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Matthiesen Leif - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Local and possibly systemic curtailment of the maternal immune response is important for a successful pregnancy. Although the local milieu at the utero-placental interface is likely to harbor the most prominent alterations, it is suggested, at least in mice, that systemic immunity is also tolerized during pregnancy. In the ...
Crocker Ian P - - 2003
Placental apoptosis is increased in vivo in preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The cause and pathological implications of this phenomenon are unknown. This study considers the apoptotic susceptibility of villous trophoblasts from normal, PE, and IUGR pregnancies. Cultured cytotrophoblasts (CTs) and an in vitro model of syncytialization were ...
Skrzypek Elbieta E Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536-0298, - - 2003
YopM is a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) virulence protein that is delivered into host cells when any of the three human-pathogenic species of Yersinia binds to mammalian cells. It exhibits heterogeneity of size and sequence among the yersiniae, but the functional consequences of this variability are not yet known. Yersinia pestis ...
Johnson Greg A - - 2003
Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated and glycosylated, secreted protein that is present in various epithelial cells and biological fluids. On freezing and thawing or treatment with proteases, the native 70-kDa protein gives rise to 45- and 24-kDa fragments. Secreted OPN functions as an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that binds cell ...
Veltman Imke M - - 2003
Human germ cell tumours (GCTs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can be classified into four major subgroups. One of these subgroups encompasses (immature) teratomas and yolk sac tumours of patients under the age of 5 years. In this paper we review the various clinical, histological and cytogenetical aspects ...
Bayrak-Toydemir Pinar - - 2003
We describe a single centrifugation procedure that resulted in the recovery of fetal cells in maternal blood in 77% of normal male pregnancies and in 87.5% of aneuploid pregnancies. There was an average yield of one fetal cell/1,993 maternal cells in normal pregnancies, which increased to one in 994, in ...
Cha Donghyun - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) of fetal origin appear to have distinguishable characteristics from that of maternal NRBCs in both nuclear morphology and properties of hemoglobin staining. However, these differences have yet to be quantified. Our aim was to develop an erythroblast scoring system using four distinct phenotypic parameters ...
Kato M - - 2003
Midkine (MK) is a heparin-binding growth factor whose gene has been identified in embryonal carcinoma cells in early stages of retinoic acid-induced differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the developmental localization of truncated MK protein in human bile ducts. Thirty specimens of the livers from 25 fetuses (from 9 ...
Russell John A - - 2003
Oxytocin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland is increased during parturition, stimulated by the uterine contractions that forcefully expel the fetuses. Since oxytocin stimulates further contractions of the uterus, which is exquisitely sensitive to oxytocin at the end of pregnancy, a positive feedback loop is activated. The neural pathway that ...
Johnson Greg A - - 2003
Osteopontin (OPN) is a component of the extracellular matrix that interacts with cell surface receptors, including integrins, to mediate cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, survival, and immune function. In pregnant mice and primates, OPN has been detected in decidualized stroma and is considered to be a gene marker for decidualization. Decidualization ...
Papadopoulos N - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing knowledge about the cell subsets that exist in the decidua in normal early pregnancy, little is known about the decidual cell subsets in women with spontaneous pregnancy failure. Decidual large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) are the most abundant lymphoid cell type found in 1st trimester maternal decidua. The ...
Howarth D J - - 2002
The Kleihauer technique, based on acid elution of maternal red cells, is the mostly widely used technique in the UK to screen for, and estimate the volume of, foetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) and for determining the need for additional doses of anti-D immunoglobulin to prevent maternal alloimmunization. However, technicians often report ...
Miyoshi Keiko - - 2002
Mammary alveolar development during pregnancy is triggered by hormone signals. The prolactin receptor/Jak2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 5 signal transduction pathway is the principal mediator of these cues and alveolar development is abrogated in its absence. The loss of the basic helix-loop-helix protein inhibitor of differentiation (Id)2 results ...
Lin Sheng-Kai - - 2002
BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility of analyzing fetal cells from maternal circulation by using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for prenatal diagnosis. METHODS: Thirty-one high-risk (either advanced maternal age or abnormal serum Down screening) pregnant women (14-22 weeks) were enrolled. Twenty ml of venous blood ...
Bussani Cecilia - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the detection of fetal cells from transcervical samples, collected in early pregnancy, by means of different molecular techniques. The value of the isolation of trophoblasts using an inverted microscope, also referred to as micromanipulation, is discussed. METHODS: All the 89 specimens ...
Szekeres-Bartho Julia - - 2002
The immunological relationship between the mother and the fetus is a bi-directional communication determined on the one hand by fetal antigen presentation and on the other hand by recognition of and reaction to these antigens by the maternal immune system. There is evidence now that immunological recognition of pregnancy is ...
Yang Lili - - 2002
There have been few studies aimed at determining the effects of maternal peptide hormones on the developing fetus and even fewer aimed at determining the long-term consequences of abnormalities in maternal hormone exposure. In this study, we have examined the effect of maternal prolactin (PRL) on the production, seeding and ...
Boismenu R - - 2002
Oral administration of the novel anti-inflammatory peptide RDP58 markedly reduced the severity of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis as determined by clinical and quantitative histological criteria. The architecture of the colonic epithelium in DSS treated mice receiving RDP58 remained relatively normal compared with that of control DSS treated animals. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine ...
Myatt Leslie - - 2002
Preeclampsia, which manifests itself as hypertension, proteinuria, and edema in pregnancy, requires the presence of trophoblast tissue but not a fetus. It is characterized by abnormal trophoblast invasion of the spiral arteries of the decidua and myometrium leading to a failure to establish an adequate uteroplacental blood flow and, therefore, ...
Ognjanovic Simona - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) is expressed in the human fetal membranes during normal gestation and parturition in the absence of infection and to show its effects on the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. STUDY DESIGN: PBEF was immunolocalized in the fetal membranes ...
Anzaldúa S R - - 2002
In this study, we determined the histomorphological changes in different regions of the oviduct (fimbriae, infundibulum, ampullae and isthmus) during early pregnancy (days 1-4) of the rabbit. It was observed that the number of secretory cells (PAS-positive cells) diminished in the fimbriae during the first 4 days of pregnancy with ...
Mellor Andrew L - - 2002
Pharmacologic inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity during murine pregnancy results in maternal T-cell-mediated rejection of allogeneic but not syngeneic conceptuses. Increased risk of allogeneic pregnancy failure induced by exposure to IDO inhibitor is strongly correlated with maternal C3 deposition at the maternal-fetal interface. Here we review evidence that cells ...
Alfaidy N - - 2002
Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The genesis of PE is related to deficient trophoblast invasion of maternal spiral arteries, which might result in a reduction of placental (PL) oxygen (O(2)). An absence of increased O(2) that normally occurs around the 10-12th wk ...
Belo Luís - - 2002
Modifications in the erythrocyte membrane protein band 3 seem to mark the cell for death. A decrease in band 3 high molecular weight aggregates (HMWAg) and a rise in its proteolytic fragments (Pfrag) were described for younger erythrocytes. The aim of this work was to study the band 3 profile ...
Moffett-King Ashley - - 2002
The fetus is considered to be an allograft that, paradoxically, survives pregnancy despite the laws of classical transplantation immunology. There is no direct contact of the mother with the embryo, only with the extraembryonic placenta as it implants in the uterus. No convincing evidence of uterine maternal T-cell recognition of ...
Quinn Helen E - - 2002
Resistance to many intracellular protozoan parasites is dependent on T helper cell 1 cytokine responses. This has important repercussions for pregnant females because strong T helper cell 1 cytokine responses are incompatible with successful pregnancy. Thus, there are two possible consequences of infection with protozoans such as Leishmania major, Plasmodium ...
Zhong Xiao Yan - - 2002
Fetal cells, specifically fetal erythroblasts, as well as cell-free fetal DNA are present in the maternal circulation. Both are currently being investigated as a means for the non-invasive risk-free analysis of fetal genetic traits. The origin of this cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation is currently unclear. Since numerous ...
Zhao Xiao Xi - - 2002
The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of fetal cells obtained after separation from maternal blood by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) using different fetal specific antibodies, and to evaluate the potential role of this method in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies. Peripheral blood samples ...
Avril I - - 2002
We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for the inability of 8-month-old previously malnourished (PM) females to adapt their beta-cell mass during pregnancy. The evolution during pregnancy of beta-cell fraction, size and proliferation was studied. At day 21 of pregnancy beta-cell fraction increased less in PM than in control females, compared ...
Korgun Emin T - - 2002
PROBLEM: The scarce data on glucose transporter expression of leukocytes are contradictory and nothing is known about changes accompanying physiological leukocytosis during pregnancy, which imposes acute metabolic demands on the cells. METHOD OF STUDY: Cytospin preparations of intravascular leukocytes were searched immunocytochemically for the high affinity glucose transporters GLUT1, 3 ...
Jordan J A - - 2002
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection during pregnancy can result in horizontal transmission of the virus and congenital infection. The main targets for B19 replication are the erythroid precursor cell of the colony and burst forming units. The cellular receptor necessary for B19 infectivity is globoside. Other non-erythroid cells can express ...
Hill Jonathan R - - 2002
Early embryonic losses are much higher in nuclear transfer (cloned) pregnancies, and this is a major impediment to improving the efficiency of cloned animal production. In cattle, many of these losses occur around the time of placental attachment from the fourth week of gestation. We studied the potential for altered ...
Prieto Belén - - 2002
Fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) have been widely reported in maternal blood during pregnancy. However, there is no consensus with regard to their presence in all pregnancies. Therefore, the usefulness of developing a fetal NRBC-based noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis remains uncertain. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) ...
Hoffmann B - - 2002
Apart from estrone-3-sulfate (E1S) the bovine placenta produces progesterone (P4), though the corpus luteum is the major source of P4 responsible for maintaining pregnancy. So far the biological function of placental steroids in cattle is largely unknown. However, since the local availability of free estrone (E1) in the placenta seems ...
