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Results 251 - 300 of 1512
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Menkhorst Ellen - - 2009
Hormonal contraceptives are unsuitable for many women; thus, the development of new, nonhormonal contraceptives is of great interest. In women, uterine epithelial expression of interleukin 11 (IL11) and its receptor (IL11RA) suggests IL11 is critical for blastocyst attachment during implantation. Il11ra-deficient mice are infertile due to a defective decidualization response ...
Britt Kara L - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: In humans, an early full-term pregnancy reduces lifetime breast cancer risk by up to 50% whereas a later pregnancy (>35 years old) can increase lifetime risk. Several mechanisms have been suggested, including changes in levels of circulating hormones, changes in the way the breast responds to these hormones, changes ...
Hirst Jonathan J - - 2009
Stressors during pregnancy can lead to perinatal brain injury resulting in serious neurological impairment. Neuroactive steroid concentrations are elevated during pregnancy and are remarkably high in the fetal brain. In long-gestation species, including humans, these steroids enhance GABAergic inhibition and reduce the possibility of cerebral excitotoxicity during the last third ...
Guibourdenche Jean - - 2009
The human placenta is characterized by the intensity of the trophoblast invasion into the uterus wall and the specificity of its hormonal functions. Placental hormones are required for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, adaptation of the maternal organism to pregnancy and fetal growth. In the early placenta at the ...
Couret D - - 2009
Pregnant sows are exposed to various stressors in intensive pig husbandry that may have negative consequences on their health, reproductive performances and welfare. Social stress is one of these challenges, because gestating sows have to be housed in groups according to EU guidelines (2001/88/CE). The purpose of this study was ...
Shigematsu Kazuto - - 2009
Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) consisting of pure zona glomerulosa (ZG)-type cells is extremely rare, and primary aldosteronism complicated by pregnancy is also rare. We report a case of APA discovered in a 32-year-old pregnant woman who visited our hospital for hypertension and hypokalemia at 26 weeks gestation. Elevated plasma aldosterone concentration ...
Lissauer David M - - 2009
During pregnancy there is transplacental traffic of fetal cells into the maternal circulation. Remarkably, cells of fetal origin can then persist for decades in the mother and are detectable in the circulation and in a wide range of tissues. Maternal CD8 T cell responses directed against fetal antigens can also ...
Ka Hakhyun - - 2009
Maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs occurs approximately on Day (D) 12 of pregnancy and is critical for embryo implantation. The presence of the conceptus in the uterine lumen during this period changes uterine endometrial function to prepare for attachment of the conceptus to the endometrial epithelial cells and maintain ...
Toth Bettina - - 2009
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) belong to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. Recent investigations emphasize a possible involvement of PPAR in obstetric and gynaecologic disorders like polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis and preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) in ...
Tiede Benjamin J - - 2009
Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) play essential roles for the development of the mammary gland and its remodeling during pregnancy. However, the precise localization of MaSCs in the mammary gland and their regulation during pregnancy is unknown. Here we report a transgenic mouse model for luciferase-based single marker detection of MaSCs ...
Tang Ai-Wei - - 2009
Idiopathic recurrent miscarriage is defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses with no contributing features found on investigations. At present there are no treatments of proven efficacy for idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, the most predominant leucocyte in the endometrium are adjacent to foetal trophoblast cells and thought ...
Ferreira Vanessa M - - 2009
Normal pregnancy is associated with systemic and intrarenal vasodilatation resulting in an increased glomerular filtration rate. This adaptive response occurs in spite of elevated circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, we evaluated the potential mechanisms responsible for this adaptation. The reactivity of the mesangial cells ...
Valdes Gloria - - 2009
We postulate that an orchestrated network composed of various vasodilatory systems participates in the systemic and local hemodynamic adaptations in pregnancy. The temporal patterns of increase in the circulating and urinary levels of five vasodilator factors/systems, prostacyclin, nitric oxide, kallikrein, angiotensin-(1-7) and VEGF, in normal pregnant women and animals, as ...
