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Results 201 - 250 of 1086
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Becker Stuart D - - 2009
Exposure of recently mated female rodents to unfamiliar male scents during daily prolactin surges results in pregnancy failure (the 'Bruce effect'). Control of nasal contact with male scents during these narrow windows of sensitivity could allow females to maintain or terminate pregnancy, but female behavioural changes specifically during this critical ...
Schultz Brett A H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There are 11 reported cases of pregnancy in true hermaphrodites, but none with advanced genetic testing. All known fetuses have been male. CASE: A true hermaphrodite with a spontaneous pregnancy prenatally known to have a remaining portion of a right ovotestis, delivered a male neonate. The mother has a ...
Chan Jacky Peng-Wen - - 2009
This study documented the reproductive performance of 210 adult female Formosan sambar deer (FSD, Cervus unicolor swinhoei) from four semi-domesticated deer herds in Taiwan. An extensive analysis of 525 reproductive records from 2000 to 2008, including the conditions of estrus, gestation, and parturition was conducted. The mean+/-S.E.M. lengths of the ...
Fitz-Rodr??guez G - - 2009
Two experiments were conducted to determine if nutritional supplementation improved ovulation and pregnancy rates in female goats managed under grazing conditions and submitted to the male effect. In Experiment 1, one group of does did not receive nutritional supplementation, while the other group was supplemented daily for 7 days starting ...
Vega-Naredo Ignacio - - 2009
The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG) displays a huge porphyrins metabolism with sexual dimorphism. Even in male Syrian hamsters with much lower porphyrins concentration than female HG, this activity is higher than in the liver. The damage derived from constant porphyrin production, displayed by reactive oxygen species, forces the gland ...
Brtnicka H - - 2009
Sexual problems and dysfunctions during pregnancy are often led by the anxiety of hurting the fetus. Males are also afraid of hurting a female and females are afraid of insufficient satisfaction of a male partner. Just 12-14% of couples deny sexual problems after the childbirth. The main postpartum risk factor ...
van Veen J Frederieke - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Although generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is more prevalent in women, the role of female reproductive hormones in gSAD has never been investigated. Therefore, our aim was to make a first inventory of the influence of female reproductive hormones on gSAD symptoms. METHOD: Female patients with gSAD who had ...
Petkov Stoyan G - - 2009
Epigenetic re-programming is an important event in the development of primordial germ cells (PGC) into functional gametes, characterized by genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation and re-establishment of epigenetic marks, a process essential for restoration of the potential for totipotency. In this study changes in the methylation status of centromeric repeats ...
Vervenne Hilke B V K - - 2009
LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial ...
Chen Chi-Huang - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To present male gender preselection after successive gestational hyperandrogenism and female pseudohermaphroditism by pregnancy luteomas. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: University-based teaching hospital. PATIENT(S): We describe herein a gravida who presented two successive 46, XX disorders of sex development with apparent female genitalia with an enlarged clitoris due to maternal ...
Schulz Steffan W SW Division of Rheumatology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, - - 2010
To describe the case of a mother with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) whose male and female offspring from 2 successive pregnancies had chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) in the absence of identifiable biochemical or genetic abnormalities or teratogen exposure. Description of a male and female offspring from a mother with MCTD ...
Chen Wen-Long - - 2008
Storage of Conatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) adults at 2, 5, and 10 degrees C showed that these parasitoids do not survive at 2 degrees C for 5 d, and exposure to 5 and 10 degrees C shortens their life span. The lethal time (LT) 50 (i.e., length of storage ...
Toso Laura - - 2008
To estimate whether prenatal treatment with neuroprotective peptides prevents the developmental delay and the glial deficit in the Ts65Dn mouse model for Down syndrome and to explore the peptides' effects on achievement of normal development. Pregnant Ts65Dn females were randomly assigned to NAPVSIPQ+SALLRSIPA or control and were treated by investigators ...
Brennan Peter A PA Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2009
Male mouse urine contains a complex mixture of chemosignals, which signal the presence of a reproductively active male. These have powerful effects as primer pheromones on female reproductive state, including the ability to block pregnancy. Male mouse urine also contains individuality chemosignals that enable the female to recognise her mate ...
Simpson Scott W - - 2008
Analyses of the KNM-WT 15000 Homo erectus juvenile male partial skeleton from Kenya concluded that this species had a tall thin body shape due to specialized locomotor and climatic adaptations. Moreover, it was concluded that H. erectus pelves were obstetrically restricted to birthing a small-brained altricial neonate. Here we describe ...
Ishibashi Yasuyuki - - 2008
Effects of male-biased dispersal on inbreeding avoidance were investigated in a semi-natural population of Myodes (formerly Clethrionomys) rufocanus using a large outdoor enclosure (3 ha). Parentage of 918 voles weaned from 215 litters and relatedness of mates were analysed using microsatellite loci, and dispersal distances were obtained from mark-recapture live-trapping ...
