Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1492
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Kiess Wieland - - 2008
An epidemic of obesity is taking place in most societies around the world. Overall obesity substantially increases the risk of subsequent morbidity. In children and adolescents the degree of body fat mass depends upon ethnic background, gender, developmental stage and age. Obesity is characterized by increases in the number or ...
Taylor Michelle Y - - 2008
Traditionally, sickle cell trait has not been associated with a higher risk of fetal death, but we noted several, which led us to assess all such pregnancies. In this retrospective study, 131 patients with sickle cell trait were analyzed over a two-year period. The Institutional Review Board approved the collection ...
Hahn Sinuhe - - 2008
Although the first finding that fetal cells can enter the maternal circulation was made more than a century ago, it is still unclear if this finding will be translated into a clinically useful diagnostic tool in the foreseeable future. However, significant progress has been made via the analysis of cell-free ...
Redman C W G - - 2008
Cellular particles may be larger shed microparticles (>or=100 nm, MPs) that are the products of cell activation or necrosis. There are also smaller endocytic nanoparticles (<100 nm), called exosomes, which are internal vesicles of late endosomes or multivesicular bodies and are released into the extracellular milieu upon fusion of the ...
Rafiqi Ab Matteen - - 2008
Higher cyclorrhaphan flies including Drosophila develop a single extraembryonic epithelium (amnioserosa), which closes the germband dorsally. In most other insects two extraembryonic epithelia, serosa and amnion, line the inner eggshell and the ventral germband, respectively. How the two extraembryonic epithelia evolved into one is unclear. Recent studies have shown that, ...
Renaud Stephen J - - 2008
The intimate association between maternal and placental tissues elicits an interesting immunological paradox. Placental tissue contains paternal antigens, but under normal circumstances the semi-allogeneic fetus and placenta are not attacked by the maternal immune system. Interestingly, this tolerance to fetal antigens occurs in the presence of a large number of ...
El-Badri Nagwa S - - 2008
Fetal microchimerism refers to the presence of fetal cells in maternal blood and tissues during pregnancy. This microchimerism may result from trafficking of fetal and maternal blood across the placenta during pregnancy. Physiological changes in the maternal blood cellular milieu are also recognized during pregnancy and in the early post ...
Tokyol Cigdem - - 2008
BACKGROUND: PTEN seems to play an important role in cell cycle, growth, migration, and death. Integrins are cell surface receptors that play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, implantation, and embryogenesis. PTEN inhibits beta1 integrin signaling. The objective of this study is to investigate the expression of ...
Pereira L - - 2008
During human pregnancy, CMV infects the uterine-placental interface with varied outcomes from fetal intrauterine growth restriction to permanent birth defects, depending on the level of maternal immunity and gestational age. Virus spreads from infected uterine blood vessels, amplifies by replicating in decidual cells, and disseminates to the placenta in immune ...
Fest Stefan - - 2008
PROBLEM: Survivin, a tumor-promoting antiapoptotic molecule, is expressed in the human placenta. Here, we analyzed its expression during normal and pathological murine pregnancy and investigated its participation in human first trimester trophoblast cell survival and proliferation. METHOD OF STUDY: We first analyzed the expression of survivin on the mRNA and ...
Karsten Christian M - - 2008
Leukocytes are migratory cells. Highly specialized and regulated mechanisms exist to control their extravasation from the blood into tissues. Specificity for particular organs and tissues is provided by tissue-selective expression of vascular adhesion ligands and by tissue-selective chemoattractant factors. The successful coexistence of semiallogeneic cells at the maternal/fetal interface suggests ...
Qu Xun - - 2008
The involvement of the chemokine osteopontin has been proposed for maintaining successful pregnancy in mice and ruminants; however, little information of its function in human pregnancy is available. Osteopontin expression was assessed in decidua by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining in early pregnant women and RPL (recurrent pregnancy loss) patients. Osteopontin ...
Booth Brian W - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy the mammary epithelial compartment undergoes extreme proliferation and differentiation, facilitated by stem/progenitor cells. Mouse mammary epithelium in nonpregnant mice contains long label-retaining epithelial cells (LREC) that divide asymmetrically and retain their template DNA strands. The role of LREC during alveogenesis has not been determined. METHODS: We performed ...
