Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1491
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Rieger L - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Human endometrium and early pregnancy decidua harbor a considerable and diverse population of antigen-presenting cells (APC). Changes in the number and distribution of macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) could point to a possible role of these immunocompetent cells in implantation and success of early pregnancy. METHODS: Uterine tissue was ...
Choy Mei Yee - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from human first-trimester implantation-site decidua (decidua basalis) and nonimplantation site decidua (decidua parietalis), and hence to determine whether human trophoblast invasion in vivo is associated with increased decidual HGF production. DESIGN: Controlled prospective study. SETTING: University hospital-based study. PATIENT(S): ...
Taylor Douglas D - - 2004
Clinical evidence suggests that cell-mediated immunity is altered during pregnancy and that failure to suppress the maternal immune response can lead to placentation failure, resulting in partial or total rejection of the fetus. In contrast to women experiencing recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA), normal uncomplicated pregnancies are associated decreased T-cell proliferation ...
Gilmore Wendy - - 2004
Multiple sclerosis has a tendency to remit during pregnancy, followed by an increase in the risk for disease relapses in the postpartum period. In this communication, preliminary data are presented to indicate that activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the postpartum period secrete elevated levels of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) relative ...
Burton Graham J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To review the role of oxidative stress in two common placental-related disorders of pregnancy, miscarriage and preeclampsia. METHODS: Review of published literature. RESULTS: Miscarriage and preeclampsia manifest at contrasting stages of pregnancy, yet both have their roots in deficient trophoblast invasion during early gestation. Early after implantation, endovascular trophoblast ...
Crocker Ian P - - 2004
Placentae in pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are characterized by morphological variations, apoptosis, and syncytial shedding, features that are linked to inappropriate oxygen and inflammatory cytokines. Cell turnover within the placenta is dynamic. In this study, these cellular events have been investigated longitudinally using a placental explant model. ...
Cui Yongzhi - - 2004
This study explored the functions of the signal transducers and activators of transcription 5a and 5b (referred to as Stat5 here) during different stages of mouse mammary gland development by using conditional gene inactivation. Mammary gland morphogenesis includes cell specification, proliferation and differentiation during pregnancy, cell survival and maintenance of ...
Red-Horse Kristy - - 2004
Trophoblasts, the specialized cells of the placenta, play a major role in implantation and formation of the maternal-fetal interface. Through an unusual differentiation process examined in this review, these fetal cells acquire properties of leukocytes and endothelial cells that enable many of their specialized functions. In recent years a great ...
Anin Sheba Anin - - 2004
Trophoblast invasion can be seen as a tightly regulated battle between the competing interests of the survival of the fetus and those of the mother. Successful pregnancy is dependent on the trophoblast invading the mother, attaching the pregnancy to the uterus and securing an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrient ...
Fisher Susan J - - 2004
The placenta is a remarkable organ. In normal pregnancy its specialized cells (termed cytotrophoblasts) differentiate into various specialized subpopulations that play pivotal roles in governing fetal growth and development. One cytotrophoblast subset acquires tumor-like properties that allow the cells to invade the decidua and myometrium, a process that attaches the ...
Kuroda N - - 2004
In order to elucidate the change in alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA)-positive and CD34-positive stromal cells associated with pregnancy, we examined endometrial and Fallopian tube tissues from 40 patients including normal endometrium (n=10), intra-uterine pregnancy (n=10), normal Fallopian tube (n=10), and tubal pregnancy (n=10), using immunohistochemistry. In normal endometrium, only a ...
Davies C J - - 2004
In viviparous animals, regulation of expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens by the trophoblast cells, which constitute the outermost layer of the placenta, seems to be critical for maternal immunological acceptance of an allogeneic fetus. Cattle are unusual in this regard, since the bovine trophoblast cells, in ...
Rowe Amanda J - - 2004
The aim of the study was to describe and quantify the changes in the maternal vasculature and angiogenesis during early pregnancy in the marmoset endometrium using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify proliferating cells, CD31 to label endothelial cells and dual staining to identify proliferating endothelial cells. Non-pregnant animals from mid- and ...
Wang Hong-Xing - - 2004
Previous studies have demonstrated that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important role in embryo implantation. Low molecular mass polypeptide (LMP) 2 and LMP7 are the two subunits of 20S proteasome, which are critical for proteasome activity. To further elucidate the roles of LMP2 and LMP7 in embryo implantation during early ...
Maheshwari Akhil - - 2004
IL-8/CXC ligand (CXCL) 8 is ingested in high concentrations by the human fetus/neonate with amniotic fluid and human milk, and is also produced constitutively by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). We have shown that recombinant human IL-8/CXCL8 (rhIL-8/CXCL8) protects cultured IEC against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cycloheximide-induced cytotoxicity. In view ...
Kolialexi Aggeliki - - 2004
We previously reported increased apoptosis in the maternal circulation during pregnancy, partly accounting for the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. In the current study, apoptosis was quantitated in 60 peripheral blood samples obtained from 15 women sequentially tested postpartum using the binding of annexin V. FISH with ...
