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Anzaldúa S R - - 2002
In this study, we determined the histomorphological changes in different regions of the oviduct (fimbriae, infundibulum, ampullae and isthmus) during early pregnancy (days 1-4) of the rabbit. It was observed that the number of secretory cells (PAS-positive cells) diminished in the fimbriae during the first 4 days of pregnancy with ...
Mellor Andrew L - - 2002
Pharmacologic inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity during murine pregnancy results in maternal T-cell-mediated rejection of allogeneic but not syngeneic conceptuses. Increased risk of allogeneic pregnancy failure induced by exposure to IDO inhibitor is strongly correlated with maternal C3 deposition at the maternal-fetal interface. Here we review evidence that cells ...
Alfaidy N - - 2002
Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The genesis of PE is related to deficient trophoblast invasion of maternal spiral arteries, which might result in a reduction of placental (PL) oxygen (O(2)). An absence of increased O(2) that normally occurs around the 10-12th wk ...
Belo Luís - - 2002
Modifications in the erythrocyte membrane protein band 3 seem to mark the cell for death. A decrease in band 3 high molecular weight aggregates (HMWAg) and a rise in its proteolytic fragments (Pfrag) were described for younger erythrocytes. The aim of this work was to study the band 3 profile ...
Moffett-King Ashley - - 2002
The fetus is considered to be an allograft that, paradoxically, survives pregnancy despite the laws of classical transplantation immunology. There is no direct contact of the mother with the embryo, only with the extraembryonic placenta as it implants in the uterus. No convincing evidence of uterine maternal T-cell recognition of ...
Quinn Helen E - - 2002
Resistance to many intracellular protozoan parasites is dependent on T helper cell 1 cytokine responses. This has important repercussions for pregnant females because strong T helper cell 1 cytokine responses are incompatible with successful pregnancy. Thus, there are two possible consequences of infection with protozoans such as Leishmania major, Plasmodium ...
Zhong Xiao Yan - - 2002
Fetal cells, specifically fetal erythroblasts, as well as cell-free fetal DNA are present in the maternal circulation. Both are currently being investigated as a means for the non-invasive risk-free analysis of fetal genetic traits. The origin of this cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation is currently unclear. Since numerous ...
Zhao Xiao Xi - - 2002
The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of fetal cells obtained after separation from maternal blood by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) using different fetal specific antibodies, and to evaluate the potential role of this method in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies. Peripheral blood samples ...
Avril I - - 2002
We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for the inability of 8-month-old previously malnourished (PM) females to adapt their beta-cell mass during pregnancy. The evolution during pregnancy of beta-cell fraction, size and proliferation was studied. At day 21 of pregnancy beta-cell fraction increased less in PM than in control females, compared ...
Korgun Emin T - - 2002
PROBLEM: The scarce data on glucose transporter expression of leukocytes are contradictory and nothing is known about changes accompanying physiological leukocytosis during pregnancy, which imposes acute metabolic demands on the cells. METHOD OF STUDY: Cytospin preparations of intravascular leukocytes were searched immunocytochemically for the high affinity glucose transporters GLUT1, 3 ...
Jordan J A - - 2002
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection during pregnancy can result in horizontal transmission of the virus and congenital infection. The main targets for B19 replication are the erythroid precursor cell of the colony and burst forming units. The cellular receptor necessary for B19 infectivity is globoside. Other non-erythroid cells can express ...
Hill Jonathan R - - 2002
Early embryonic losses are much higher in nuclear transfer (cloned) pregnancies, and this is a major impediment to improving the efficiency of cloned animal production. In cattle, many of these losses occur around the time of placental attachment from the fourth week of gestation. We studied the potential for altered ...
Prieto Belén - - 2002
Fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) have been widely reported in maternal blood during pregnancy. However, there is no consensus with regard to their presence in all pregnancies. Therefore, the usefulness of developing a fetal NRBC-based noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis remains uncertain. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ...