James Tameika R - - 2008
The haematological profile of the pregnant woman has an impact on the outcome of the pregnancy. Published guidelines indicate acceptable levels for haematological indices in pregnancy but they are population specific. Indicators of haemoglobin concentration are the most commonly utilized of the indices. These published international norms are used across ...
Schmidt Markus M Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. - - 2008
Data on trophoblast particles in peripheral maternal circulation are rare. Applying a new enrichment technique, Oncoquick, we evaluated the number of trophoblast particles in maternal blood in preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic pregnancies. After isolation of trophoblast particles using Oncoquick, trophoblast particles were detected by immunocytochemistry, applying a monoclonal pan cytokeratin (CK) ...
Pijnenborg Robert R Department of Woman and Child, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. - - 2008
The much publicized conflict hypothesis for understanding fetal-maternal interaction during pregnancy often invokes a 'battle' metaphor, rather than a well orchestrated interplay occurring as a series of well controlled moves and counter-moves as happens in a game of chess. Such stepwise interaction is particularly obvious in the spiral artery remodelling ...
Airas L - - 2008
Multiple sclerosis (MS) ameliorates typically during pregnancy but after the delivery the relapse rate often increases. Our study was conducted to understand the immunoregulatory mechanisms accompanying this phenomenon. MS patients were followed-up prospectively during pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, with immunological characterization of the peripheral blood. Groups of age- and ...
Lambropoulou Maria - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The exact biological function of CD30 in the thymus during development has been only partially elucidated, although data indicate it may be involved in negative selection. This study was prompted by the observation of a positive reaction of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), Hassall's corpuscles, and thymocytes with the monoclonal ...
Kendal-Wright Claire E - - 2007
In the third trimester of normal pregnancy, the human fetal membranes become increasingly distended and use mechanotransduction and its downstream signaling to remodel and function. Their overdistension either by multifetal pregnancy or by polyhydramnios often leads to preterm birth, but the mechanism is unclear. Stretching of the fetal membranes in ...
Harris Lynda K - - 2007
During pregnancy, trophoblasts invade and transform the maternal spiral arteries that supply blood to the placenta. Recent work has revealed that this process occurs in several stages, and details of the molecular and cellular mechanisms are beginning to emerge, including changes that precede or accompany trophoblastic colonization of the vascular ...
Thuere Catharina - - 2007
PROBLEM: The semi-allogeneic fetus is usually tolerated by the maternal immune system. This was proposed to be modulated by CD4+CD25+foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). We aimed to determine the kinetics of Treg during murine gestation and investigate whether changes in Treg levels respond to hormonal variations during pregnancy or generated ...
Pejznochová M - - 2008
The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) amount in cells as the basis for mitochondrial energy generating system, which produces ATP, plays an important role in the fetal development and postnatal morbidity. Isolated human cord blood leukocytes (HCBL) contribute very little to the overall metabolic turnover, but they may serve as easily available ...
Reinhart F - - 2008
Under anoxic conditions, the Escherichia coli oxygen sensor FNR (fumarate nitrate reductase regulator) is in the active state and contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Oxygen converts [4Fe-4S]FNR to inactive [2Fe-2S]FNR. After prolonged exposure to air in vitro, apoFNR lacking a Fe-S cluster is formed. ApoFNR can be differentiated from Fe-S-containing forms ...
Motomura Wataru - - 2008
We have recently identified a novel collectin, CL-K1, that may play a role in innate immunity as a member of the collectin family. In this study using mice, we investigated the tissue distribution of CL-K1 for better understanding of its pathophysiological relevance. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that CL-K1 mRNA was ...
McGrath Kathleen E - - 2008
Enucleation is the hallmark of erythropoiesis in mammals. Previously, we determined that yolk sac-derived primitive erythroblasts mature in the bloodstream and enucleate between embryonic day (E)14.5 and E16.5 of mouse gestation. While definitive erythroblasts enucleate by nuclear extrusion, generating reticulocytes and small, nucleated cells with a thin rim of cytoplasm ...
