sizes, few offspring from any one pregnancy, few offspring over the female reproductive span, longer life spans, ...
Rodríguez M D - - 2006
D-003 is a mixture of long-chain fatty acids isolated and purified from sugar cane wax with cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects. In order to further characterize the developmental toxicity during the treatment period from late gestation up to weaning of the offspring, pregnant females received 0 (control), 500, and 1,000 mg/kg/day ...
Dziminski M A - - 2006
Variable maternal provisioning may evolve when there is variation in the quality of offspring environments. The frog Crinia georgiana has high variability in egg size both within and between clutches, independent of female phenotype. It breeds in ponds with high spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality. Egg size strongly ...
Sinno-Tellier Sandra - - 2006
Male gonadal exposure to ionizing radiation may disrupt spermatogenesis, but its influence on the fecundity of couples has been rarely studied. We aimed to characterize the influence of male gonadal dose of ionizing radiation delivered during radiodiagnostic on the monthly probability of pregnancy. We recruited a random sample of women ...
Hirai Narisato - - 2006
Gonad histological changes were examined in Japanese medaka exposed to 17beta-estradiol (E2) during early-life stages. Two experiments were conducted at different concentrations of E2 (33.5 and 140.6 ng/L, mean value of measurement) and larvae and juveniles were observed for histological changes in the gonad. Differentiation of ovary and testis in ...
Matsuura Ikuo - - 2005
A two-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats adding extra endpoints to detect endocrine disrupting activity was conducted using lindane by dietary administration at 0, 10, 60, and 300 ppm, for investigation of its utility. The extra endpoints included anogenital distance (AGD), nipple development, sexual maturation (vaginal opening and preputial separation), ...
Honeycutt Hunter - - 2005
Infant mice (Mus musculus) born to dams housed in isolation throughout pregnancy (IsoPreg) begin differentially approaching homenest bedding over clean bedding on Postnatal Day 6. Offspring of dams housed with 2 other potentially pregnant conspecifics (SocPreg) display such homing behavior on Day 4. Earlier onset of homing reflects facilitated olfactory ...
Polan H Jonathan - - 2005
Newborn rats seek and attain contact with their mothers by orienting and primitive locomotor behaviors called maternally-directed orienting behaviors (MDOBs). By 2 days of age MDOBs are elicited specifically by maternal features and are heightened by a period of acute separation from the mother. This behavioral regulation by the mother's ...
Blumenstiel Justin P - - 2005
Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila is a syndrome of gonadal atrophy, sterility, and male recombination, and it occurs in the progeny of crosses between males that harbor certain transposable elements (TEs) and females that lack them. Known examples of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster result from mobilization of individual families of ...
Langkilde Tracy - - 2005
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has evolved independently in at least two lineages of viviparous Australian scincid lizards, but its adaptive significance remains unclear. We studied a montane lizard species (Eulamprus heatwolei) with TSD. Our data suggest that mothers can modify the body sizes of their offspring by selecting specific thermal ...
Becker Christian M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether endometriosis can be treated with the angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin and the effect of this treatment on fertility and reproduction. DESIGN: Pharmacologic intervention in a surgically induced model of endometriosis and in female mice undergoing mating. SETTING: Animal research facility. ANIMAL(S): Eight-week-old, female C57BL/6 and SCID mice. ...
Reebs S G - - 2005
The present study investigated the preference of male and female Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, for different types of running wheels. Hamsters were placed individually in sets of multiple cages linked by tunnels, each cage with a different running wheel. The number of wheel revolutions in each cage was tallied daily ...
Good Tatjana C - - 2005
Male and female mammals undergo profound hormonal changes during pregnancy, some of which are sufficiently dramatic to influence offspring survival. In order to understand the proximate mechanisms regulating the variability in reproductive success within and between individuals, we monitored changes in fecal corticosteroid concentrations over the reproductive cycle in male ...
David Clifton Justin - - 2006
Intergeneric androgenetic golden Buenos Aires tetra (BT), Hemigrammus caudovittatus was generated using sperm drawn from post-mortem males preserved at -20 degrees C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days or fresh sperm to activate the UV-irradiated oocytes of black widow tetra (WT), Gymnocorymbus ternetzi. UV-irradiation (4.2 W/m(2)) of the oocytes ...
Pampiglione S - - 2005
This paper deals with some internal anatomical features observed in histological sections and freshly dissected mounts of Tunga trimamillata, a Siphonaptera recently discovered in Andean regions of Ecuador from several mammals, including man. It was possible to study in males and also non-gravid and gravid females, the location and anatomy ...
Bales Karen L - - 2005
The steroid hormone cortisol has been associated with different levels of "stress" as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproductive status than of chronic stress. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wild golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus ...
Yan Zhen - - 2005
Fetal microchimerism, derived from fetal cells that persist after pregnancy, is usually evaluated by tests for male microchimerism in women who gave birth to sons. We investigated male microchimerism in women without sons and examined correlation with prior pregnancy history. Immunologic consequences of microchimerism are unknown. We studied healthy women ...
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