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Taniguchi Kikuyo - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Expression of human neutrophil antigen-2a (HNA-2a) is greater in women than in men. The size of the HNA-2a-positive neutrophil population increases with pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: T he relationship between HNA-2a expression on neutrophils and monocytes, and their relative numbers, was investigated. HNA-2a expression shown as the size ...
Abrahams Vikki M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: During implantation, apoptosis is critical for the appropriate tissue remodeling of the maternal decidua and invasion of the developing embryo, yet the regulation of apoptosis is also imperative for a successful pregnancy. The quick and effective removal of apoptotic cells by tissue macrophages represents an essential process, which prevents ...
Al-Mufti R - - 2004
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of cell separation with single density and triple density-gradient techniques in the yield of foetal erythroblasts isolated from maternal blood. Maternal blood was obtained from 20 singleton pregnancies at 11-14 weeks of gestation immediately before foetal karyotyping by chorionic villus ...
Baban Babak - - 2004
Pharmacologic inhibition of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity during murine pregnancy results in rejection of allogeneic fetuses by the maternal immune system. Here, we show that IDO expression is restricted to perinuclear regions of primary trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) of fetal origin at mid-gestation (E10.5). After placentation (E14), no IDO ...
Patel Osman V - - 2004
The multigenic pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) exhibit spatially and temporally distinct pattern across gestation in the bovine. The majority of the bovine bPAG are localized to the binucleate cells (BNC) while some are expressed throughout the trophectoderm. Bovine (b)PAG-1 and -9 are both localized to the BNC but are differentially transcribed. ...
Guetta Esther - - 2004
The invasive procedures amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) are routinely applied in pregnancies at risk for fetal abnormalities and the results obtained are the gold standard for prenatal diagnosis. Because these methods of fetal cell procurement involve a 0.5-2% risk for fetal loss, they are recommended mainly in cases ...
Jerzak MaƂgorzata - - 2004
PROBLEM: The purpose of the study was to determine the role of T-cell apoptosis in extracellular matrix (ECM) environment in pregnancy maintenance in women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). METHOD OF STUDY: Thirty-nine non-pregnant women with the history of RSA (anatomic, genetic, endocrine and microbiologic causes were ...
Trundley A - - 2004
In human pregnancy, the embryo implants into the specialized mucosal wall of the uterus (decidua) and the placenta starts to form. Cells from the placenta (trophoblasts) invade into the uterine mucosa in order to open up maternal uterine arteries to ensure an adequate supply of blood to the developing fetus. ...
In 't Anker Pieternella S - - 2004
Recently we reported that second-trimester amniotic fluid (AF) is an abundant source of fetal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we analyze the origin of these MSCs and the presence of MSCs in human-term AF. In addition, different parts of the human placenta were studied for the presence of ...
Bulla R - - 2004
A special interaction is established during pregnancy between the maternal immune system and fetal cells to allow the survival and the normal growth of the fetus. Fetal cells expressing paternal alloantigens are not recognized as foreign by the mother because of an efficient anatomic barrier and a local immunosuppression determined ...
Moffett A - - 2004
The survival of the allogeneic conceptus has long been an immunological paradox. Medawar was the first to propose an evasive mechanism based on the concept of self/non-self recognition described in classical transplantation immunology. Since then, several newer models of self/non-self recognition have been proposed, such as the PAMP/PRR system, the ...
Seval Yasemin - - 2004
Early human trophoblast shows dramatic invasive properties during early pregnancy. A tightly-regulated activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is considered to be of critical importance for the control of trophoblast invasion. The aim of the present study was to determine MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expression in decidual endometrium during ...
Bussani Cecilia - - 2004
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the combined use of micromanipulation and quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR assay for the identification of fetal elements in transcervical cell (TCC) samples collected in early pregnancy. METHODS: TCC samples were obtained by intrauterine lavage (IUL) in 113 pregnant women ...
Kobayashi Honami - - 2004
Placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), also called oxytocinase, is an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing oxytocin. This enzyme is identical to cystine aminopeptidase. We examined the tissue distribution of P-LAP in normal adult mice and also in mothers and fetuses during mouse pregnancy using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. P-LAP-immunoreactive protein was expressed in ...
Cherukuri Anu - - 2004
Tetraspanins have been hypothesized to facilitate the organization of functional multimolecular membrane complexes. In B cells the tetraspanin CD81 is a component of the CD19/CD21 complex. When coligated to the B cell Ag receptor (BCR), the CD19/CD21 complex significantly enhances BCR signaling in part by prolonging the association of the ...
Harness Jacqueline - - 2003
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterised by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system and is the best available animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Since previous studies have shown that EAE is less severe or is delayed in onset during pregnancy and that administration ...
Hirashima Masanori - - 2003
Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1, a receptor for VEGF-A and placental growth factor, is expressed in the spongiotrophoblast layer that segregates the maternal and fetal vasculature in the mouse placenta. A soluble form of Flt1 (sFlt1) produced in the mouse and human placenta can ...