Varla-Leftherioti M - - 2004
Decidual natural killer (NK) cells are thought to play a significant role in the allorecognition mechanisms during pregnancy. Through their activating and inhibitory receptors they may recognize selectively class I HLA alleles expressed on invading trophoblast and provide self-signals to control NK responses, thus regulating the maternal immune response at ...
Poole Jill A - - 2004
Pregnancy is a unique event in which a genetically and immunologically foreign fetus usually survives to full term without apparent rejection by the mother's immune system. Over the past decade, more information has been gathered to provide insight into the complex immunological mechanisms that allow the fetus to grow and ...
Landin-Wilhelmsen Kerstin - - 2004
To present a case involving pregnancies in a Turner woman with Y-chromosome mosaicism. A descriptive case report of a single patient. A 39-year-old woman was admitted to the endocrine clinic due to fatigue and premature menopause. She had tried in-vitro fertilization and oocyte donation twice without pregnancies but became spontaneously ...
Yuan K - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The molecular mechanism for the regression of pregnancy pyogenic granuloma after parturition remains unclear. It has been proposed that, in the absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) causes blood vessels to regress. Therefore, we investigated the roles of Ang-2 and VEGF in the regression of pregnancy ...
Ferber Asaf - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Animal and human studies demonstrated elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels in response to intrauterine hypoxic events. Other studies documented an association between fetal hypoxia and elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts and have speculated that it is the elevation of EPO that results in an increase in NRBC counts. ...
Red-Horse Kristy - - 2004
Chemokines are multifunctional molecules initially described as having a role in leukocyte trafficking and later found to participate in developmental processes such as differentiation and directed migration. Similar events occur in pregnancy during development of the fetal-maternal interface, where there is extensive leukocyte trafficking and tissue morphogenesis, and this is ...
Zhang Qing-Hong - - 2004
The immunological parameters were analyzed during pregnancy of Lewis rats by the methods of flow cytometry, thymidine incorporation and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT). MHC II of spleen mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD11c of periphery blood MNCs was apparently downregulated in late pregnancy, while the costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 showed no ...
Coppock Hedley A - - 2004
Growth in utero depends on adequate development and function of the fetal/maternal interface. During pregnancy, the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which are known to be critically involved in placental development, are controlled by a binding protein-IGFBP-1-produced by maternal decidualized endometrium. We have previously found that decidua also produces a protease ...
Meadows J W - - 2004
Increased prostaglandin E(2)(PGE(2)) synthesis involves multiple enzymes and two isoforms of the terminal enzyme of this biosynthetic pathway, PGE synthase (PGES), were recently identified. Cytosolic PGES (cPGES) is identical to the Hsp90 chaperone, p23, and is reportedly functionally coupled to constitutive PG endoperoxide H synthase-1 (PGHS-1). Microsomal PGES (mPGES), on ...
Slukvin I I - - 2004
The distribution of uterine leukocytes during the periimplantation period cannot be readily evaluated in human pregnancy. Using immunohistochemistry we examined the distribution of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells in the non-pregnant endometrium and in the decidua at early stages of implantation and pregnancy in the rhesus monkey. ...
Jonsson Yvonne - - 2004
PROBLEM: A Th1-shift has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study was designed to compare Th1/Th2 related cytokine secretion in blood between women with preeclampsia (n = 15) and normal pregnancies (n = 15), using a high-sensitivity technique for cytokine detection. METHODS OF STUDY: Spontaneous ...
Bianchi D W - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: In contrast to the traditional teaching that the placenta forms an impermeable barrier, multiple studies show that both intact fetal cells and cell-free nucleic acids circulate freely in maternal blood. Complications of pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia, or fetal cytogenetic abnormalities, such as trisomy 21, increase transfusion of both intact ...
Pavan Laetitia - - 2004
Human implantation involves a major invasion of the uterine wall and remodeling of the uterine arteries by trophoblastic cells. Abnormalities in these early steps of placental development lead to poor placentation, fetal growth defects and are frequently associated with pre-eclampsia, a serious disease specific to human pregnancy. Lipid metabolism is ...
Taniguchi Kikuyo - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Expression of human neutrophil antigen-2a (HNA-2a) is greater in women than in men. The size of the HNA-2a-positive neutrophil population increases with pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: T he relationship between HNA-2a expression on neutrophils and monocytes, and their relative numbers, was investigated. HNA-2a expression shown as the size ...
Abrahams Vikki M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: During implantation, apoptosis is critical for the appropriate tissue remodeling of the maternal decidua and invasion of the developing embryo, yet the regulation of apoptosis is also imperative for a successful pregnancy. The quick and effective removal of apoptotic cells by tissue macrophages represents an essential process, which prevents ...
Al-Mufti R - - 2004
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of cell separation with single density and triple density-gradient techniques in the yield of foetal erythroblasts isolated from maternal blood. Maternal blood was obtained from 20 singleton pregnancies at 11-14 weeks of gestation immediately before foetal karyotyping by chorionic villus ...