Prescott Jennifer J Program in Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2009
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a malignancy etiologically linked to immunomodulatory exposures and disorders. Endogenous female sex hormones may modify immune function and influence NHL risk. Few studies have examined associations between reproductive factors, which can serve as surrogates for such hormonal exposures, and NHL risk by subtype. Women in the ...
Lorenzi T - - 2009
Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are pregnancy-specific disorders that have in common abnormal placental implantation, a marked proliferation of villous cytotrophoblastic cells and focal necrosis of the syncytiotrophoblast. Several studies show an ischemic placenta with a high-resistance vasculature, which cannot deliver an adequate blood supply to the feto-placental ...
Heazell Alexander E P - - 2008
Apoptosis within villous trophoblast is increased in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (PE). Caspase activity is regulated by the balance of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). This study investigated the expression and localisation of smac, HtrA2/Omi and IAPs in villous trophoblast in normal pregnancies and those complicated by PE. smac was ...
Nakanishi Akira - - 2008
Testicular Sertoli cells highly express dynamin 2 and amphiphysin 1. Here we demonstrate that dynamin 2 is implicated in phosphatidylserine (PS)-dependent phagocytosis in Sertoli cells. Immunofluorescence and dual-live imaging revealed that dynamin 2 and amphiphysin 1 accumulate simultaneously at ruffles. These proteins are specifically bound in vitro. Over-expression of dominant ...
Rici R E G - - 2009
The bovine maternal epithelium is composed of cuboidal cells interspersed with low columnar cells having centrally located nuclei. Bovine trophoblast is composed of two cell types: mononuclear trophoblastic and giant trophoblastic cells that can have two or more nuclei. Number of apoptotic cells and proliferative cells are variable in both ...
Huang Carol - - 2009
Increased islet mass is an adaptive mechanism that occurs to combat insulin resistance during pregnancy. Prolactin (PRL) can enhance beta-cell proliferation and insulin secretion in vitro, yet whether it is PRL or other pregnancy-related factors that mediate these adaptive changes during pregnancy is unknown. The objective of this study was ...
Shen Xiaohua - - 2008
Trimethylation on H3K27 (H3K27me3) mediated by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) has been linked to embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity and pluripotency. EZH2, the catalytic subunit of PRC2, has been reported as the sole histone methyltransferase that methylates H3K27 and mediates transcriptional silencing. Analysis of Ezh2(-/-) ESCs suggests existence of ...
Kim Y-J - - 2009
To stably maintain pregnancy, several genes are expressed in the uterus. In particular, the endometrial expression of genes encoding growth factors appears to play a key role in maternal-foetal communication. The previous studies characterized the endometrial expression kinetics of the genes encoding epidermal growth factor (EGF), its receptor (EGFR), transforming ...
Hansson Stefan R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Monoamines play important roles in decidualization, implantation, immune modulation and inflammation. Furthermore, monoamines are potent vasoactive mediators that regulate blood flow and capillary permeability. Regulation of the uterine blood flow is important both during menstruation and pregnancy. Adequate monoamine concentrations are essential for a proper implantation and physiological development ...
Trenkić Milan - - 2008
BACKGROUND/AIM: Usual histopatological diagnosis of intrauterine pregnancy is made by demonstration of chorionic villi, but in the curettage tissue from intrauterine miscarriage they may not be present in all cases. The use of monoclonal antibody against cytokeratin as a sensitive and reliable marker for the morphologic discrimination between invasive trophoblastic ...
Georgiou Marios - - 2008
By acting as a dynamic link between adjacent cells in a monolayer, adherens junctions (AJs) maintain the integrity of epithelial tissues while allowing for neighbor exchange. Although it is not currently understood how this combination of AJ stability and plasticity is achieved, junctionally associated actin filaments are likely to play ...
