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Hinz D - - 2010
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the basis of an atopic-skewed immune response is acquired early in life, perhaps at the fetal stage. Thus, we hypothesized that the development of the fetal immune system might be influenced by maternal regulatory T cells (Treg) and maternal T cell cytokine production during pregnancy. ...
Zenclussen Maria Laura - - 2010
PROBLEM: Mammalian pregnancy is a state of immunological tolerance and CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) contribute to its maintenance. Knowing that Treg act in an antigen-specific way during pregnancy, we hypothesized that they are generated after maternal immune cells encounter paternal antigens. METHOD OF STUDY: We mated wild type ...
Acar Nuray - - 2011
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system. The aim of this review is to describe the properties and roles of NK cells in the human uterus during pregnancy. Uterine natural killer cells (uNK) constitute a major lymphocyte population during early gestation in the uterus. The uterine ...
Adeniji Beni Adegoke - - 2010
Objective. We present a successful case of laparoscopic splenectomy for a massively enlarged spleen at 25 weeks of gestation for hairy cell leukemia in pregnancy in a woman with initial hemoglobin of 4.3 gm/dl and platelet count of 18,000/mm(3). Study Design. Case report. Results. This report provides an approach to management ...
Oner Hakan - - 2010
The aim of present study was to determine the distributions of proliferating cell nuclear agent (PCNA) and Cas-pase-3 (Cas-3) and their possible roles in implantation and decidualization during early pregnancy at immunohistochemical level. The tissue samples from pregnant animals between gestational days 1-5 were incubated by PCNA and Cas-3 antibodies ...
Bulmer Judith N - - 2010
Leukocytes are an important component of the human uterine decidua in normal pregnancy. The focus of research has been on the more abundant populations such as the uterine natural killer (uNK) cells and macrophages, but more recently interest has also extended to less abundant, but functionally significant populations. Investigation of ...
Wang Li-qin - - 2010
The nuclear factor kappa B is widely expressed in the distinct subpopulations of chorionic villi and deciduas of first-trimester pregnancies. We examined the cellular distribution and expression of nuclear factor kappa B in the human first-trimester chorionic villi and deciduas of women with early spontaneous miscarriage and viable pregnancy by ...
Gilli Francesca - - 2010
Pregnancy is associated with reduced activity of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the biological mechanisms underlying this pregnancy-related decrease in disease activity are poorly understood. We conducted a genome-wide transcription analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 12 women (7 MS patients and 5 healthy controls) followed during their pregnancy. ...
Basta Pawel - - 2010
The presence of regulatory T (Treg) cells in human endometrium is crucial for maintaining immunological homeostasis within the uterus. For this study we decided to evaluate the subpopulations of Treg cells in conditions where a disturbance in the immunological equilibrium in ectopic endometrium and decidua has been observed, such as ...
Gammill Hilary S HS Department of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. - - 2010
Bi-directional transplacental trafficking occurs routinely during the course of normal pregnancy, from fetus to mother and from mother to fetus. In addition to a variety of cell-free substances, it is now well recognized that some cells are also exchanged. Microchimerism refers to a small number of cells (or DNA) harbored ...
Zhou Jingyu - - 2010
Visfatin is a 56 kDa protein that is overexpressed in pregnant women. Like insulin, 2 nM visfatin induced GLUT 4 translocation from the cytosolic fraction to the membrane in 3T3-L1 cells. We have previously reported that visfatin induces glucose uptake into 3T3-L1 cells. These two actions define visfatin as an ...
Ntrivalas Evangelos - - 2010
In mammalian reproduction, two immunologically disparate entities, the mother and her fetus, co-exist in close proximity and mutually tolerate each other. The maternal immune system plays a major contributing role in the reproductive outcome. A coordinated set of immunological events takes place between the maternal and fetal cells to ensure ...
