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Lee Rita S F - - 2003
Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) is a hematopoetic cytokine that also plays an important role in placental physiology. We report here the molecular cloning of two alternative splice variants of the bovine gene coding for a putative secreted and a membrane-bound form of the cytokine and the dynamic regulation of expression ...
Khosrotehrani Kiarash - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fetal cells enter the maternal circulation during most pregnancies and can persist in maternal blood and tissues after delivery. Concerns with regard to the histocompatibility of these fetal cells have raised the question of the long-term consequences of an immune response on maternal health. In the past ...
Choolani Mahesh - - 2003
Isolating fetal erythroblasts from first trimester maternal blood offers a promising non-invasive alternative for prenatal diagnosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the biological properties of first trimester primitive erythroblasts to facilitate their enrichment from first trimester maternal blood. Primitive erythroblasts were the predominant cell type until 12 ...
Dixit Vishwa Deep - - 2003
Thymic involution during pregnancy is believed to be a critical adaptive mechanism for regulation and control of the maternal immune system. These regulatory feedback mechanisms are important for the survival of the semiallogeneic fetus. In the present study, we examined the effects of GnRH on pregnancy-induced thymic involution by characterizing ...
Kaufmann Peter - - 2003
Maternal uteroplacental blood flow increases during pregnancy. Altered uteroplacental blood flow is a core predictor of abnormal pregnancy. Normally, the uteroplacental arteries are invaded by endovascular trophoblast and remodeled into dilated, inelastic tubes without maternal vasomotor control. Disturbed remodeling is associated with maintenance of high uteroplacental vascular resistance and intrauterine ...
Tombakoglu Meryem - - 2003
Hypotensive episodes are frequent during pregnancy, and their functional effect on fetal brain has not been studied. We produced systemic hypotension for 30 min during mid-gestation in pregnant rats and examined their offspring on postnatal days 1 and 28. When compared with sham controls, the brain of the hypotensive group ...
Kojima H - - 2003
PROBLEM: In T lymphocytes, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) regulates the induction of cytokine genes upon antigenic stimulation. This study was designed to analyse the relationship between NF-AT and pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: With informed consent, peripheral blood cells (PBCs) were obtained from non-pregnant (n = 114), pregnant ...
Duclos Sophie - - 2003
The small GTPase rab5 has been shown to play key roles in the function of both endocytic and phagocytic organelles. Although these organelles share several additional common features, different processes have been proposed to explain their biogenesis. In the present study, we provide evidence that lysosome biogenesis involves mechanisms similar ...
Heikkinen J - - 2003
Pregnancy is a challenge to the immune system, which not only has to protect the mother and the fetus from invading pathogens but to also maintain immunological tolerance against the fetus. However, the mechanisms inhibiting local immune responses in the maternal decidual tissue are poorly understood. We have studied decidual ...
Ukena Kazuyoshi - - 2003
We recently identified a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release in the quail brain and termed it gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH). In this study, we investigated the localization and distribution of GnIH in both sexes of adult quails by immunohistochemistry with a specific antiserum against GnIH and in situ hybridization. ...
Sinkora Marek - - 2003
B cell lymphogenesis in mammals occurs in various tissues during development but it is generally accepted that it operates by the same mechanism in all tissues. We show that in swine, the frequency of in-frame (IF) VDJ rearrangements differs among yolk sac, fetal liver, spleen, early thymus, bone marrow, and ...
Bulla Roberta - - 2003
Pregnancy is a unique physiologic condition that guarantees the survival of the semiallogenic embryo during the long period of gestation. The placenta plays a key role in the maintenance of local tolerance and allows the mother to accept the embryo until completion of pregnancy. The complex process of tolerance accompanying ...
Matthiesen Leif - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Local and possibly systemic curtailment of the maternal immune response is important for a successful pregnancy. Although the local milieu at the utero-placental interface is likely to harbor the most prominent alterations, it is suggested, at least in mice, that systemic immunity is also tolerized during pregnancy. In the ...
Crocker Ian P - - 2003
Placental apoptosis is increased in vivo in preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The cause and pathological implications of this phenomenon are unknown. This study considers the apoptotic susceptibility of villous trophoblasts from normal, PE, and IUGR pregnancies. Cultured cytotrophoblasts (CTs) and an in vitro model of syncytialization were ...
Skrzypek Elbieta E Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536-0298, - - 2003
YopM is a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) virulence protein that is delivered into host cells when any of the three human-pathogenic species of Yersinia binds to mammalian cells. It exhibits heterogeneity of size and sequence among the yersiniae, but the functional consequences of this variability are not yet known. Yersinia pestis ...
Johnson Greg A - - 2003
Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated and glycosylated, secreted protein that is present in various epithelial cells and biological fluids. On freezing and thawing or treatment with proteases, the native 70-kDa protein gives rise to 45- and 24-kDa fragments. Secreted OPN functions as an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that binds cell ...
Veltman Imke M - - 2003
Human germ cell tumours (GCTs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can be classified into four major subgroups. One of these subgroups encompasses (immature) teratomas and yolk sac tumours of patients under the age of 5 years. In this paper we review the various clinical, histological and cytogenetical aspects ...
Bayrak-Toydemir Pinar - - 2003
We describe a single centrifugation procedure that resulted in the recovery of fetal cells in maternal blood in 77% of normal male pregnancies and in 87.5% of aneuploid pregnancies. There was an average yield of one fetal cell/1,993 maternal cells in normal pregnancies, which increased to one in 994, in ...
Cha Donghyun - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) of fetal origin appear to have distinguishable characteristics from that of maternal NRBCs in both nuclear morphology and properties of hemoglobin staining. However, these differences have yet to be quantified. Our aim was to develop an erythroblast scoring system using four distinct phenotypic parameters ...
Kato M - - 2003
Midkine (MK) is a heparin-binding growth factor whose gene has been identified in embryonal carcinoma cells in early stages of retinoic acid-induced differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the developmental localization of truncated MK protein in human bile ducts. Thirty specimens of the livers from 25 fetuses (from 9 ...
Russell John A - - 2003
Oxytocin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland is increased during parturition, stimulated by the uterine contractions that forcefully expel the fetuses. Since oxytocin stimulates further contractions of the uterus, which is exquisitely sensitive to oxytocin at the end of pregnancy, a positive feedback loop is activated. The neural pathway that ...
Johnson Greg A - - 2003
Osteopontin (OPN) is a component of the extracellular matrix that interacts with cell surface receptors, including integrins, to mediate cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, survival, and immune function. In pregnant mice and primates, OPN has been detected in decidualized stroma and is considered to be a gene marker for decidualization. Decidualization ...
Papadopoulos N - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing knowledge about the cell subsets that exist in the decidua in normal early pregnancy, little is known about the decidual cell subsets in women with spontaneous pregnancy failure. Decidual large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) are the most abundant lymphoid cell type found in 1st trimester maternal decidua. The ...
Howarth D J - - 2002
The Kleihauer technique, based on acid elution of maternal red cells, is the mostly widely used technique in the UK to screen for, and estimate the volume of, foetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) and for determining the need for additional doses of anti-D immunoglobulin to prevent maternal alloimmunization. However, technicians often report ...
Miyoshi Keiko - - 2002
Mammary alveolar development during pregnancy is triggered by hormone signals. The prolactin receptor/Jak2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 5 signal transduction pathway is the principal mediator of these cues and alveolar development is abrogated in its absence. The loss of the basic helix-loop-helix protein inhibitor of differentiation (Id)2 results ...
Lin Sheng-Kai - - 2002
BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility of analyzing fetal cells from maternal circulation by using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for prenatal diagnosis. METHODS: Thirty-one high-risk (either advanced maternal age or abnormal serum Down screening) pregnant women (14-22 weeks) were enrolled. Twenty ml of venous blood ...
Bussani Cecilia - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the detection of fetal cells from transcervical samples, collected in early pregnancy, by means of different molecular techniques. The value of the isolation of trophoblasts using an inverted microscope, also referred to as micromanipulation, is discussed. METHODS: All the 89 specimens ...
Szekeres-Bartho Julia - - 2002
The immunological relationship between the mother and the fetus is a bi-directional communication determined on the one hand by fetal antigen presentation and on the other hand by recognition of and reaction to these antigens by the maternal immune system. There is evidence now that immunological recognition of pregnancy is ...
Yang Lili - - 2002
There have been few studies aimed at determining the effects of maternal peptide hormones on the developing fetus and even fewer aimed at determining the long-term consequences of abnormalities in maternal hormone exposure. In this study, we have examined the effect of maternal prolactin (PRL) on the production, seeding and ...
Boismenu R - - 2002
Oral administration of the novel anti-inflammatory peptide RDP58 markedly reduced the severity of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis as determined by clinical and quantitative histological criteria. The architecture of the colonic epithelium in DSS treated mice receiving RDP58 remained relatively normal compared with that of control DSS treated animals. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine ...
Myatt Leslie - - 2002
Preeclampsia, which manifests itself as hypertension, proteinuria, and edema in pregnancy, requires the presence of trophoblast tissue but not a fetus. It is characterized by abnormal trophoblast invasion of the spiral arteries of the decidua and myometrium leading to a failure to establish an adequate uteroplacental blood flow and, therefore, ...
Ognjanovic Simona - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) is expressed in the human fetal membranes during normal gestation and parturition in the absence of infection and to show its effects on the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. STUDY DESIGN: PBEF was immunolocalized in the fetal membranes ...
Anzaldúa S R - - 2002
In this study, we determined the histomorphological changes in different regions of the oviduct (fimbriae, infundibulum, ampullae and isthmus) during early pregnancy (days 1-4) of the rabbit. It was observed that the number of secretory cells (PAS-positive cells) diminished in the fimbriae during the first 4 days of pregnancy with ...
Mellor Andrew L - - 2002
Pharmacologic inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity during murine pregnancy results in maternal T-cell-mediated rejection of allogeneic but not syngeneic conceptuses. Increased risk of allogeneic pregnancy failure induced by exposure to IDO inhibitor is strongly correlated with maternal C3 deposition at the maternal-fetal interface. Here we review evidence that cells ...