Bachy V - - 2008
In pregnancy, maternal immunity is skewed to favour maintenance of gestation and immune tolerance of a semi-allogeneic fetus. Dendritic cells are thought to play a crucial role in mediating the balance between immunity and tolerance, and determining the type of T helper cell response. We postulated that myeloid dendritic cells ...
Manonmani A M - - 2008
Lyophilized cells (sealed and unsealed) and water dispersible powders (WDPs) of two indigenous isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis were stored at -10, 4, 30 and 40 degrees C for up to 4 years and checked for activity. Lyophilized cells stored in sealed condition at -10, 4 and 30 degrees C ...
Blois Sandra M - - 2007
A successful pregnancy requires synchronized adaptation of maternal immune-endocrine mechanisms to the fetus. Here we show that galectin-1 (Gal-1), an immunoregulatory glycan-binding protein, has a pivotal role in conferring fetomaternal tolerance. Consistently with a marked decrease in Gal-1 expression during failing pregnancies, Gal-1-deficient (Lgals1-/-) mice showed higher rates of fetal ...
Lissauer D - - 2007
There is increasing evidence that both circulating cells and free fetal DNA persist in the maternal circulation after delivery of the fetus. In some cases, this has been described many years after the end of the pregnancy. This article reviews the evidence for these cells being present, the potential methodologies ...
Chaouat G?rard - - 2007
In this review, we put the discovery of 'suppressor T cells' in pregnancy in an historical perspective, and then highlight some of the data that precluded the resurrection of the phenomenon in the last years. We then review the evidence for the existence of Tregs in murine and human pregnancy. ...
Candeloro L - - 2007
Problem Cells responsible for the synthesis of follistatin and activin A in the pregnant mouse endometrium have not been characterized. Method of study Immunocytochemistry was used to determine the distribution of follistatin and activin A in the pregnant mouse uterus. Results Follistatin was detected in the endometrium prior to decidualization ...
Gellersen Birgit - - 2007
The fetomaternal interface, consisting of the maternal decidua and the invading fetal trophoblast, critically regulates placental function and the growth and development of the conceptus. In its broadest sense, decidualization could be viewed as the postovulatory process of endometrial remodeling in preparation for pregnancy, which includes secretory transformation of the ...
van den Heuvel Marianne J - - 2007
PROBLEM: Patients with elevated blood natural killer (NK) cells may be offered intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, but there is controversy about the utility of blood NK cell testing. Human CD56(+) NK cells include several subpopulations that include the putatively cytotoxic CD56(+) CD16(+) subset. In mouse models of pregnant failure, NKT ...
Okazaki Shiho - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To perform gene expression profiling and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to identify biomarkers of preeclampsia in cellular messenger RNA (mRNA) from maternal blood. METHODS: We performed a microarray analysis with five maternal blood samples from women with preeclampsia and five matched control subjects. Up-regulated gene ...
Pijnenborg R - - 2008
The first microscopic images of the human placenta, obtained in the 1830s, revealed the presence of an epithelial lining separating fetal capillaries from maternal blood, which was in later years successively interpreted as maternal endothelial, decidual and finally as "trophoblastic". With this new term, introduced by Hubrecht in 1889, its ...
Wang Haibin - - 2007
Successful pregnancy depends on well coordinated developmental events involving both maternal and embryonic components. Although a host of signaling pathways participate in implantation, decidualization, and placentation, whether there is a common molecular link that coordinates these processes remains unknown. By exploiting genetic, molecular, pharmacological, and physiological approaches, we show here ...
Nafee T M - - 2008
Each differentiated cell type has its own epigenetic signature, which reflects its genotype, developmental history, and environmental influences, and is ultimately reflected in the phenotype of the cell and organism. Some cells undergo major epigenetic 'reprogramming' during fetal development. The proper, or improper, handling of these highly sensitive periods may ...
Klisch Karl - - 2008
Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are major secretory proteins of trophoblast cells in ruminants. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNCs) store these proteins in secretory granules and release them into the maternal organism after fusion with maternal uterine epithelial cells. By matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis and linkage analysis, we ...
