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Results 201 - 250 of 1065
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Yanagisawa Rie - - 2008
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been widely used in polyvinyl chloride products and is ubiquitous in developed countries. Although maternal exposure to DEHP during fetal and/or neonatal periods reportedly affects reproductive and developmental systems, its effects on allergic diseases in offspring remain to be determined. In the present study, we examined ...
Sparrow Robert R Centre for Human Bioethics, Monash University, - - 2008
Since the 1980s, a number of medical researchers have suggested that in the future it might be possible for men to become pregnant. Given the role played by the right to reproductive liberty in other debates about reproductive technologies, it will be extremely difficult to deny that this right extends ...
Kapoor Amita - - 2008
Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would ...
Hong Xiaoman X Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, - - 2008
The ribonuclease III endonuclease, Dicer1 (also known as Dicer), is essential for the synthesis of the 19-25 nucleotide noncoding RNAs known as micro-RNAs (miRNAs). These miRNAs associate with the RNA-induced silencing complex to regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing with 3'untranslated regions of complementary mRNA targets. Although it is ...
Gerald Melissa S - - 2009
Instances of bright, hormonally induced coloration among females during gestation have been reported in a few reptile and primate genera. Gravid coloration in lizards has been linked to female aggression but the influence of color changes associated with pregnancy has not yet been experimentally pursued for primates. As a first ...
Zampieri N - - 2008
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sonographic development of normal fetal male genitalia. METHODS: A longitudinal study was performed on 60 male fetuses. The development of penis, prepuce and presence of testes in scrotum were observed with a high resolution transabdominal ultrasonography between weeks 11 and ...
Shehu Aurora - - 2008
Our laboratory has previously cloned and purified a protein named PRAP (prolactin receptor-associated protein) that was shown to be a novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) enzyme with dual activity. This enzyme, renamed HSD17B7 or PRAP/17beta-HSD7, converts estrone to estradiol and is also involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. The major site of its ...
Robert Kylie A - - 2009
During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after ...
Serguera Che - - 2008
In rodents, social odor sensing influences female reproductive status by affecting neuroendocrine cascades. The odor of male mouse urine can induce ovulation or block pregnancy within 3 d post coitus. Females avoid the action of such olfactory stimuli after embryonic implantation. The mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. Here we ...
Osaka Ryu - - 2008
Maternally transmitted endosymbionts of the genus Spiroplasma infecting several species of Drosophila are known to cause selective death of male offspring (male killing). The male-killing trait is considered to be advantageous for maternally transmitted endosymbionts. However, a non-male-killing spiroplasma is present in Japanese populations of Drosophila hydei at high frequencies ...
Forsman Anna M - - 2008
House wrens are typically socially monogamous, but frequently engage in extra-pair matings leading to multisired broods. Because females do not appear to acquire direct material benefits from their extra-pair mates, we tested the hypothesis that female house wrens derive indirect genetic benefits, such as enhanced immunocompetence (cutaneous immune activity, humoral ...
Tucker H A - - 2008
Physicians have tried to explain the origins of birth defects since antiquity. In early humoralist models, fetal anomalies were most often understood in terms of quantity and quality of male and female seed. Maternal imagination was also considered a key environmental influence on fetal development from Hippocrates, Galen, and into ...
Schausberger P - - 2008
1. Sibling cannibalism is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom but entails a high risk of direct and inclusive fitness loss for the mother and her offspring. Therefore, mechanisms limiting sibling cannibalism are expected to be selected for. One way of maternal manipulation of sibling cannibalism is to influence ...
Almond Rosamunde E A - - 2008
We have previously shown that paternally experienced cotton-top tamarin fathers (Saguinus oedipus) had significant increases in prolactin and glucocorticoids at the midpoint of their mate's pregnancy, whereas less experienced fathers showed prolactin increases only the month before offspring birth [Ziegler & Snowdon, Hormones & Behavior 38:159-167, 2000; Ziegler et al., ...
González D Almeida - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To identify the differences in cytokine profile between allogeneic and syngeneic pregnancy in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). METHODS: Mice (strain B10.RIII) were injected with bovine collagen. Females were mated with males of the same strain (syngeneic pregnancy) or with males of strain B10. Q (allogeneic pregnancy). Concentrations of ...
Favaro Plinio das N - - 2008
Since serotonin (5-HT) acts as neurotrophic factor, the use of fluoxetine (FLX) by mothers during pregnancy and/or lactation could disrupt brain development of the progeny. To unveil if maternal FLX exposure could compromise the functional integrity of monoaminergic and GABA-ergic neurotransmission, the behavioral responses of male and female mouse pups ...