Hoffmann B - - 2002
Apart from estrone-3-sulfate (E1S) the bovine placenta produces progesterone (P4), though the corpus luteum is the major source of P4 responsible for maintaining pregnancy. So far the biological function of placental steroids in cattle is largely unknown. However, since the local availability of free estrone (E1) in the placenta seems ...
Hayano Chikako - - 2002
PROBLEM: Maternal cellular immunity is thought to be in a state of tolerance during pregnancy, but the precise mechanism of immunomodulation is not yet known. We investigated a novel serum protein, killer-specific secretory protein of 37 kDa (Ksp37), produced by cytotoxic lymphocytes, during pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: The level of ...
Hung Tai-Ho - - 2002
Preeclampsia is a severe disorder of human pregnancy characterized by generalized activation of maternal endothelial cells. Oxidative stress of the placenta is considered a key intermediary step, precipitating deportation of apoptotic fragments into the maternal circulation, but the cause remains unknown. We hypothesize that intermittent placental perfusion, secondary to deficient ...
Bai Ruoli - - 2002
The cytotoxic, cyclic depsipeptide (-)-doliculide was originally isolated by Ishiwata et al. (Ishiwata, H., Nemoto, T., Ojika, M., and Yamada, K. (1994) J. Org. Chem. 59, 4710-4711 and Ishiwata, H., Sone, H., Kigoshi, H., and Yamada, K. (1994) J. Org. Chem. 59, 4712-4713) from the sea hare Dolabella auricularia collected ...
Moussad E E-D A - - 2002
AIMS: To determine the localisation and distribution of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2; CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta type 1 (TGF-beta1) in uterine tissues from cycling and early pregnant pigs. METHODS: In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry were used to localise CCN2 (CTGF) or TGF-beta1 in uteri obtained from gilts ...
Holmes Valerie A - - 2002
Pregnancy is often referred to as a hypercoagulable state due to changes in the haemostatic system. Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of blood clotting in vivo. The effect of pregnancy on monocyte TF expression was determined in a longitudinal case control study (89 pregnant, 39 non-pregnant). Using whole blood ...
Haimov-Kochman Ronit - - 2002
Degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is critical for invasion. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans are abundant in the ECM of the placenta and the decidua, hence their degradation may disassemble the matrix and facilitate placentation and trophoblast invasion. This study investigates the expression of heparanase in normal and pathological placentation using ...
Marinoni Emanuela - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether S-100beta, a brain-specific protein found in amniotic fluid and fetal circulation, is present in fetoplacental tissues throughout gestation. METHODS: S-100beta protein localization and concentration were assessed in placentae, fetal membranes, and cord vessels. Tissues were obtained from 40 pregnant women at different gestational ages: first trimester ...
Goti Daniel - - 2002
During the present study the contribution of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to low density lipoprotein (LDL) holoparticle and LDL-lipid (alpha-tocopherol (alphaTocH)) turnover in primary porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) was investigated. The addition of increasing LPL concentrations to BCECs resulted in up to 11-fold higher LDL holoparticle cell association. LPL ...
Levy Roni - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that apoptotic trophoblasts from pregnancies associated with fetal growth restriction caused by preeclampsia or cigarette use exhibit enhanced expression of the proapoptotic proteins p53 and Bax and diminished expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. STUDY DESIGN: Placentas were obtained from women with uncomplicated pregnancies (n ...
Audus Kenneth L - - 2002
A study of the fundamental biology of the maternal-fetal interface reveals the complex interactions among multiple cell types and regulatory factors necessary to support a successful pregnancy. Cells of decidua and trophoblast lineages play central roles in creating the maternal-fetal interface and are sources of regulatory factors that can determine ...
Kemp Birgit - - 2002
During intrauterine human placentation, extravillous trophoblast invades uterine tissues starting with proliferating stem cells at the basement membrane of anchoring villi. Transition to the postproliferative invasive phenotype takes place several cell layers distant. Here we show that in intrauterine pregnancies invasive trophoblast comprises three cellular phenotypes: a. Small spindle-shaped trophoblast ...