Clark David A - - 2010
PROBLEM: Allogeneic pregnancies have a survival advantage over syngeneic pregnancies, and paternal Class I MHC antigens have been implicated. In humans, HLA-C and HLA-G and E are expressed by subpopulations of fetal trophoblast. In mice, Qa-2, a Class Ib antigen, and classical H-2K antigens have been described. However, the mechanism ...
Nakashima Akitoshi - - 2010
PROBLEM: The Th1/Th2 paradigm has recently been reconstituted to include a third population, Th17 cells. It has been reported that Th2 type immunity is predominantly present in normal pregnancy. However, the level of Th17 cells during pregnancy is still unclear. We investigated the level of peripheral Th17 cells in healthy ...
Yamamoto Yuka - - 2010
An appropriate balance between uterine quiescence and activation during pregnancy is essential for a successful outcome. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid, increases cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis, all important to maintain the pregnancy. Indeed progesterone increases sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) mRNA, which produces S1P. In contrast, induction of prostaglandin ...
Litton Christian - - 2009
The presence of fetal cells in the maternal circulation was first noted by Georg Schmorl when he documented the presence of multinucleated syncytial giant cells of placental origin in the lung tissue of women who had died from complications of eclampsia. In the intervening century, advances in cellular and molecular ...
Jessmon Philip - - 2009
The establishment of pregnancy requires an intimate physical interaction and a molecular dialogue between the conceptus and the maternal reproductive tract that commences at implantation and continues until the placenta is formed and fully functional. Failure of the regulatory processes that ensure the fidelity of this relationship can precipitate a ...
Yoshioka C - - 2009
Glutamine is the most versatile amino acid and its plasma concentration is the highest of all amino acid. Many transporters are therefore involved in glutamine uptake or efflux. Glutamine is actively released from the placenta into fetal circulation. In this study, we examined the alteration of transporters that transport glutamine ...
Khosrotehrani Kiarash - - 2009
The influence of pregnancy on the occurrence and evolution of maternal tumors has been long debated. Breast carcinomas or melanomas have been suspected to be more severe during gestation. Recently, many investigators have described the transfer and persistence of fetal cells in maternal circulation and tissues during and after pregnancy. ...
Sokolov D I - - 2009
The localization of apoptosis and expression of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors by the placental tissue were compared during normal pregnancy and gestosis-complicated pregnancy. The degree of apoptosis did not differ in the third trimester of normal pregnancy and gestosis-complicated pregnancy. Increased expression of Fas, caspase-8, and caspase-3 in placental tissue ...
Osei-Kumah Annette - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy can influence the course of maternal asthma, but the mechanisms are presently unknown. The aim of the present study was to access maternal immune cell profiles in the presence and absence of asthma and to determine the effect of pregnancy-derived factors on epithelial cell function. METHODS: Cells from ...
Barrientos G - - 2009
The success of mammalian pregnancy is highly dependent on the establishment of an adequate blood supply to support the metabolic demands of the growing embryo and fetus. New blood vessels develop from pre-existing vessels in a multi-step process called angiogenesis, which is tightly regulated in time and space and has ...
Qvigstad E - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To monitor beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity longitudinally in a large cohort of pregnant women to elucidate mechanisms that influence glycemic control in pregnancy. DESIGN AND METHODS: Five hundred and fifty-three pregnant Scandinavian women underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at weeks 14-16 and 30-32. Insulin sensitivity ...
Kuang HaiBin - - 2009
Well-controlled trophoblast invasion into uterine decidua is a critical process for the normal development of placenta, which is tightly regulated by various factors produced within the trophoblast-endometrial microenvironment. CXCL14 is involved in tumor growth and metastasis, and its expression in placenta is temporally regulated during pregnancy. However, the role of ...
Johnson Kirby L KL Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington Street, Box 394, Boston, MA 02111, USA. - - 2010
To determine whether chemically induced miscarriage affects fetomaternal trafficking in a mouse model, we measured the amount of fetal DNA present in various maternal organs by polymerase chain reaction amplification following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As the frequency of fetal cells and the number of animals with detectable microchimerism following ...
Karimi Khalil - - 2010
During early pregnancy, an orchestrated endocrine-immunological scenario of maternal adaptation toward tolerance of the semiallogeneic fetus is required. Mechanisms preventing fetal loss by protecting the immune privilege of the gravid uterus, i.e. Galectin-1 or regulatory T cells, have recently been identified. Further, the presence of a unique population of Natural ...
Krause Bernardo - - 2009
The hypothesis of 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) relies on the presence of mechanisms sensing and signalling a diversity of stimuli during fetal development. The mechanisms that have been broadly suggested to be involved in these processes are the epigenetic modifications that could 'record' perinatal stimuli. Since the ...
Ballas Samir K - - 2009
The Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia (MSH) was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to test whether hydroxyurea could reduce the rate of painful crises in adults who had at least 3 painful crises per year. Because hydroxyurea is known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic in animals, ...
Jin Li-Ping - - 2009
The present study was undertaken to analyze the changes in the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(bright) regulatory T (Treg) cells and the expression of costimulatory molecules, CTLA-4 and CD28, in the peripheral blood and deciduas in the setting of non-pregnancy, normal early pregnancy and miscarriage. In this study, we showed that CD4(+)CD25(bright) ...
Yi Fu-Xian FX Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Perinatal Research Laboratories, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, - - 2010
Endothelium-mediated vasodilation is specifically enhanced in uterine circulation during pregnancy, and production of nitric oxide (NO) is increased in response to a wide array of agonists. Uterine artery endothelial cells from nonpregnant (NP-UAECs) or pregnant (P-UAECs) ewes maintained in culture still show a pregnancy-enhanced difference in ATP-stimulated endothelial NO synthase ...
Williams P J - - 2009
Most research on human decidual leucocytes to date has focused on the predominant CD56+ uterine natural killer (uNK) cell population in early pregnancy. Few reports have documented decidual leucocyte populations after 13 weeks gestation and in late pregnancy. Placental bed (decidua basalis) and non-placental bed (decidua parietalis) biopsies from normal ...
Stock Sarah J - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To examine cervicovaginal elafin production in pregnancy and determine its relationship in bacterial vaginosis. STUDY DESIGN: Samples of cervicovaginal secretions were collected from women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies (n = 112) below 20 weeks gestation. Bacterial flora was assessed using Nugent's criteria, and levels of elafin were measured by ...
Agata Karowicz-BiliƄska - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is the reason of high prematurity rate and its later complications. Restriction of utero-placental circulation, which could be changed by IURG treatment, plays the main role in FGR. The results of changes in apoptosis-related genes expression due to FGR treatment may help further in the ...
Kapranos Nikiforos C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The etiology of early pregnancy loss is multifactorial and may include viral pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in gestational tissues of first trimester pregnancy loss using molecular techniques. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Gestational tissue from 95 women with first ...
Adamova Zuzana Z Division of Vascular Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2009
Normal pregnancy is associated with significant hemodynamic changes in the cardiovascular system in order to meet the metabolic demands of mother and fetus. These changes include increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance, and vascular remodeling in the uterine and systemic circulation. Preeclampsia (PE) is a major complication of pregnancy characterized ...
Tan Chia Yee - - 2009
Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity that occurs only during pregnancy. Pregnancy is the only physiological situation where killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) may meet cognate nonself variants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allotypes. We previously reported that presence of fetal HLA-G*0106 was significantly ...
Leduc Michele - - 2009
During all human and murine pregnancies, fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and tissues and may persist there for decades. The immune consequences of this phenomenon have been explored for many years as a potential origin of autoimmunity or protection from cancer in women after pregnancy. The leading hypothesis, suggesting ...