Mor Gil - - 2003
The role of the maternal immune system during pregnancy has focused mainly on the aspect of immune tolerance to the invading trophoblast and, therefore, fetus. While this is a critical aspect of reproductive immunology, it is also important to consider the function of the maternal immune system in the promotion ...
Al-Mufti R - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine the distribution of fetal erythroblasts in the maternal circulation at different gestations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maternal blood was obtained from 152 normal singleton pregnancies at 11-40 weeks of gestation. Fetal erythroblasts were isolated using triple density gradient separation and anti-CD71 magnetic cell sorting techniques. The enriched erythroblasts ...
Li Yan - - 2003
Steroidogenesis in the placenta has been studied widely, but little is known about steroid metabolism in ectopic pregnancy. Previous studies have indicated that trophoblast invasion and placentation in the uterus and the fallopian tube may be controlled by similar mechanisms. As far as 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) production is concerned, it has ...
Reed Ann M - - 2003
Bidirectional cell trafficking occurs between a mother and fetus during pregnancy. This trafficking is associated with the persistence of non-self cells and is termed chimerism or, because of the low levels of non-self cells, microchimerism. Persistence of these cells has been demonstrated for many years after birth in the child ...
Fernández-Suárez A - - 2003
The objective of this study was to determine the nature of the alarm for immature granulocytes appearing in haemograms from pregnant women, as detected by the immature cell information channel (IMI) of the SE-9000 automated haematology analyser. Of all tests run on pregnant women in a 4-month period (n = ...
Szereday Laszlo - - 2003
PROBLEM: Potentially cytotoxic Vdelta2+ T lymphocytes recognize human leukocyte antigen-E on the trophoblast via their CD94/NKG2A receptors. This study aims at determing the percentage of gamma/delta T-cell subsets, their NKG2A and Annexin V positivity in peripheral blood of healthy pregnant women and women at risk of premature pregnancy termination. METHOD ...
Nakayama Jun - - 2003
Trophinin, tastin, and bystin have been identified as molecules potentially involved in human embryo implantation. Both trophoblasts and endometrial epithelial cells express trophinin, which mediates apical cell adhesion through homophilic trophinin-trophinin binding. We hypothesized that trophinin's function in embryo implantation is unique to humans and investigated the expression of trophinin, ...
Moraes Suzana Guimarães - - 2004
In many species, the cartilaginous pubic symphysis of the pregnant female is gradually replaced by a fibrous connective tissue, forming a flexible and elastic interpubic ligament. This newly formed ligament is responsible for the separation of the pubic bones, enabling safe delivery of the young. Following labor, the ligament undergoes ...
Chanmahasathien Wisinee - - 2003
A new prenylated xanthone, 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-4,7,8-tri(3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (1), was isolated from the wood of Garcinia xanthochymus together with a known xanthone, garciniaxanthone E (2). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 (3 microM) and 2 (10 microM) elicited marked enhancement of nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells.
Geisert R D - - 2003
Attachment of the placenta to the uterus in pigs involves extracellular interaction between the expanding trophoblastic membrane and the thick glycocalyx present on the uterine epithelial microvilli. Formation of complexes between members of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family may function in the maintenance of the extracellular matrix. This study investigated the change ...
Iyer Yegneshwar S - - 2003
Fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) is a major hemoglobin (Hb) component at birth. Hb F levels are markedly elevated in a number of inherited and acquired disorders. Measurement of Hb F levels is usually carried out by alkali denaturation which is not very accurate for low and high values. An accurate ...
Ciarmela Pasquapina - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Betaglycan is a membrane-anchored proteoglycan involved in mediating the passage of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), inhibin and activin activities into cells. TGF-beta and inhibin-related proteins are growth factors that are expressed by several tIssues and in pregnancy. They have a function in modulating the growth, differentiation and invasion of ...
von Rango U - - 2003
During the first trimester of pregnancy extravillous trophoblast cells (EVT) invade the maternal decidua. Invasion normally is reduced from the second trimester onwards and stops in the inner third of the myometrium. By contrast, in extrauterine tubal pregnancy, trophoblast invasion may even penetrate the tubal wall, which ultimately leads to ...
Khosrotehrani Kiarash - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Fetal cells enter the maternal circulation during most pregnancies. Their persistence for years occurs in only some women and has been associated with several autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether pregnancy history influences the persistence of fetal microchimeric cells. METHODS: ...
Olivera L V M - - 2003
This study analyses the manner in which trophoblast cells adhere to uterine epithelium and the subsequent interactions that contribute to the establishment of epitheliochorial placentation in the alpaca Lama pacos. Specimens at the luteal and follicular phases and at 22, 26, 30 and 45 days of pregnancy (op) were processed ...
Austin Kathy J - - 2004
The interferon-stimulated gene ISG15, a ubiquitin homolog, becomes conjugated to and regulates uterine proteins in response to conceptus-derived interferon-tau on d 18 of pregnancy. It was hypothesized here that cellular localization of ISG15 within endometrial cells might provide insight regarding function. Uteri were collected from cows (approximately 21-d estrous cycle) ...