Hayano Chikako - - 2002
PROBLEM: Maternal cellular immunity is thought to be in a state of tolerance during pregnancy, but the precise mechanism of immunomodulation is not yet known. We investigated a novel serum protein, killer-specific secretory protein of 37 kDa (Ksp37), produced by cytotoxic lymphocytes, during pregnancy. METHOD OF STUDY: The level of ...
Hung Tai-Ho - - 2002
Preeclampsia is a severe disorder of human pregnancy characterized by generalized activation of maternal endothelial cells. Oxidative stress of the placenta is considered a key intermediary step, precipitating deportation of apoptotic fragments into the maternal circulation, but the cause remains unknown. We hypothesize that intermittent placental perfusion, secondary to deficient ...
Bai Ruoli - - 2002
The cytotoxic, cyclic depsipeptide (-)-doliculide was originally isolated by Ishiwata et al. (Ishiwata, H., Nemoto, T., Ojika, M., and Yamada, K. (1994) J. Org. Chem. 59, 4710-4711 and Ishiwata, H., Sone, H., Kigoshi, H., and Yamada, K. (1994) J. Org. Chem. 59, 4712-4713) from the sea hare Dolabella auricularia collected ...
Moussad E E-D A - - 2002
AIMS: To determine the localisation and distribution of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2; CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta type 1 (TGF-beta1) in uterine tissues from cycling and early pregnant pigs. METHODS: In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry were used to localise CCN2 (CTGF) or TGF-beta1 in uteri obtained from gilts ...
Holmes Valerie A - - 2002
Pregnancy is often referred to as a hypercoagulable state due to changes in the haemostatic system. Tissue factor (TF) is the initiator of blood clotting in vivo. The effect of pregnancy on monocyte TF expression was determined in a longitudinal case control study (89 pregnant, 39 non-pregnant). Using whole blood ...
Haimov-Kochman Ronit - - 2002
Degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components is critical for invasion. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans are abundant in the ECM of the placenta and the decidua, hence their degradation may disassemble the matrix and facilitate placentation and trophoblast invasion. This study investigates the expression of heparanase in normal and pathological placentation using ...
Marinoni Emanuela - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether S-100beta, a brain-specific protein found in amniotic fluid and fetal circulation, is present in fetoplacental tissues throughout gestation. METHODS: S-100beta protein localization and concentration were assessed in placentae, fetal membranes, and cord vessels. Tissues were obtained from 40 pregnant women at different gestational ages: first trimester ...
Goti Daniel - - 2002
During the present study the contribution of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to low density lipoprotein (LDL) holoparticle and LDL-lipid (alpha-tocopherol (alphaTocH)) turnover in primary porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) was investigated. The addition of increasing LPL concentrations to BCECs resulted in up to 11-fold higher LDL holoparticle cell association. LPL ...
Levy Roni - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that apoptotic trophoblasts from pregnancies associated with fetal growth restriction caused by preeclampsia or cigarette use exhibit enhanced expression of the proapoptotic proteins p53 and Bax and diminished expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. STUDY DESIGN: Placentas were obtained from women with uncomplicated pregnancies (n ...
Audus Kenneth L - - 2002
A study of the fundamental biology of the maternal-fetal interface reveals the complex interactions among multiple cell types and regulatory factors necessary to support a successful pregnancy. Cells of decidua and trophoblast lineages play central roles in creating the maternal-fetal interface and are sources of regulatory factors that can determine ...
Kemp Birgit - - 2002
During intrauterine human placentation, extravillous trophoblast invades uterine tissues starting with proliferating stem cells at the basement membrane of anchoring villi. Transition to the postproliferative invasive phenotype takes place several cell layers distant. Here we show that in intrauterine pregnancies invasive trophoblast comprises three cellular phenotypes: a. Small spindle-shaped trophoblast ...
Invernizzi Pietro - - 2002
Cells of fetal origin and cell-free fetal DNA can be detected in the maternal circulation during pregnancy, and it has recently been shown that fetal cells can persist long after delivery. Given the various biological and clinical implications of this fact, we tested the hypothesis that cell-free fetal DNA can ...
Emmer Peter M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The interaction between decidual natural killer (NK) cells and alloantigens expressed on fetal trophoblast cells are thought to be essential for successful implantation and placentation. Consequently, a disturbed interaction during the first trimester of pregnancy might well lead to a subsequent pregnancy failure. METHODS: We investigated the expression of ...
Valeri Rosalia M - - 2002
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in the endometrium is an extremely rare occurrence. Four of the eight previously reported cases were related to an underlying hematological disorder, although the remainder had no such relationship. We describe a case of endometrial EMH associated with retained products of conception after termination of pregnancy. Routinely ...
Dokras A - - 2002
Identification of factors that play a role in regulating the highly invasive ability of human placental cells throughout gestation will contribute to a better understanding of this unique developmental process. The aims of this study were to determine whether the tumour suppressor gene maspin is present in the human placenta ...
Sebire N J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS) is an established cause of recurrent pregnancy loss, traditionally presumed to be due to 'intraplacental thromboses'. This study examines products of conception (POC) from early pregnancy failures to investigate the mechanism of pregnancy loss. METHODS: POC from patients attending a recurrent miscarriage clinic and ...
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