Hoffmann Pascale - - 2009
Pre-eclampsia (PE), the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, is thought to be caused by shallow invasion of the maternal decidua by extravillous trophoblasts (EVT). Data suggest that a fine balance between the expressions of pro- and anti-invasive factors might regulate EVT invasiveness. Recently, we showed that the expression ...
Paiva Premila - - 2009
Blastocyst implantation into a receptive endometrium is critical to the establishment of pregnancy and is tightly regulated by factors within the blastocyst-endometrial micro-environment. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-11 (IL11) have key roles during implantation. Female mice with a null mutation in the LIF or IL11RA gene are infertile due ...
Choi Yohan - - 2009
Calcium ions have been implicated in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, but the regulatory mechanisms of calcium ions in the uterine endometrium and conceptus are not well understood in pigs. Recently, we showed that TRPV6, a calcium ion channel protein associated with cellular entry of calcium ions, is highly ...
Maguire Jamie J Department of Neurology, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-7332, - - 2009
Alterations in GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) expression and function, similar to those we described previously during pregnancy in the mouse dentate gyrus, may also occur in other brain regions. Here we show, using immunohistochemical techniques, a decreased delta subunit-containing GABA(A)R (deltaGABA(A)R) expression in the dentate gyrus, hippocampal CA1 region, thalamus, and ...
Tilburgs Tamara - - 2009
Human leukocyte antigen-C (HLA-C) is the only polymorphic classical histocompatibility antigen expressed by fetal trophoblasts at the fetal-maternal interface. Interactions between HLA-C and decidual natural killer (NK) cells may facilitate trophoblast invasion into maternal tissue. Thus far no evidence has been provided that decidual T cells specifically recognize and respond ...
Al-Nasiry S - - 2009
During their invasion of the placental bed, interstitial trophoblasts fuse to multinuclear giant cells which are thought to have lost their invasive properties. Trophoblast fusion is associated with downregulation of E-cadherin, and persistent E-cadherin expression has been linked to defective placentation in preeclampsia. Since a previous study suggested 'premature' giant ...
Gregg Christopher - - 2009
New myelinating oligodendrocytes are continuously generated in the white matter of the uninjured adult CNS by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs). Currently, little is known about the function of these new cells or the physiological processes that regulate their generation and differentiation. Importantly, new oligodendrocytes are ...
Rieck Sebastian - - 2009
The inability of the ss-cell to meet the demand for insulin brought about by insulin resistance leads to type 2 diabetes. In adults, ss-cell replication is one of the mechanisms thought to cause the expansion of ss-cell mass. Efforts to treat diabetes require knowledge of the pathways that drive facultative ...
Fugazzola Laura - - 2010
The transfer of fetal cells into the maternal circulation occurs normally during pregnancy and the post-partum persistence of these cells in the maternal blood and tissues, known as fetal cell microchimerism, has been clearly demonstrated. However, the long-term consequences of this phenomenon are only beginning to be appreciated. In particular, ...
Mjösberg Jenny - - 2009
CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are implicated in the maintenance of murine pregnancy. However, reports regarding circulating Treg frequencies in human pregnancy are inconsistent, and the functionality and phenotype of these cells in pregnancy have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, phenotype, and ...
Lew Betina J - - 2009
Exposure to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during pregnancy causes severe defects in mammary gland development and function; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Alterations in epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis during pregnancy-related mammary development can lead to failed lactogenesis. To determine which of these processes ...
Imudia Anthony N - - 2009
Fetal cells are shed from the regressing chorionic villi and it is possible to retrieve extravillous cytotrophoblast cells by transcervical sampling. The abundance of trophoblast cells in transcervical samples suggests that this non-invasive approach could distinguish between normal and abnormal pregnancies, such as an ectopic pregnancy (EP) and blighted ovum ...
Katz J - - 2009
Increasing evidence suggests an association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although infection is considered as a risk factor for preterm delivery, the localization of oral bacteria or their antigens in chorioamnionitis placental tissue has never been demonstrated. This study was devised to test the hypothesis that periodontal pathogens ...
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