Roberts R Michael - - 2008
Two-way communication between the conceptus and the mother during early pregnancy is essential if the pregnancy is to survive. In this review, our primary focus is on biochemical communication between the conceptus and mother in the ruminant ungulate species. We emphasize, in particular, the role played by interferon-tau (IFNT) in ...
Mizugishi Kiyomi - - 2007
Uterine decidualization, a process that occurs in response to embryo implantation, is critical for embryonic survival and thus is a key event for successful pregnancy. Here we show that the sphingolipid metabolic pathway is highly activated in the deciduum during pregnancy and disturbance of the pathway by disruption of sphingosine ...
Chan Junny J Division of Reproduction and Child Health, Department of Fetal Medicine, Birmingham Women's Hospital, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH, - - 2007
Glucocorticoids play a fundamental role in the endocrinology of pregnancy but excess glucocorticoids in utero may lead to abnormalities of fetal growth. Protection against fetal exposure to cortisol is provided by the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11beta-HSD2) located in the human placental trophoblast. By contrast, relatively little is known concerning ...
Li Hua-Bin - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecular mechanisms of hypertonic saline on nasal disorders. METHODS: Primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) were treated with 0.9 and 3% saline for 12h. CLC-3 was detected in HNECs by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. RESULTS: Positive expression of CLC-3 was detected ...
Campbell S - - 2007
Unlike trophoblasts obtained from pregnancy termination material, trophoblasts grown from explanted chorionic villus samples (CVS) from 11-14 weeks of gestation potentially enable investigation of pre-eclampsia and other pregnancy disorders as the pregnancy outcome will later be known. CVS surplus to diagnostic needs were cultured as explants on either Matrigel or ...
Saito Shigeru - - 2007
The immune system is well controlled by the balance between immunostimulation and immunoregulation. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells and an enzyme called indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) mediate maternal tolerance of the allogeneic fetus. Treg cells, therefore, may prevent early pregnancy loss due to maternal 'rejection.' The latest understanding of tolerance during ...
Veridiano A M - - 2007
Marked changes in mice pubic symphysis occur by the end of pregnancy. Tissue remodeling involves a dynamic balance between cell proliferation and programmed cell death as well as changes in the extracellular matrix components. Therefore, it is important to consider both of these cellular behaviors when investigating the mechanism that ...
Eydallin Gustavo - - 2007
AC70R1-504 Escherichia coli mutants possess a glgC* gene with a nucleotide change resulting in a premature stop codon that renders a truncated, inactive form of GlgC. Cells over-expressing the wild type glgC, but not those over-expressing the AC70R1-504 glgC*, accumulated high ADPglucose and glycogen levels. AC70R1-504 mutants accumulated glycogen, whereas ...
Lee Dong Hee - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The cytotoxic mechanisms of root canal sealers (Sealapex, AH26, and N2 Universal) were studied in vitro with MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. STUDY DESIGN: MC3T3-E1 cells were cotreated with root canal sealers and antioxidants, and concentrations of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. DNA fragmentation was observed ...
Hogarth Cathryn A - - 2007
Importin proteins regulate access to the nucleus by recognizing and transporting distinct cargo proteins. Building on studies in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, we hypothesized that regulated expression and subcellular localization of specific importins may be linked to mammalian gonadal differentiation. We identified distinct developmental and cellular localization patterns for importins ...
Krikun G - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Successful trophoblast invasion and transformation of the maternal spiral arteries requires that the pregnant endometrium (i.e., decidua) act in an immunologically paradoxical fashion, accepting the semi-allogenic placenta, while maintaining host defenses against an array of microbial pathogens. In contrast to the growing evidence that the immune surveillance molecules known ...
Silvestri Audrey A Medical Research Council Human Reproductive Sciences Unit, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, - - 2007
Marmosets are widely used, but detailed studies on localisation of endometrial oestrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER alpha and ER beta ), and the progesterone receptor (PR) are lacking. These receptors were localised and semi-quantitatively analysed throughout the ovulatory cycle, weeks 2, 3 and 4 of pregnancy and after treatment ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >