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Results 251 - 300 of 1543
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Gregg Christopher - - 2009
New myelinating oligodendrocytes are continuously generated in the white matter of the uninjured adult CNS by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs). Currently, little is known about the function of these new cells or the physiological processes that regulate their generation and differentiation. Importantly, new oligodendrocytes are ...
Rieck Sebastian - - 2009
The inability of the ss-cell to meet the demand for insulin brought about by insulin resistance leads to type 2 diabetes. In adults, ss-cell replication is one of the mechanisms thought to cause the expansion of ss-cell mass. Efforts to treat diabetes require knowledge of the pathways that drive facultative ...
Fugazzola Laura - - 2010
The transfer of fetal cells into the maternal circulation occurs normally during pregnancy and the post-partum persistence of these cells in the maternal blood and tissues, known as fetal cell microchimerism, has been clearly demonstrated. However, the long-term consequences of this phenomenon are only beginning to be appreciated. In particular, ...
Mjösberg Jenny - - 2009
CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are implicated in the maintenance of murine pregnancy. However, reports regarding circulating Treg frequencies in human pregnancy are inconsistent, and the functionality and phenotype of these cells in pregnancy have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, phenotype, and ...
Lew Betina J - - 2009
Exposure to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during pregnancy causes severe defects in mammary gland development and function; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Alterations in epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis during pregnancy-related mammary development can lead to failed lactogenesis. To determine which of these processes ...
Imudia Anthony N - - 2009
Fetal cells are shed from the regressing chorionic villi and it is possible to retrieve extravillous cytotrophoblast cells by transcervical sampling. The abundance of trophoblast cells in transcervical samples suggests that this non-invasive approach could distinguish between normal and abnormal pregnancies, such as an ectopic pregnancy (EP) and blighted ovum ...
Katz J - - 2009
Increasing evidence suggests an association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although infection is considered as a risk factor for preterm delivery, the localization of oral bacteria or their antigens in chorioamnionitis placental tissue has never been demonstrated. This study was devised to test the hypothesis that periodontal pathogens ...
Lee E - - 2009
A 26-year-old Caucasian female in her second pregnancy grouped as A, D+ R(1)R(1) K- with anti-K (titre: 256) at booking. Her partner was typed as K1 positive. Baby was born with Hb 23.1 g/dl. Cord samples were referred to our laboratory for investigation and were found to be DAT 5+, ...
Wong H S - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To describe the sonographic appearance of the decidua basalis and its changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: We reviewed images from 159 first-trimester ultrasound examinations in 105 women with uncomplicated pregnancies who later delivered at term. The appearance of the decidua basalis layer and the sonographic changes ...
Matsubara Keiichi - - 2009
It has been reported that fetal cells migrate into maternal blood and organs. Since these fetal chimeric cells could be involved in maternal allogeneic tolerance to the fetus, the fetal chimeric cells might be implicated in maternal-fetal immunology and development of maternal autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanism and role of ...
Al-Turki H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) causes osteopenia and osteoporosis, This osteopenia may be further influenced by pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To find out the effect of pregnancy on bone skeleton density in patients with SCD. METHODS: Consecutive adult female SCA patients who were treated at the out-patients clinics of King Fahd University ...
D'Souza Edna - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Isolation of adequate numbers of fetal cells circulating in the maternal circulation is the major hurdle in developing noninvasive prenatal diagnostic procedures. We used flow cytometry and a combination of different monoclonal antibodies to compare the yield and purity of the fetal nucleated red blood cells at different periods ...
Douglas Nataki C - - 2009
Implantation of an embryo induces rapid proliferation and differentiation of uterine stromal cells, forming a new structure, the decidua. One salient feature of decidua formation is a marked increase in maternal angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent pathways are active in the ovary, uterus, and embryo, and inactivation of VEGF ...
Sarno Jennifer J Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2009
Bleeding or inflammation in early pregnancy may result in pregnancy loss or defective implantation. Their effect on HOX gene expression in first trimester decidua is unknown. Bleeding results in thrombin generation, although infection or inflammation results in production of cytokines typified by Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). First trimester decidual cells were pretreated ...
Norton Michelle T - - 2009
Pregnancy induces dynamic changes in the maternal environment that include reversible modifications in response to systemic mediators and local signals. The spleen can be used to determine the effects of pregnancy on multiple cellular populations, including those of the erythroid lineage and the immune system. Current evidence suggests that the ...
Taglauer Elizabeth S ES Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160-7400, - - 2009
The failure to reject the semi-allogeneic fetus suggests that maternal T lymphocytes are regulated by potent mechanisms in pregnancy. The T cell immunoinhibitory receptor, Programmed Death-1 (PD-1), and its ligand, B7-H1, maintain peripheral tolerance by inhibiting activation of self-reactive lymphocytes. Here, we investigated the role of the PD-1/B7-H1 pathway in ...
Williams Paula J - - 2009
Alterations in the balance of leucocyte populations in uterine decidua may lead to the generation of an unfavourable cytokine environment that is associated with unsuccessful pregnancy. Single and double immunohistochemical labelling was used to examine leucocyte populations in decidua from normal third trimester, foetal growth-restricted and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Placental bed ...
Steffl Martin - - 2009
Previously it was shown that growth hormone (GH) and its receptor (GH-R) are involved in growth-promoting events during early embryonic development. However, it is still unknown if GH-induced GH-R signalling may support other functions within the oviduct. The purpose of our study was to analyse GH-R expression and localization in ...
Gao Haijun - - 2009
FRAP1 (FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin complex-associated protein 1), a component of the nutrient-sensing cell signaling pathway, is critical for cell growth and metabolism. The present study determined expression of FRAP1 and associated members of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 cell signaling pathways in uteri of cyclic and pregnant ewes and conceptuses, as ...
Coata Giuliana - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to verify whether fetal microchimerism, because of persisting fetal hematopoietic CD34(+) cells from previous pregnancies, could interfere with the development of genetic tests based on using these cells, isolated from maternal blood for the diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies. STUDY DESIGN: CD34(+) cells, isolated from blood of parous ...
Boutet Marianne - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The physiopathology of preeclampsia is still unclear, but an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, also called oxidative stress, appears to be an important contributing factor. The ROS promote lipid oxidation and are known to induce stress proteins, such as hemeoxygenase 1 (HO-1) and heat-shock protein 70 ...
Guerin Leigh R - - 2009
Adaptation of the maternal immune response to accommodate the semi-allogeneic fetus is necessary for pregnancy success, and disturbances in maternal tolerance are implicated in infertility and reproductive pathologies. T regulatory (Treg) cells are a recently discovered subset of T-lymphocytes with potent suppressive activity and pivotal roles in curtailing destructive immune ...
Al Jama Fathia E - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the maternal and fetal outcome in pregnant women with sickle cell disease and to highlight the complications encountered during pregnancy and delivery at a university hospital in the Eastern Saudi Arabia. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 255 pregnancies in 145 patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) ...
Dubernard Gil - - 2009
Pregnancy results in the transfer of stem cells from the fetus to the maternal circulation. These cells are able to migrate and differentiate within various damaged maternal tissues. We recently showed the presence of fetal-derived cells in human breast carcinomas during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to reproduce these ...
Chen Hsin-Fu - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a soluble receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and can inhibit Fas ligand-induced apoptosis. DcR3 is related to carcinogenesis, but is found in human gestational tissues, where the function is uncertain. We aimed to determine DcR3 expression and regulation in endometrial ...
Macias Rocio I R RI Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting, CIBERehd, University of Salamanca, Salamanca 37007, Spain. - - 2009
In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although ...
Whitley Guy St J - - 2009
In the first 20 weeks of pregnancy a number of important changes take place in the maternal uterine vasculature. Vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells are lost from the spiral arteries and are replaced by fetal trophoblast cells. The resulting increase in blood flow to the intervillous space ensures that ...
Wong Kah-Keng - - 2009
AIMS: To stratify upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into prognostic subgroups by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) method, and to evaluate the association rate of UAT DLBCL with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). METHODS: Using a panel of antibodies to CD10, Bcl-6, MUM1 and CD138, consecutive cases of primary UAT ...
Galkin Anna - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The presence of coumarins in human diet, their multiple pharmacological properties and occurrence in various herbal remedies represent significant reasons to explore their membrane permeability, as a first event contributing to coumarins oral bioavailability. Thus, we evaluated the permeability and cytotoxicity of 18 coumarins, with different substitution patterns involving ...
Murphy Shawn P - - 2009
Interferon gamma (IFNG) is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted in the uterus during early pregnancy. It is abundantly produced by uterine natural killer cells in maternal endometrium but also by trophoblasts in some species. In normal pregnancies of mice, IFNG plays critical roles that include initiation of endometrial vasculature remodeling, angiogenesis ...
Nguyen Huu Sau - - 2009
Melanoma is a major malignancy in younger individuals that accounts for 8% of all neoplasias associated with gestation. During pregnancy, a small number of fetal cells enter the maternal circulation. These cells persist and then migrate to various maternal tissues where they may engraft and differentiate, particularly if there is ...
Menkhorst Ellen - - 2009
Hormonal contraceptives are unsuitable for many women; thus, the development of new, nonhormonal contraceptives is of great interest. In women, uterine epithelial expression of interleukin 11 (IL11) and its receptor (IL11RA) suggests IL11 is critical for blastocyst attachment during implantation. Il11ra-deficient mice are infertile due to a defective decidualization response ...
Britt Kara L - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: In humans, an early full-term pregnancy reduces lifetime breast cancer risk by up to 50% whereas a later pregnancy (>35 years old) can increase lifetime risk. Several mechanisms have been suggested, including changes in levels of circulating hormones, changes in the way the breast responds to these hormones, changes ...
Hirst Jonathan J - - 2009
Stressors during pregnancy can lead to perinatal brain injury resulting in serious neurological impairment. Neuroactive steroid concentrations are elevated during pregnancy and are remarkably high in the fetal brain. In long-gestation species, including humans, these steroids enhance GABAergic inhibition and reduce the possibility of cerebral excitotoxicity during the last third ...
