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Mao Guanping - - 2010
Mechanisms maintaining the growth of a "semi-foreign" fetus within the maternal uterus via immune tolerance remain unclear. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells have been implicated in the maintenance of maternal-fetal immune tolerance. Additionally, 17β-estradiol (E2) is able to initiate immune suppression through CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells during early pregnancy. Little is ...
Sun Xiaofei - - 2010
In most mammals, placentation is critical for fetal development and pregnancy success. Exposure to marijuana during pregnancy has adverse effects, but whether the placenta is a target of cannabinoid/endocannabinoid signaling is not known. Using mice as a model system, we found that the endocannabinoid system is present in the ectoplacental ...
Cartwright Judith E - - 2010
In human pregnancy, successful placentation and remodelling of the uterine vasculature require the integration of a number of stages, which are crucial for a healthy pregnancy. As the demands of the developing fetus for nutrients and oxygen increase, the capacity of the maternal blood vessels to supply this must be ...
Lin Xing-guang - - 2010
Estrogen as well as CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells were shown to have a protective role not only in maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance but also against autoimmune diseases. We aimed to investigate whether the pregnancy levels of estrogen are enough to induce transplant tolerance as to maintain fetal-maternal tolerance. We established H-Y ...
Troeger Carolyn - - 2010
Transplacental traffic of fetal progenitor and differentiated cells is a well-known phenomenon in pregnancies. We hypothesize that intrauterine stem cell transplantation leads to microchimerism in the dams and that this is gestational age-dependent. EGFP+ fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) (10(5) per fetus) were injected intraperitoneally into congeneic and allogeneic ...
Jonsson Anna Maria - - 2010
During pregnancy small amounts of cells pass between the mother and the fetus, and this transfer may give rise to a chimeric state that persist for years in both individuals. Both fetal and maternal microchimerism (MMc) have been associated with different autoimmune disorders. Information about MMc in tissues of healthy ...
Wong H S - - 2010
To describe the sonographic findings in the decidua basalis layer in spontaneous early pregnancy loss and to compare them with those in normal pregnancy. We reviewed 119 scans at 4-10 weeks' gestation from 110 patients who miscarried clinically at less than 13 weeks' gestation and 132 scans also at 4-10 ...
Dahlstrøm Berit - - 2010
inflammatory processes are present during preeclampsia and in normal pregnancy. Maternal inflammatory reactions may change towards term. Our objective was to evaluate genome signaling in blood during preeclampsia and towards term using microarrays. RNA microarrays (Illumina) were conducted on blood from preeclamptic pregnancies delivered preterm, normal pregnancies at term and ...
Harris Lynda K - - 2010
During the first trimester of pregnancy, the uterine spiral arteries are remodeled, creating heavily dilated conduits that lack maternal vasomotor control but allow the placenta to meet an increasing requirement for nutrients and oxygen. To effect permanent vasodilatation, the internal elastic lamina and medial elastin fibers must be degraded. In ...
Tower Clare - - 2011
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder that disproportionally affects women, especially in their reproductive years. SLE is associated with considerable pregnancy-related morbidity-including fetal loss, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(REG)) cells have a potent immunosuppressive function and contribute to immunological self-tolerance. These ...
Volchek Mila - - 2010
The mammalian placenta plays a central role in maternal tolerance of the semi-allogeneic fetus and fluid balance between the maternal and fetal compartments. The lymphatics play a role in both these function. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of lymphatic vessels in human decidua, with particular ...
Salvolini Eleonora - - 2011
It has been previously observed that the amniotic fluid obtained from Down's syndrome (DS) pregnancies showed lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and higher levels of nitric oxide (NO) with respect to the controls, suggesting the presence of an imbalance between placental vascularization and altered endothelial function. The ...
Fonseca B M - - 2010
The main endocannabinoids (EC) identified in mammalian tissues are N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA, anandamide), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). AEA levels are critical in pregnancy, especially during implantation, decidualization, and placental development. As 2-AG functions in pregnancy are still largely undefined, we hypothesized that it may also have a role during fetoplacental development. We ...