Alfaidy N - - 2002
Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The genesis of PE is related to deficient trophoblast invasion of maternal spiral arteries, which might result in a reduction of placental (PL) oxygen (O(2)). An absence of increased O(2) that normally occurs around the 10-12th wk ...
Belo Luís - - 2002
Modifications in the erythrocyte membrane protein band 3 seem to mark the cell for death. A decrease in band 3 high molecular weight aggregates (HMWAg) and a rise in its proteolytic fragments (Pfrag) were described for younger erythrocytes. The aim of this work was to study the band 3 profile ...
Moffett-King Ashley - - 2002
The fetus is considered to be an allograft that, paradoxically, survives pregnancy despite the laws of classical transplantation immunology. There is no direct contact of the mother with the embryo, only with the extraembryonic placenta as it implants in the uterus. No convincing evidence of uterine maternal T-cell recognition of ...
Quinn Helen E - - 2002
Resistance to many intracellular protozoan parasites is dependent on T helper cell 1 cytokine responses. This has important repercussions for pregnant females because strong T helper cell 1 cytokine responses are incompatible with successful pregnancy. Thus, there are two possible consequences of infection with protozoans such as Leishmania major, Plasmodium ...
Zhong Xiao Yan - - 2002
Fetal cells, specifically fetal erythroblasts, as well as cell-free fetal DNA are present in the maternal circulation. Both are currently being investigated as a means for the non-invasive risk-free analysis of fetal genetic traits. The origin of this cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation is currently unclear. Since numerous ...
Zhao Xiao Xi - - 2002
The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of fetal cells obtained after separation from maternal blood by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) using different fetal specific antibodies, and to evaluate the potential role of this method in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies. Peripheral blood samples ...
Avril I - - 2002
We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for the inability of 8-month-old previously malnourished (PM) females to adapt their beta-cell mass during pregnancy. The evolution during pregnancy of beta-cell fraction, size and proliferation was studied. At day 21 of pregnancy beta-cell fraction increased less in PM than in control females, compared ...
Korgun Emin T - - 2002
PROBLEM: The scarce data on glucose transporter expression of leukocytes are contradictory and nothing is known about changes accompanying physiological leukocytosis during pregnancy, which imposes acute metabolic demands on the cells. METHOD OF STUDY: Cytospin preparations of intravascular leukocytes were searched immunocytochemically for the high affinity glucose transporters GLUT1, 3 ...
Jordan J A - - 2002
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection during pregnancy can result in horizontal transmission of the virus and congenital infection. The main targets for B19 replication are the erythroid precursor cell of the colony and burst forming units. The cellular receptor necessary for B19 infectivity is globoside. Other non-erythroid cells can express ...
Hill Jonathan R - - 2002
Early embryonic losses are much higher in nuclear transfer (cloned) pregnancies, and this is a major impediment to improving the efficiency of cloned animal production. In cattle, many of these losses occur around the time of placental attachment from the fourth week of gestation. We studied the potential for altered ...
Prieto Belén - - 2002
Fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) have been widely reported in maternal blood during pregnancy. However, there is no consensus with regard to their presence in all pregnancies. Therefore, the usefulness of developing a fetal NRBC-based noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis remains uncertain. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ...
Hoffmann B - - 2002
Apart from estrone-3-sulfate (E1S) the bovine placenta produces progesterone (P4), though the corpus luteum is the major source of P4 responsible for maintaining pregnancy. So far the biological function of placental steroids in cattle is largely unknown. However, since the local availability of free estrone (E1) in the placenta seems ...
Hayano Chikako - - 2002
PROBLEM: Maternal cellular immunity is thought to be in a state of tolerance during pregnancy, but the precise mechanism of immunomodulation is not yet known. We investigated a novel serum protein, killer-specific secretory protein of 37 kDa (Ksp37), produced by cytotoxic lymphocytes, during pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: The level of ...
Hung Tai-Ho - - 2002
Preeclampsia is a severe disorder of human pregnancy characterized by generalized activation of maternal endothelial cells. Oxidative stress of the placenta is considered a key intermediary step, precipitating deportation of apoptotic fragments into the maternal circulation, but the cause remains unknown. We hypothesize that intermittent placental perfusion, secondary to deficient ...
Bai Ruoli - - 2002
The cytotoxic, cyclic depsipeptide (-)-doliculide was originally isolated by Ishiwata et al. (Ishiwata, H., Nemoto, T., Ojika, M., and Yamada, K. (1994) J. Org. Chem. 59, 4710-4711 and Ishiwata, H., Sone, H., Kigoshi, H., and Yamada, K. (1994) J. Org. Chem. 59, 4712-4713) from the sea hare Dolabella auricularia collected ...
Moussad E E-D A - - 2002
AIMS: To determine the localisation and distribution of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2; CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta type 1 (TGF-beta1) in uterine tissues from cycling and early pregnant pigs. METHODS: In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry were used to localise CCN2 (CTGF) or TGF-beta1 in uteri obtained from gilts ...
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