Herr Friederike - - 2003
Adaptation of the maternal uterine vasculature is essential for normal fetal and placental development in which angiogenesis is considered one of the most critical adaptive changes during pregnancy. Highly expressed in cytotrophoblasts and maternal endothelial cells during pregnancy, IGF-II promotes cell migration and regulates fetal and placental growth. We hypothesized ...
Sharpe R M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The neonatal period of pituitary-testicular activity (NPTA) in human males has been hypothesized to play a role in germ cell proliferation and differentiation and to be defective in cryptorchid testes. The present study was carried out to establish in the marmoset if suppression of the NPTA, by treatment with ...
Alfaidy Nadia - - 2003
Late human gestation is associated with an increase in the concentration of cortisol (F) in the fetal circulation and amniotic fluid. It had been assumed that most of the F measured in the amniotic fluid came from the fetal adrenal gland. However, local production of F can also occur in ...
Sindram-Trujillo Aliana P - - 2003
As pregnancy progresses, a characteristic decline in the percentage of CD56bright CD16- uterine natural killer (NK) cells occurs. Studies of term decidua, however, have focused only on leukocytes derived from decidua basalis, the site of implantation. The decidua parietalis, lining the remainder of the uterine cavity is another important region ...
Boos A - - 2003
Placental growth can be achieved by either cellular proliferation or hypertrophy. Tissue regeneration and the nutrition of the fetus via embryotrophe require high rates of cellular turnover and the so-called pre-term 'maturation' of the placenta is correlated with a reduction of maternal crypt epithelial cells. Placentomes of 45 pregnant cows ...
Carazo-Salas Rafael E - - 2003
The mitotic spindle of animal cells is a bipolar array of microtubules that guides chromosome segregation during cell division. It has been proposed that during spindle assembly chromatin can positively influence microtubule stability at a distance from its surface throughout its neighboring cytoplasm. However, such an "à distance" effect has ...
Emond Vincent - - 2004
On the basis of results obtained in vitro, we previously proposed a model in which signals from the conceptus, namely interferon-tau (IFN-tau) and prostaglandin E2, increase the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in immune and nonimmune cells of the bovine endometrium. Two experiments were conducted to ...
Athapathu H - - 2003
A prospective study to determine whether there is a progressive increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the trophoblasts in the placentae of the final few weeks (39 - 41 weeks) of human uncomplicated pregnancy was carried out at a teaching hospital in Sri Lanka between July 1999 and ...
Mavrou A - - 2003
AIM: To investigate the use of anti-hemoglobin-epsilon antibody in order to identify fetal cells in the maternal circulation during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 48 blood samples were obtained from pregnant women, 26 in the 1st trimester and 22 in the 2nd trimester. Magnetic activated cell sorting was used for fetal ...
Cencic A - - 2003
Between days 12 and 20 of pregnancy, the trophectoderm of the porcine conceptus secretes two species of interferons (IFN): IFN-gamma (Type II), which is produced in substantial amounts, and IFN-delta (type I), for which secretion peaks at days 15-16 of gestation. The role of these embryonic IFNs is not known. ...
Clark David A - - 2003
PROBLEM: Th1 cytokine-dependent abortions in the CBA x DBA/2 mouse model have been linked to down-regulation of expression of the CD200 (OX-2) 'tolerance' signal on trophoblast and in decidua prior to onset of the abortion process. Abortions could be prevented by administration of a soluble CD200. Is CD200 expressed on ...
Rajashekhar G - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily and is expressed principally on endothelial cells. The present study was undertaken to compare the expression and secretion of VCAM-1 from normal pregnancies and those complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: Placentas from first-trimester ...
Hennerbichler Simone - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of analysis of fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) present in the maternal circulation by laser-scanning cytometry. METHODS: CD71-positive cells were obtained by magnetic cell sorting of peripheral blood of pregnant women after density centrifugation. Immunofluorescence for the Hbgamma-chain ...
Keelan Jeffrey A - - 2003
The placenta and fetal membranes are the site of expression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine (MIC-1), a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily. We hypothesized that MIC-1 may act as an immune regulator in pregnancy complications associated with intrauterine inflammation. Decidual cells, chorionic trophoblasts and amnion epithelial cells were ...
Kesmir Can - - 2003
Intracellular proteins are degraded largely by proteasomes. In cells stimulated with gamma interferon, the active proteasome subunits are replaced by "immuno" subunits that form immunoproteasomes. Phylogenetic analysis of the immunosubunits has revealed that they evolve faster than their constitutive counterparts. This suggests that the immunoproteasome has evolved a function that ...
Bayrak-Toydemir Pinar - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to enhance and apply a simple system capable of testing the capacity of putative, gender-independent fetal cell markers, individually and in combination, to discriminate between fetal and maternal cells. METHODS: Chorionic villi tissue obtained from 25 male pregnancies at 10 to 12 weeks' ...
O'Donoghue K - - 2003
Strategies for genetic prenatal diagnosis on fetal cells in the maternal circulation have been limited by lack of a cell type present only in fetal blood. However, the recent identification of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in first trimester fetal blood offers the prospect of targeting MSC for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. ...
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