Invernizzi Pietro - - 2002
Cells of fetal origin and cell-free fetal DNA can be detected in the maternal circulation during pregnancy, and it has recently been shown that fetal cells can persist long after delivery. Given the various biological and clinical implications of this fact, we tested the hypothesis that cell-free fetal DNA can ...
Emmer Peter M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The interaction between decidual natural killer (NK) cells and alloantigens expressed on fetal trophoblast cells are thought to be essential for successful implantation and placentation. Consequently, a disturbed interaction during the first trimester of pregnancy might well lead to a subsequent pregnancy failure. METHODS: We investigated the expression of ...
Valeri Rosalia M - - 2002
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in the endometrium is an extremely rare occurrence. Four of the eight previously reported cases were related to an underlying hematological disorder, although the remainder had no such relationship. We describe a case of endometrial EMH associated with retained products of conception after termination of pregnancy. Routinely ...
Dokras A - - 2002
Identification of factors that play a role in regulating the highly invasive ability of human placental cells throughout gestation will contribute to a better understanding of this unique developmental process. The aims of this study were to determine whether the tumour suppressor gene maspin is present in the human placenta ...
Sebire N J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS) is an established cause of recurrent pregnancy loss, traditionally presumed to be due to 'intraplacental thromboses'. This study examines products of conception (POC) from early pregnancy failures to investigate the mechanism of pregnancy loss. METHODS: POC from patients attending a recurrent miscarriage clinic and ...
De Marco C S - - 2002
During pregnancy, changes in oxygen tension are essential for proper embryonic and placental development. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying mammalian cellular adaptations to changes in oxygen tension. Currently, we have explored putative mechanisms by which human trophoblast cells may sense oxygen. In order to investigate a role for ...
WilczyƄski Jacek R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Transient hypertension (TH) and preeclampsia (PE) are believed to have different pathophysiology. However, 15-25% of pregnant women initially diagnosed as having TH develop PE. To clarify the immuno-pathogenetical connections between the two syndromes, we studied the pattern of T helper cell (Th)1/Th2 cytokine balance disturbances existing inside maternal decidua ...
Muñoz Nilda M - - 2002
We have developed a sensitive sandwich ELISA (sELISA) for quantitative determination of group V phospholipase A(2) (gVPLA(2)). This assay utilizes three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against human gVPLA(2) (MCL-1B7, MCL-2A5, and MCL-3G1), which recognize specifically different epitopes of gVPLA(2). A mixture of MCL-1B7 and MCL-2A5 was used as the capture ...
Sedlmayr P - - 2002
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been implicated in regulation of feto-maternal tolerance and protection against intracellular and extracellular pathogens. We have studied the expression of IDO in the human female reproductive tract and the placenta by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial glandular and surface epithelial cells showed increasing IDO expression during the course of ...
Yoneyama Yoshio - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between changes in plasma adenosine concentration and imbalances in the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 ratio in peripheral blood of women with preeclampsia. METHODS: Plasma adenosine concentrations and the T-helper 1/T-helper 2 ratio were examined in the peripheral blood of 16 preeclamptic and normal pregnant women. The ...
Carson Johnny L - - 2002
Ciliogenesis in human fetal airway epithelium occurs from 11 to 24 gestational weeks. Using genetic and antigenic markers specific for human axonemal dynein heavy chain 9, we characterized temporal aspects of axonemal dynein expression associated with large airway epithelial ciliogenesis during human fetal development. Late in the first trimester, an ...
Ha Seckho - - 2002
We cloned mouse ING1 homologue (mINGh), an A1/Bfl-1-interacting protein, from mouse mammary glands using a yeast two-hybrid assay and unexpectedly found four splicing variants of mINGh by reverse transcription-PCR assay and sequence analysis. The alternative splicing variants were mINGh-S, mINGh-M, mINGh-L, and mINGh-L2 encoding 171, 248, 166, and 227 amino ...