Singh Narendra P - - 2011
The "fetal basis of adult disease" hypothesis proposes that prenatal exposure to environmental stress can lead to increased susceptibility to clinical disorders later in life. In utero exposure of fetus to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) leads to alterations in T-cell differentiation in the thymus and increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease later in ...
do Vale Tiago Gurgel - - 2010
We investigated the effect of epileptic seizures during pregnancy on hippocampal expression of calcium-binding proteins in the offspring. Female Wistar rats were submitted to the pilocarpine model and mated during the chronic period. Seizure frequency was monitored over the entire pregnancy. Pups were perfused at postnatal days 6 and 13, ...
Dória Sofia - - 2010
karyotype is a well established technique in the study of spontaneous miscarriages but is associated with selective overgrowth of maternal cells and other culture artefact (spp) such as tetraploidy, which could mask the true karyotype of the conceptus. 328 cases of pregnancy losses were studied by karyotype and Multiplex Ligation ...
Majewska Marta - - 2011
Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are abundant embryo-originated products expressed in the pre-placental trophoblast and later in the post-implantational chorionic epithelium of some ungulate species. This paper describes the cellular immunolocalization of the chorionic PAG family in the epitheliochorial placenta type of the alpaca (Lama pacos-Lp), in which the PAGs were named ...
Duncan W C - - 2010
We investigated whether the repulsive SLIT/ROBO pathway is expressed in the endometrium and is negatively regulated during implantation. We also examined whether deficient expression in the Fallopian tube (FT) may predispose to ectopic pregnancy (EP). Endometrium (n = 21) and FT (n = 17) were collected across the menstrual cycle ...
Vasilopoulou E - - 2010
Abnormal placentation in human pregnancy is associated with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR). Our group has previously reported the association between severe IUGR, lower fetal circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones (THs), and altered expression of TH receptors and TH transporters within human placental villi. We postulate that altered TH bioavailability ...
Fenstad M H - - 2010
Variation in the Storkhead box-1 (STOX1) gene has previously been associated with pre-eclampsia. In this study, we assess candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in STOX1 in an independent population cohort of pre-eclamptic (n = 1.139) and non-pre-eclamptic (n = 2.269) women (the HUNT2 study). We also compare gene expression levels ...
Walter Lisa M - - 2010
While vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A mediates endometrial vascular remodelling during early pregnancy in mice, individual VEGF-A isoforms have not been investigated, despite their different biological properties. Using mice as a model, the expression of VEGF-A isoforms and receptors in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy was quantified. It was ...
Lontay Beata - - 2010
Pregnancy coordinately alters the contractile properties of both vascular and uterine smooth muscles reducing systemic blood pressure and maintaining uterine relaxation. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying these pregnancy-induced adaptations have yet to be fully defined but are likely to involve changes in the expression of proteins regulating myosin phosphorylation. Here ...
Neuteboom Rinze F - - 2010
During pregnancy, especially during the third trimester, multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity is reduced. It is not known which factors mediate this disease amelioration. To study whether the frequency of two important T-cell subsets, T-helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T-cells (Treg), is altered in relation to pregnancy-induced MS disease amelioration. ...
Kim Hail H Diabetes Center, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California, - - 2010
During pregnancy, the energy requirements of the fetus impose changes in maternal metabolism. Increasing insulin resistance in the mother maintains nutrient flow to the growing fetus, whereas prolactin and placental lactogen counterbalance this resistance and prevent maternal hyperglycemia by driving expansion of the maternal population of insulin-producing beta cells. However, ...
el-Ashmawy Ibrahim M - - 2011
Experiments in animals proved that P-glycoprotein (Pgp) forms a functional barrier between maternal and fetal blood circulation in the placenta, thus protecting the fetus from exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy. In this study we aimed to demonstrate the effects of administration of ivermectin (anthelmentic drug, Pgp substrates), either alone or ...
Unno Akihiro - - 2010
In mammals with a hemochorial placenta (e.g., primates and rodents), the maternal and fetal bloodstreams are separated by the blood-placenta barrier. However, a few maternal cells in the general circulation pass through the barrier during normal pregnancy. So far, the transfer mechanism has not been investigated. In this study, we ...
Gomez-Lopez Nardhy - - 2010
No other organ in the body undergoes such an invasion of selective cells (leukocytes) and release of homing molecules, CAMs, proinflammatory cytokines, and mediators or undergoes similar extensive remodeling of tissues over such a short period of time as the pregnant uterus. This is especially interesting, as an infectious process ...
Rogers Dennie T - - 2010
The term sickle cell disease (SSD) encompasses several different sickle hemoglobinopathies. The ability to predict the clinical course of SSD during pregnancy is difficult. This article examines pregnancy-associated complications in SSD and the management of sickle cell disorders in pregnant women. Outcomes have improved for pregnant women with SSD and ...
Kaczmarek M M - - 2010
To cope with rising demands for increased blood supply during pregnancy, the vasculature of the uterus undergoes several adaptive changes, including increased permeability, angiogenesis and vasodilatation. Although it is clear that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a paramount role in achieving these adaptations, little is known about regulation of ...
Jones C J P - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Histiotrophe is now recognized as being an important feature of early human pregnancy, providing nutrients and growth factors to the developing embryo. Our aim was to examine the glycan composition of histiotrophe from first trimester decidua and to compare it with secretions present in endometrial glands from the late ...
Adams Waldorf K M - - 2010
Cell trafficking during pregnancy results in persistence of small populations of fetal cells in the mother, known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). Changes in cell-free fetal DNA during gestation have been well described, however, less is known about dynamic changes in fetal immune cells in maternal blood. We have investigated FMc ...
Toogeh Gholamreza - - 2011
In 2007, a 27-year-old woman presented with mild splenomegaly. Blood counts showed hemoglobin (Hb): 17.8 g/dl, HCT: 56% and Red blood cells: 6.45×10(12)/L. Bone marrow examination disclosed a hypercellular marrow. Molecular analysis showed the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation and BCR-ABL/BCR mRNA b3a2 transcript. A diagnosis of BCR-ABL-positive polycythemia ...
Shima Tomoko - - 2010
Maternal T cells acquire a transient state of tolerance specific for paternal alloantigens during pregnancy. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a central role in induction and maintenance of tolerance. We have studied the role of Treg cells for the maintenance of allogeneic pregnancy during the implantation period, early pregnancy ...
Shen C - - 2010
The present study aimed at investigating the haematological profile during pregnancy in Chinese women and comparing these to the established values for white and black women. White blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, haematocrit (Hct), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean ...
Saito Shigeru - - 2010
T-helper (Th) cells play a central role in modulating immune responses. The Th1/Th2 paradigm has now developed into the new Th1/Th2/Th17 paradigm. In addition to effector cells, Th cells are regulated by regulatory T (Treg) cells. Their capacity to produce cytokines is suppressed by immunoregulatory cytokines such as transforming growth ...
Guillomot M - - 2010
Cloning in mammals suffers from high rates of pregnancy losses associated with abnormal placentation, mainly placentomegaly, leading to fetal death. Placental growth is dependent on the regulated expression of many genes of which imprinted genes play a fundamental role. Among them, the Phlda2 gene is expressed from the maternal allele ...
Luppi Patrizia - - 2010
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may contribute to vascular endothelial cell homeostasis, and low levels of these cells are predictive of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that circulating EPCs increase in number during uncomplicated pregnancy but are reduced in women with preeclampsia. Peripheral blood was obtained from pregnant women and from ...
Florio Pasquale - - 2010
Activin A and related proteins (inhibins, follistatin [FS], follistatin-related gene [FLRG], endometrial bleeding associated factors [ebaf]) are involved in the complex mechanisms allowing the establishment and the maintenance of pregnancy. As a consequence of ovarian progesterone stimuli, activin A is expressed and secreted by the stromal endometrial cells, which locally ...