Ruaud Anne-Françoise - - 2009
P-type adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) of the Drs2p family (P4-ATPases) are multipass transmembrane proteins required to generate and maintain phospholipid asymmetry in membrane bilayers. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several members of this family control distinct transport events within the endosomal and secretory pathways. Comparatively, little is known about the functions of P4-ATPases ...
Gol Mert - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women with female fetuses have higher maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels compared to those pregnant women with male fetuses. Apoptosis in the placenta has a role in hCG secretion. In the present study, we examined the effect of fetal gender on apoptosis-regulating proteins in the trophoblast ...
Quenby Siobhan - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Increased numbers of phenotypically unusual CD56(bright) CD16- uterine natural killer (uNK) cells have been associated with recurrent reproductive failure. uNK cells produce angiogenic growth factors and are potential regulators of decidual angiogenesis in early pregnancy. The final common mechanism for early pregnancy loss is thought to be early onset ...
Taglauer, Elizabeth Susan
During pregnancy, the maternal immune system must be carefully modulated as the fetus is immunologically foreign to her leukocytes. We propose that the CD28 family immune receptor, PD-1, functions during pregnancy to control maternal immune reactions. PD-1 is expressed on T lymphocytes and following interaction with its ligand, B7-H1, prevents ...
Chamley L W - - 2008
Endocannabinoids are lipid signalling molecules that are related to the major psychoactive component in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and are increasingly recognized as being important in implantation and development of early embryos. The endocannabinoid anandamide, is metabolized by the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and insufficient levels of this enzyme have ...
Rampersad R R Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University, 4566 Scott Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA. - - 2008
The complement system plays an important role in normal human pregnancy. Uncontrolled activation of this system has been associated with many disease states. We tested the hypothesis that the C5b-9 membrane attack complex (MAC) localizes to sites of villous injury and modulates trophoblast function. Placental sections from pregnancies with no ...
Bizargity Peyman - - 2009
Recent advances in our understanding of dendritic cells (DCs) and their role in tolerance and immunity has fuelled study of their normal development and function within the reproductive tract. The common hypothesis that pregnancy is a state of immune suppression or deviation now includes the idea that alterations in DC ...
Hapangama D K - - 2008
In order to assess whether markers of cell senescence are related to reproductive failure, the expression of telomerase and telomere length in endometrial biopsies from women with and without reproductive failure were assessed. This pilot study included 45 women of whom 10 had idiopathic recurrent loss of empty gestational sacs, ...
Persson Marie - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Allergic women have been reported to give birth to more children than non-allergic women, speculatively explained by the former's predisposition for Th2 polarization, possibly favoring pregnancy. AIM: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that allergy is associated with more Th2-deviated responses to paternal antigens throughout ...
Kotsampasi B - - 2009
The nutritional status of females during pregnancy can have profound effects on the fetus reproductive system development that could affect the reproductive potential as later as in adulthood (fetal programming). The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of maternal nutrient restriction imposed during different periods of ...
Heazell A E P - - 2008
Since 1995 the number of publications investigating apoptosis in villous trophoblast has increased exponentially. This scientific interest is in part due to observations that this specialised form of cell death is increased in pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. In addition, apoptosis is described in normal villous ...
Chan Jerry - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine stem cell transplantation is a promising approach for early onset genetic diseases. However, its utility is limited by the development of the fetal immune system after 14 weeks gestation. An ex vivo gene therapy approach targeting autologous first trimester stem cells to replace the missing or defective gene ...
Shin Jeong-Kyu - - 2008
AIM: Clusterin is a multifunctional protein that is up-regulated during many different pathophysiological states. Clusterin may be related to a compensation mechanism involving aggregation of soluble proteins, inhibition of complement-mediated cell damage, adaptive regeneration or apoptosis. Clusterin may increase in response to cell damage that results from hypoxic stress in ...
Cheng Hong - - 2008
In this study, the expression of IL-24 at maternal-fetal interface and the roles in extravillous trophoblast (the TEV-1 cell line) invasion were examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of IL-24 in villi and decidual tissue. The proliferation of TEV-1 cells under the effect of IL-24 was measured by ...