Guibourdenche Jean - - 2009
The human placenta is characterized by the intensity of the trophoblast invasion into the uterus wall and the specificity of its hormonal functions. Placental hormones are required for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, adaptation of the maternal organism to pregnancy and fetal growth. In the early placenta at the ...
Couret D - - 2009
Pregnant sows are exposed to various stressors in intensive pig husbandry that may have negative consequences on their health, reproductive performances and welfare. Social stress is one of these challenges, because gestating sows have to be housed in groups according to EU guidelines (2001/88/CE). The purpose of this study was ...
Shigematsu Kazuto - - 2009
Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) consisting of pure zona glomerulosa (ZG)-type cells is extremely rare, and primary aldosteronism complicated by pregnancy is also rare. We report a case of APA discovered in a 32-year-old pregnant woman who visited our hospital for hypertension and hypokalemia at 26 weeks gestation. Elevated plasma aldosterone concentration ...
Lissauer David M - - 2009
During pregnancy there is transplacental traffic of fetal cells into the maternal circulation. Remarkably, cells of fetal origin can then persist for decades in the mother and are detectable in the circulation and in a wide range of tissues. Maternal CD8 T cell responses directed against fetal antigens can also ...
Ka Hakhyun - - 2009
Maternal recognition of pregnancy in pigs occurs approximately on Day (D) 12 of pregnancy and is critical for embryo implantation. The presence of the conceptus in the uterine lumen during this period changes uterine endometrial function to prepare for attachment of the conceptus to the endometrial epithelial cells and maintain ...
Toth Bettina - - 2009
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) belong to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. Recent investigations emphasize a possible involvement of PPAR in obstetric and gynaecologic disorders like polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis and preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) in ...
Tiede Benjamin J - - 2009
Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) play essential roles for the development of the mammary gland and its remodeling during pregnancy. However, the precise localization of MaSCs in the mammary gland and their regulation during pregnancy is unknown. Here we report a transgenic mouse model for luciferase-based single marker detection of MaSCs ...
Tang Ai-Wei - - 2009
Idiopathic recurrent miscarriage is defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses with no contributing features found on investigations. At present there are no treatments of proven efficacy for idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, the most predominant leucocyte in the endometrium are adjacent to foetal trophoblast cells and thought ...
Ferreira Vanessa M - - 2009
Normal pregnancy is associated with systemic and intrarenal vasodilatation resulting in an increased glomerular filtration rate. This adaptive response occurs in spite of elevated circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, we evaluated the potential mechanisms responsible for this adaptation. The reactivity of the mesangial cells ...
Valdes Gloria - - 2009
We postulate that an orchestrated network composed of various vasodilatory systems participates in the systemic and local hemodynamic adaptations in pregnancy. The temporal patterns of increase in the circulating and urinary levels of five vasodilator factors/systems, prostacyclin, nitric oxide, kallikrein, angiotensin-(1-7) and VEGF, in normal pregnant women and animals, as ...
Prescott Jennifer J Program in Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2009
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a malignancy etiologically linked to immunomodulatory exposures and disorders. Endogenous female sex hormones may modify immune function and influence NHL risk. Few studies have examined associations between reproductive factors, which can serve as surrogates for such hormonal exposures, and NHL risk by subtype. Women in the ...
Lorenzi T - - 2009
Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are pregnancy-specific disorders that have in common abnormal placental implantation, a marked proliferation of villous cytotrophoblastic cells and focal necrosis of the syncytiotrophoblast. Several studies show an ischemic placenta with a high-resistance vasculature, which cannot deliver an adequate blood supply to the feto-placental ...
Heazell Alexander E P - - 2008
Apoptosis within villous trophoblast is increased in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia (PE). Caspase activity is regulated by the balance of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). This study investigated the expression and localisation of smac, HtrA2/Omi and IAPs in villous trophoblast in normal pregnancies and those complicated by PE. smac was ...
Nakanishi Akira - - 2008
Testicular Sertoli cells highly express dynamin 2 and amphiphysin 1. Here we demonstrate that dynamin 2 is implicated in phosphatidylserine (PS)-dependent phagocytosis in Sertoli cells. Immunofluorescence and dual-live imaging revealed that dynamin 2 and amphiphysin 1 accumulate simultaneously at ruffles. These proteins are specifically bound in vitro. Over-expression of dominant ...
Rici R E G - - 2009
The bovine maternal epithelium is composed of cuboidal cells interspersed with low columnar cells having centrally located nuclei. Bovine trophoblast is composed of two cell types: mononuclear trophoblastic and giant trophoblastic cells that can have two or more nuclei. Number of apoptotic cells and proliferative cells are variable in both ...
Huang Carol - - 2009
Increased islet mass is an adaptive mechanism that occurs to combat insulin resistance during pregnancy. Prolactin (PRL) can enhance beta-cell proliferation and insulin secretion in vitro, yet whether it is PRL or other pregnancy-related factors that mediate these adaptive changes during pregnancy is unknown. The objective of this study was ...
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