Abouna Sylvie - - 2010
Pregnancy is a normal physiological condition in which the maternal β-cell mass increases rapidly about two-fold to adapt to new metabolic challenges. We have used a lineage tracing of β-cells to analyse the origin of new β-cells during this rapid expansion in pregnancy. Double transgenic mice bearing a tamoxifen-dependent Cre-recombinase ...
Shakhawat Ayesha - - 2010
Several lines of evidence suggest that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G play a key role in the regulation of human pregnancy. A sub-population of cells highly represented at the decidua belong to the myeloid-derived monocyte/macrophage lineage, which potentially interact with HLA-G expressing cells. It is proposed that HLA-G protects decidual ...
Orendi K - - 2010
Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes for maternal and fetal morbidity. Placental protein 13 (PP13) is a placenta specific protein and with its decreased maternal serum levels in the first trimester it is one of the most promising markers to predict the syndrome in early pregnancy. In clinical trials ...
Lash G E - - 2010
Angiogenesis is a key feature of placental and uterine development in early pregnancy. We hypothesized that trophoblast cells produce angiogenic growth factors, and that expression differs between villous cytotrophoblast (CTB) and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells. Fourteen angiogenic growth factors were measured by multiplex growth factor analysis or ELISA in tissue ...
Moravej Ali - - 2010
PROBLEM: In pregnant women with antithyroglobulin antibody, prevalence of abortion is 2-4 fold higher compared to normal controls. Direct effect of such harmful autoantibodies on female reproductive organs may serve a role in pregnancy loss. METHOD OF STUDY: Expression of thyroglobulin in decidua, placenta, and ovary of pregnant Balb/c mice ...
Byrne S - - 2010
We present evidence for a novel histological and embryological relationship at the human materno-fetal interface. Here an epi- endo- thelium forms an integrated unicellular layer lining the intervillus space in between the anchoring villi that attach the placenta to the uterus. This layer appears to be derived from two different ...
Leber Anne - - 2010
Regulatory T cells emerge in the last years as key players in allowing fetal survival within the maternal uterus. They were shown to be a unique subpopulation of T cells expanding during human and murine pregnancy. The importance of Treg for a normal pregnancy situation was proven by studies showing ...
Vrijheid Martine - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Recently, an association was reported between prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phones and neurobehavioral problems in children at the age of 7 years. METHODS: A birth cohort was established in Sabadell, Spain between 2004 and 2006. Mothers completed questions about cell phone use in week 32 of the ...
Haddady S - - 2010
In mice, pregnancy has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the endogenous repair of focal lysolecithin-induced CNS demyelinative lesions, enhancing the genesis of new oligodendrocytes and the degree of remyelination. To identify local cells undergoing mitosis in response to such lesions, we examined the time course of phospho-histone ...
Burke Suzanne D - - 2010
Reproductive success in mammals involves coordinated changes in the immune and cardiovascular as well as in the neuroendocrine and reproductive systems. This review addresses studies that identify potential links for NK cells and T cells with the local and systemic cardiovascular adaptations of pregnancy. The studies reviewed have utilized immunohistochemisty ...
Simamura Eriko - - 2010
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes the proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells in the cerebrum. However, it remains unclear how fetal LIF level is regulated. Here we show evidence that maternal LIF signals drive fetal LIF levels via the placenta, thereby promoting neurogenesis in the fetal brain in rats. Chronological changes ...
Nagamatsu Takeshi - - 2010
Macrophages represent one of the major leukocyte subsets in the uterine decidua. Owing to their remarkable phenotypic plasticity, decidual macrophages can participate in diverse activities during pregnancy. At baseline, decidual macrophages are characterized by an immunosuppressive phenotype and M2 polarization, supporting feto-maternal immune tolerance. In early pregnancy, macrophage-derived pro-angiogenic factors ...
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