Odeh Marwan - - 2008
Female fetal sex was assigned based on downward direction of the genital tubercle at 14 weeks' gestation. Subsequently, amniocentesis performed due to the finding of an echogenic focus in the left ventricle revealed a male karyotype. Sonographic examination at 22 weeks' gestation revealed a markedly curved penile shaft. Power Doppler ...
Rosell J M - - 2009
In this study, we determined culling and mortality in adult breeding rabbits on 130 commercial farms in Spain during 2000-2005. The median size of the farms was 595 does (minimum to maximum: 131-5500 does). The median culling age per doe was 14.9 months old and 6 kindlings. The median monthly ...
McPeek Mark A - - 2009
For many taxa, species are defined by the morphologies of reproductive structures. In many odonates, these structures are the cerci of males (used to hold females during mating) and the thoracic plates of females where the male cerci contact the females' bodies. A previous study showed that the shapes of ...
Serra Jessica - - 2008
We investigated the ability of rabbit pups to display preferences towards various elements of their postnatal environment during the stage of confinement in the nest. Subjects were submitted to a two-choice test during the first week after birth to assess if they could detect and discriminate between does, litters of ...
Milardi D - - 2008
Fertility outcomes in hypopituitaric women are about half of those reported in isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; GH deficiency (GHD) is a major contributor to poor pregnancy rate. GH seems to play a physiological role in the control of male sexual maturation and adult reproductive functions. In males, GH regulates gonadal differentiation, ...
Yanagisawa Rie - - 2008
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been widely used in polyvinyl chloride products and is ubiquitous in developed countries. Although maternal exposure to DEHP during fetal and/or neonatal periods reportedly affects reproductive and developmental systems, its effects on allergic diseases in offspring remain to be determined. In the present study, we examined ...
Sparrow Robert R Centre for Human Bioethics, Monash University, - - 2008
Since the 1980s, a number of medical researchers have suggested that in the future it might be possible for men to become pregnant. Given the role played by the right to reproductive liberty in other debates about reproductive technologies, it will be extremely difficult to deny that this right extends ...
Kapoor Amita - - 2008
Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would ...
Hong Xiaoman X Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, - - 2008
The ribonuclease III endonuclease, Dicer1 (also known as Dicer), is essential for the synthesis of the 19-25 nucleotide noncoding RNAs known as micro-RNAs (miRNAs). These miRNAs associate with the RNA-induced silencing complex to regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing with 3'untranslated regions of complementary mRNA targets. Although it is ...
Gerald Melissa S - - 2009
Instances of bright, hormonally induced coloration among females during gestation have been reported in a few reptile and primate genera. Gravid coloration in lizards has been linked to female aggression but the influence of color changes associated with pregnancy has not yet been experimentally pursued for primates. As a first ...
Zampieri N - - 2008
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sonographic development of normal fetal male genitalia. METHODS: A longitudinal study was performed on 60 male fetuses. The development of penis, prepuce and presence of testes in scrotum were observed with a high resolution transabdominal ultrasonography between weeks 11 and ...
Shehu Aurora - - 2008
Our laboratory has previously cloned and purified a protein named PRAP (prolactin receptor-associated protein) that was shown to be a novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) enzyme with dual activity. This enzyme, renamed HSD17B7 or PRAP/17beta-HSD7, converts estrone to estradiol and is also involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. The major site of its ...
Robert Kylie A - - 2009
During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after ...
Serguera Che - - 2008
In rodents, social odor sensing influences female reproductive status by affecting neuroendocrine cascades. The odor of male mouse urine can induce ovulation or block pregnancy within 3 d post coitus. Females avoid the action of such olfactory stimuli after embryonic implantation. The mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. Here we ...
Osaka Ryu - - 2008
Maternally transmitted endosymbionts of the genus Spiroplasma infecting several species of Drosophila are known to cause selective death of male offspring (male killing). The male-killing trait is considered to be advantageous for maternally transmitted endosymbionts. However, a non-male-killing spiroplasma is present in Japanese populations of Drosophila hydei at high frequencies ...
Forsman Anna M - - 2008
House wrens are typically socially monogamous, but frequently engage in extra-pair matings leading to multisired broods. Because females do not appear to acquire direct material benefits from their extra-pair mates, we tested the hypothesis that female house wrens derive indirect genetic benefits, such as enhanced immunocompetence (cutaneous immune activity, humoral ...
Tucker H A - - 2008
Physicians have tried to explain the origins of birth defects since antiquity. In early humoralist models, fetal anomalies were most often understood in terms of quantity and quality of male and female seed. Maternal imagination was also considered a key environmental influence on fetal development from Hippocrates, Galen, and into ...