Fujiki Yutaka - - 2008
The purpose of the study was to understand in more detail the natural history of fetomaternal cell trafficking in healthy pregnant mice. Our goal was to identify the best target organs and days during pregnancy for further mechanistic studies of the role of fetal cells in maternal disease and injury. ...
Santos Margarida Avo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Fetal microchimeric cells that have trafficked into the maternal circulation persist in maternal tissues for years after pregnancy, but their biological role is unclear. We investigated whether fetal cells participate in maternal tissue repair during human pregnancy. METHODS: Appendix specimens were acquired from women undergoing appendicectomy during (n = ...
Laws Mary J MJ Department of Veterinary Biosciences, and University of Illinois Urbana/Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, - - 2008
In the uterus, the formation of new maternal blood vessels in the stromal compartment at the time of embryonic implantation is critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Although uterine angiogenesis is known to be influenced by the steroid hormones estrogen (E) and progesterone (P), the underlying molecular pathways ...
Kaplan Amber - - 2008
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal infection; however the molecular mechanisms involved are not clearly known. Here we used high and low hemolytic GBS isolates and mutant GBS that lacks beta-hemolysin expression and showed that GBS infection or exposure to GBS hemolysin extract induces ...
Weinbreck Nicolas - - 2008
Distinguishing hemangioblastomas from metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCCs) in the brain is a diagnostic challenge owing to similar clinical and morphologic presentations. Inhibin-alpha and aquaporin1 were shown as positive markers of hemangioblastoma, but are not totally reliable distinguishing hemangioblastoma from metastatic CCRCC. This study shows that the diagnosis can ...
Gerit Moser - - 2008
Problem: Invasion of trophoblast differs between implantation and subsequent placentation. Here we present double tissue co-culture in vitro models for trophoblast invasion. Material and Methods: Pieces of decidua parietalis (6-12 weeks gestation) were confronted directly with villous explants (direct confrontation) or after separate preculture for 72h (indirect confrontation). For "indirect ...
Ha Jiyeon - - 2008
Diffusion characteristics of chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) in Ca-alginate gel beads were studied to assist in designing and operating bioreactor systems. Diffusion coefficients for chlorferon and DETP in Ca-alginate gel beads determined at conditions suitable for biodegradation studies were 2.70 x 10(-11) m(2)/s and 4.28 x 10(-11) m(2)/s, respectively. Diffusivities ...
Seol Hyun-Joo - - 2008
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of the regulatory T cell subset in peripheral blood caused by gestational age and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) with or without labor to verify the role of regulatory T cells in pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated regulatory ...
Hong Yan - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the distribution of inhibitory and activating killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on uterine natural killer (uNK) cells and the compatibility of KIR/HLA-C at the maternal-fetal interface in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in the Chinese population. STUDY DESIGN: Sixteen patients ...
Park Hyun Jung HJ Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics (M/C 669), University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine, 900 S. Ashland Ave., MBRB Rm. 2302, Chicago, IL 60607-7170, - - 2008
The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor is overexpressed in many cancers, and in mouse models it is required for tumor progression. FoxM1 activates expression of the cell cycle genes required for both S and M phase progression. Here we demonstrate that FoxM1 is degraded in late mitosis and early ...
Schwendemann Julia - - 2008
Nitric oxide (NO) is considered to be involved in the modulation of uterine contractility. In the present pilot study, the direct detection of intracellular NO in pregnant human myometrial tissues has been investigated by using the fluorescent indicator 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA). Pregnant myometrial tissue samples were obtained during Cesarean sections ...
Liu Qin - - 2008
Unexplained pregnancy loss and recurrent miscarriage seriously impair human fecundity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recent studies suggest that the adhesion molecule CD146 may be involved in unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Here, we investigate the effect of CD146 on early pregnancy. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found ...
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