Li Jingjing - - 2008
Although there are numerous examples of animals having photoreceptors sensitive to UVA (315-400 nm) [1] and relying on UVA-based mate-choice cues [2-5], here we provide the first evidence of an animal using UVB (280-315 nm) for intraspecific communication. An earlier study showed that Phintella vittata, a jumping spider (Salticidae) from ...
Cassey Phillip - - 2008
The striking diversity of avian eggshell colour has long fascinated biologists. Recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green colour of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. It has been suggested that ...
Gouvêa Thiago Santos - - 2008
Depressive disorders have a worldwide high prevalence. Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant, has been widely prescribed for depression during pregnancy and/or lactation. Since serotonin is a neurotrophic factor, the use of FLX by mothers could disrupt brain development resulting in behavioral alterations in their progeny. The ...
Myers Matthew J - - 2008
Investigations into the cause of the Steller sea lion population decline have focused on numerous factors, including exposure to toxic contaminants such as organochlorines (OCs). OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), have been associated with various biological effects in marine mammals. We measured these compounds in ...
Onyango Patrick Ogola PO Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. - - 2008
Dominance status and reproductive experience are maternal characteristics that affect offspring traits in diverse taxa, including some cercopithecine primates. Maternal effects of this sort are widespread and are sources of variability in offspring fitness. We tested the hypothesis that maternal dominance rank and reproductive experience as well as a male's ...
Lim Maria A - - 2008
Pharmacological studies indicate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be necessary for normal embryonic development in the mouse. For example, VIP antagonist treatment before embryonic day 11 resulted in developmental delays, growth restriction, modified adult brain chemistry and reduced social behavior. Here, developmental milestones, growth, and social behaviors of neonates ...
Okada Atsushi - - 2008
AIM: To assess the effect of estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and bisphenol A (BPA) administered chronically by implanting a silicone tube throughout pregnancy and lactation on male pups' reproductive system in ICR mice. METHODS: Female mice were implanted with a tube filled with 10 ng, 500 ng, 1 microg, or 10 microg ...
Zhou Wen-Hui - - 2008
Immune regulation during pregnancy is complex, and thus an optimal therapy for pregnancy complications is always a big challenge to reproductive medicine. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressant, prevents rejection of allografts by hosts, but little is known about the modulating effect of CsA on the materno-fetal relationship. Here, pregnant ...
Nilsson Eric E - - 2008
Endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination was previously found to induce male rat adult onset transgenerational disease (F1-F4 generation), and this was associated with an alteration in the epigenetic (i.e., DNA methylation) programming of the male germ line. The current study was designed to characterize the transgenerational disease phenotypes ...
Schwander Tanja - - 2008
Caste differentiation and division of labor are the hallmarks of social insect colonies [1, 2]. The current dogma for female caste differentiation is that female eggs are totipotent, with morphological and physiological differences between queens and workers stemming from a developmental switch during the larval stage controlled by nutritional and ...
Catalano Ralph - - 2008
The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and ...
Götz Alexander A - - 2008
The impact of daily social maternal stress on reproduction parameters was studied in F0 and F1 generation female Long-Evans rats. Chronic maternal stress was induced in pregnant females (F0 females) by 2 h social confrontation with a dominant female throughout pregnancy. Social stress of F0 females was associated with lower ...
Ness Roberta B RB Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. - - 2008
Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations ...
Azab Mohammed
Twelve weeks ingestion of aluminium chloride via drinking water by adult non-pregnant female mice induced adverse effects on reproduction and fertility. Aluminium chloride induced a significant decrease in pregnancy rate and a significant increase in number of females with resorptions and in number of resorptions. Furthermore, histological changes in ovarian ...
Priest Nicholas K - - 2008
In many species, increased mating frequency reduces maternal survival and reproduction. In order to understand the evolution of mating frequency, we need to determine the consequences of increased mating frequency for offspring. We conducted an experiment in Drosophila melanogaster in which we manipulated the mating frequency of mothers and examined ...
Sánchez Susana - - 2008
It has been noted that expectant cotton-top tamarin males in captivity experience a body mass increase during the last months of their mates' pregnancies, and this has been explained as being a male physiological response. We studied the body mass of 4 inexperienced and 4 experienced expectant males, and we ...
Lin Chi-Xian - - 2008
It has been documented in the many-lined sun skink (Mabuya multifasciata) that pregnant females select lower body temperatures (27.6-30.8 degrees C) than do nonpregnant females and adult males (29.7-35.7 degrees C). We therefore used the skink to test the hypothesis that the maximization of reproductive benefits should be achieved in ...