Garlow Jane E - - 2002
Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placentation in the pig follows a prolonged preimplantation period characterized by migration, spacing and elongation of conceptuses, and secretion of estrogen for maternal recognition of pregnancy. Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein that binds integrins to promote cell-cell attachment and communication. OPN appears to play a key ...
Kim Yong - - 2002
A series of 3,4-diaryl-2(5H)-furanone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity in a small panel of cancer cell lines. Four out of 10 compounds in this series, for example 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-, 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-, 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4-(3-amino-4-methoxyphenyl)-, and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4-(2-naphthyl)-2(5H)-furanones, were found to have potent cytotoxic activities with ED50 values of less than 20 nM ...
Ben-Zimra Micha - - 2002
The ontogeny and functional role of steroidogenesis during mammalian gestation is poorly understood. This review provides a summary of our recent findings on the spatio-temporal expression of key steroidogenic genes controlling progesterone synthesis in the uterus during mouse pregnancy. We have shown that onset of cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome ...
Luppi P - - 2002
PROBLEM: Normal pregnancy has been described as both a pro-inflammatory condition and a T helper (Th)2-dominated state. Deviations in the percentage of different subpopulations of circulating leukocytes have been detected, although with conflicting results. This study was designed to analyse further the phenotype of subpopulations of peripheral blood leukocytes in ...
Craven Catherine M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that placenta growth and basal plate (Nitabuch's fibrinoid) formation involves fibrin deposition in decidual veins as trophoblast cells invade. STUDY DESIGN: Decidua from women who underwent first trimester elective pregnancy termination (n = 15 women), in situ pregnancy (n = 2 women), and ectopic pregnancy (n = ...
Savion S - - 2002
PROBLEM: The mechanisms mediating pregnancy loss induced by various agents are far from being understood. Thus, we investigated the possible involvement of one such mechanism, the apoptotic process, in pregnancy loss induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cyclophosphamide (CP) as well as the associated changes in the apoptosis-regulating gene products p53 ...
Liu Zhe - - 2002
To investigate the possible mechanisms by which interferon gamma (IFNgamma) affects pregnancy, the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and cleavage of DNA that is a hallmark of apoptosis in the placenta were examined by molecular biochemical techniques, and progesterone levels were examined by radioimmunoassay. The semi-quantitative ...
Leonardsson Göran - - 2002
Spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression by a number of different nuclear receptors is critical in female reproduction. In this study we investigated whether the nuclear receptor corepressor nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 (Nrip1)/RIP140, which is essential for ovulation, is also required for postovulatory events, leading to pregnancy and ...
Orlandi Augusto - - 2002
Previously we documented that propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) reduces the growth of atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed aged rabbits in association with a decrease of plaque smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and plasma triglycerides. To clarify whether PLC might influence SMC growth through mechanisms other than triglyceride lowering, we investigated the effect of ...
Orchard Megan D - - 2002
Distribution patterns of the tight junction associated proteins ZO-1, claudin-1 and occludin were investigated in rat uterine epithelial cells during early pregnancy. Light microscopy and immunohistochemical labelling were used to detect these proteins on days 1, 3, 6 and 7 of pregnancy. Intense staining of claudin-1 at the apical region ...
Danihel L'udovít - - 2002
Trophoblast has unique properties in relation to its wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions. Trophoblastic cells invade endometrium and adjacent myometrium in a way that is imitated by malignant tumours. The aim of the present study was to analyse the expression of markers of proliferation and apoptosis in ...
Simpson H - - 2002
Normal human pregnancy depends on physiological transformation of spiral arteries. Pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction are associated with impaired trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation. Recent data obtained from studies on placenta suggest that temporal changes in expression of TGF-beta3 play a key role in trophoblast invasion and that over-expression ...
Odum C U - - 2002
A retrospective study of pregnancy outcome in 60 HbSS sickle cell disease patients, exclusively managed in accordance with standard management modality, as obtained in the obstetric Unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), was carried out over a 3-year period (1995-1997). The study shows an increase in the number ...
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