Schausberger P - - 2008
1. Sibling cannibalism is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom but entails a high risk of direct and inclusive fitness loss for the mother and her offspring. Therefore, mechanisms limiting sibling cannibalism are expected to be selected for. One way of maternal manipulation of sibling cannibalism is to influence ...
Almond Rosamunde E A - - 2008
We have previously shown that paternally experienced cotton-top tamarin fathers (Saguinus oedipus) had significant increases in prolactin and glucocorticoids at the midpoint of their mate's pregnancy, whereas less experienced fathers showed prolactin increases only the month before offspring birth [Ziegler & Snowdon, Hormones & Behavior 38:159-167, 2000; Ziegler et al., ...
González D Almeida - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To identify the differences in cytokine profile between allogeneic and syngeneic pregnancy in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). METHODS: Mice (strain B10.RIII) were injected with bovine collagen. Females were mated with males of the same strain (syngeneic pregnancy) or with males of strain B10. Q (allogeneic pregnancy). Concentrations of ...
Favaro Plinio das N - - 2008
Since serotonin (5-HT) acts as neurotrophic factor, the use of fluoxetine (FLX) by mothers during pregnancy and/or lactation could disrupt brain development of the progeny. To unveil if maternal FLX exposure could compromise the functional integrity of monoaminergic and GABA-ergic neurotransmission, the behavioral responses of male and female mouse pups ...
Li Jingjing - - 2008
Although there are numerous examples of animals having photoreceptors sensitive to UVA (315-400 nm) [1] and relying on UVA-based mate-choice cues [2-5], here we provide the first evidence of an animal using UVB (280-315 nm) for intraspecific communication. An earlier study showed that Phintella vittata, a jumping spider (Salticidae) from ...
Cassey Phillip - - 2008
The striking diversity of avian eggshell colour has long fascinated biologists. Recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green colour of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. It has been suggested that ...
Gouvêa Thiago Santos - - 2008
Depressive disorders have a worldwide high prevalence. Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant, has been widely prescribed for depression during pregnancy and/or lactation. Since serotonin is a neurotrophic factor, the use of FLX by mothers could disrupt brain development resulting in behavioral alterations in their progeny. The ...
Myers Matthew J - - 2008
Investigations into the cause of the Steller sea lion population decline have focused on numerous factors, including exposure to toxic contaminants such as organochlorines (OCs). OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), have been associated with various biological effects in marine mammals. We measured these compounds in ...
Onyango Patrick Ogola PO Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. - - 2008
Dominance status and reproductive experience are maternal characteristics that affect offspring traits in diverse taxa, including some cercopithecine primates. Maternal effects of this sort are widespread and are sources of variability in offspring fitness. We tested the hypothesis that maternal dominance rank and reproductive experience as well as a male's ...
Lim Maria A - - 2008
Pharmacological studies indicate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be necessary for normal embryonic development in the mouse. For example, VIP antagonist treatment before embryonic day 11 resulted in developmental delays, growth restriction, modified adult brain chemistry and reduced social behavior. Here, developmental milestones, growth, and social behaviors of neonates ...
Okada Atsushi - - 2008
AIM: To assess the effect of estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and bisphenol A (BPA) administered chronically by implanting a silicone tube throughout pregnancy and lactation on male pups' reproductive system in ICR mice. METHODS: Female mice were implanted with a tube filled with 10 ng, 500 ng, 1 microg, or 10 microg ...
Zhou Wen-Hui - - 2008
Immune regulation during pregnancy is complex, and thus an optimal therapy for pregnancy complications is always a big challenge to reproductive medicine. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressant, prevents rejection of allografts by hosts, but little is known about the modulating effect of CsA on the materno-fetal relationship. Here, pregnant ...
Nilsson Eric E - - 2008
Endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination was previously found to induce male rat adult onset transgenerational disease (F1-F4 generation), and this was associated with an alteration in the epigenetic (i.e., DNA methylation) programming of the male germ line. The current study was designed to characterize the transgenerational disease phenotypes ...
Schwander Tanja - - 2008
Caste differentiation and division of labor are the hallmarks of social insect colonies [1, 2]. The current dogma for female caste differentiation is that female eggs are totipotent, with morphological and physiological differences between queens and workers stemming from a developmental switch during the larval stage controlled by nutritional and ...
Catalano Ralph - - 2008
The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and ...
Götz Alexander A - - 2008
The impact of daily social maternal stress on reproduction parameters was studied in F0 and F1 generation female Long-Evans rats. Chronic maternal stress was induced in pregnant females (F0 females) by 2 h social confrontation with a dominant female throughout pregnancy. Social stress of F0 females was associated with lower ...
Ness Roberta B RB Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. - - 2008
Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations ...
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