Leppänen Pia K - - 2008
The authors examined pre- and postpartum open-field (OF) behavior and maternal responsiveness in mice that they bidirectionally selected for OF thigmotaxis. The authors tested 40 female mice under 3 conditions: prepartum OF, postpartum OF, and a pup retrieval test. In both OF conditions, the high OF thigmotaxis (HOFT) mice were ...
Helinski Michelle Eh - - 2008
In the context of a Sterile Insect Technique programme, the occurrence of multiple insemination in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton was studied using a novel labelling system with the stable isotopes 15N and 13C. The incidence of multiple insemination in the absence of radiation, and when males were ...
Bartz Deborah - - 2008
Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few ...
Whitcome Katherine K - - 2007
As predicted by Darwin, bipedal posture and locomotion are key distinguishing features of the earliest known hominins. Hominin axial skeletons show many derived adaptations for bipedalism, including an elongated lumbar region, both in the number of vertebrae and their lengths, as well as a marked posterior concavity of wedged lumbar ...
Tyl Rochelle W - - 2008
There is no information on reproductive/developmental effects in mice from dietary estrogen. Therefore, 10 adult CD-1 mice/sex/group were administered dietary 17beta-estradiol (E2) at 0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, and 50 ppm for 2-week prebreed, mating, gestation, lactation. F1 weanlings (3/sex/litter) were necropsied and 2/sex/litter were retained, with exposure, ...
Yamane Takashi - - 2008
The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity to remating were investigated in Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. When aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: <3, ...
Stewart-Jones Alex - - 2007
Insect communication is primarily via chemicals. In Aphidinae aphids, the structure and ratio of iridoid (monoterpenoid) chemicals are known to be important components of the sex pheromone. However, for enhanced species specificity, it has been suggested that release of sex pheromone might be restricted to a narrow time period within ...
Avcioglu H - - 2008
This report present first case of Ascaridia numidae isolated from three dead rock partridges (Alectoris chukar) with stressing morphological characteristics and its responsiveness to the medical treatment. A. numidae was confirmed by presence of one papilla on the posterior region of the preanal sucker and a total of 10 pairs ...
Bredhult Carolina - - 2008
Exposure to environmental contaminants is believed to be associated with the previously described decrease in the reproduction rate of Baltic gray seals. In the present study the prevalence of uterine leiomyomas was investigated in 257 Baltic gray seal females examined during 1973-2007, in relation to the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls ...
Gustafsson Anders - - 2007
Mean stature in a population has been observed to vary with living conditions. If, and how, this affects sexual dimorphism in stature is not fully understood. We analyzed stature data from Swedish populations from the 10th to the end of the 20th century to investigate if male stature is more ...
Ema Makoto - - 2008
Male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed a diet containing rubber accelerator N,N-dicyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide (DCBS) at 0, 80, 600 or 4500ppm throughout the study beginning at the onset of a 10-week pre-mating period and continuing through the mating, gestation, and lactation periods for two generations. At 4500ppm, decreases in the body ...
Wersinger Scott R - - 2008
The Bruce effect is a pheromonally mediated process whereby exposure to chemosensory cues from an unfamiliar male terminates pregnancy in a recently mated female. Pharmacological and genetic evidence implicates both oxytocin (Oxt) and vasopressin (Avp) in the regulation of social memory in males, but less work has been done in ...
Quinn Michael J MJ - - 2008
This study was conduced to assess the effects of a one time embryonic exposure to p,p'-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; DDE) on the reproductive development and function in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Embryos were exposed at day one of incubation to either 20 or 40 microg DDE or a sesame oil vehicle control ...
Löttker Petra - - 2007
Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring ...
Chen Kai K Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest University School of Medcine, Winston-salem, North Carolina 27157-1066, - - 2007
Pregnancy is characterized by a progressive increase in the different components of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) including angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Pregnant women and experimental animals are resistant to the pressor effect of increased angiotensin II concentrations during pregnancy. In normal pregnancy, maternal blood pressure (BP) begins to ...
Chevolot Malia - - 2007
Skates (Rajidae) are characterized by slow growth rate, low fecundity, and late maturity and are thus considered to be vulnerable to exploitation. Although understanding mating systems and behavior are important for long-term conservation and fisheries management, this aspect of life history is poorly understood in skates. Using 5 highly polymorphic ...
Love O P - - 2008
Maternal glucocorticoids are known to affect offspring phenotype in numerous vertebrate taxa. In birds, the maternal transfer of corticosterone to eggs was recently proposed as a hormonal mechanism by which offspring phenotype is matched to the relative quality of the maternal environment. However, current hypotheses lack supporting information on both ...
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