Baban Babak - - 2004
Pharmacologic inhibition of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity during murine pregnancy results in rejection of allogeneic fetuses by the maternal immune system. Here, we show that IDO expression is restricted to perinuclear regions of primary trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) of fetal origin at mid-gestation (E10.5). After placentation (E14), no IDO ...
Patel Osman V - - 2004
The multigenic pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) exhibit spatially and temporally distinct pattern across gestation in the bovine. The majority of the bovine bPAG are localized to the binucleate cells (BNC) while some are expressed throughout the trophectoderm. Bovine (b)PAG-1 and -9 are both localized to the BNC but are differentially transcribed. ...
Guetta Esther - - 2004
The invasive procedures amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) are routinely applied in pregnancies at risk for fetal abnormalities and the results obtained are the gold standard for prenatal diagnosis. Because these methods of fetal cell procurement involve a 0.5-2% risk for fetal loss, they are recommended mainly in cases ...
Jerzak MaƂgorzata - - 2004
PROBLEM: The purpose of the study was to determine the role of T-cell apoptosis in extracellular matrix (ECM) environment in pregnancy maintenance in women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). METHOD OF STUDY: Thirty-nine non-pregnant women with the history of RSA (anatomic, genetic, endocrine and microbiologic causes were ...
Trundley A - - 2004
In human pregnancy, the embryo implants into the specialized mucosal wall of the uterus (decidua) and the placenta starts to form. Cells from the placenta (trophoblasts) invade into the uterine mucosa in order to open up maternal uterine arteries to ensure an adequate supply of blood to the developing fetus. ...
In 't Anker Pieternella S - - 2004
Recently we reported that second-trimester amniotic fluid (AF) is an abundant source of fetal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we analyze the origin of these MSCs and the presence of MSCs in human-term AF. In addition, different parts of the human placenta were studied for the presence of ...
Bulla R - - 2004
A special interaction is established during pregnancy between the maternal immune system and fetal cells to allow the survival and the normal growth of the fetus. Fetal cells expressing paternal alloantigens are not recognized as foreign by the mother because of an efficient anatomic barrier and a local immunosuppression determined ...
Moffett A - - 2004
The survival of the allogeneic conceptus has long been an immunological paradox. Medawar was the first to propose an evasive mechanism based on the concept of self/non-self recognition described in classical transplantation immunology. Since then, several newer models of self/non-self recognition have been proposed, such as the PAMP/PRR system, the ...
Seval Yasemin - - 2004
Early human trophoblast shows dramatic invasive properties during early pregnancy. A tightly-regulated activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is considered to be of critical importance for the control of trophoblast invasion. The aim of the present study was to determine MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expression in decidual endometrium during ...
Bussani Cecilia - - 2004
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the combined use of micromanipulation and quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR assay for the identification of fetal elements in transcervical cell (TCC) samples collected in early pregnancy. METHODS: TCC samples were obtained by intrauterine lavage (IUL) in 113 pregnant women ...
Kobayashi Honami - - 2004
Placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), also called oxytocinase, is an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing oxytocin. This enzyme is identical to cystine aminopeptidase. We examined the tissue distribution of P-LAP in normal adult mice and also in mothers and fetuses during mouse pregnancy using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. P-LAP-immunoreactive protein was expressed in ...
Cherukuri Anu - - 2004
Tetraspanins have been hypothesized to facilitate the organization of functional multimolecular membrane complexes. In B cells the tetraspanin CD81 is a component of the CD19/CD21 complex. When coligated to the B cell Ag receptor (BCR), the CD19/CD21 complex significantly enhances BCR signaling in part by prolonging the association of the ...
Harness Jacqueline - - 2003
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterised by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system and is the best available animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Since previous studies have shown that EAE is less severe or is delayed in onset during pregnancy and that administration ...
Hirashima Masanori - - 2003
Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1, a receptor for VEGF-A and placental growth factor, is expressed in the spongiotrophoblast layer that segregates the maternal and fetal vasculature in the mouse placenta. A soluble form of Flt1 (sFlt1) produced in the mouse and human placenta can ...
Mor Gil - - 2003
The role of the maternal immune system during pregnancy has focused mainly on the aspect of immune tolerance to the invading trophoblast and, therefore, fetus. While this is a critical aspect of reproductive immunology, it is also important to consider the function of the maternal immune system in the promotion ...
Al-Mufti R - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine the distribution of fetal erythroblasts in the maternal circulation at different gestations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maternal blood was obtained from 152 normal singleton pregnancies at 11-40 weeks of gestation. Fetal erythroblasts were isolated using triple density gradient separation and anti-CD71 magnetic cell sorting techniques. The enriched erythroblasts ...
Li Yan - - 2003
Steroidogenesis in the placenta has been studied widely, but little is known about steroid metabolism in ectopic pregnancy. Previous studies have indicated that trophoblast invasion and placentation in the uterus and the fallopian tube may be controlled by similar mechanisms. As far as 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) production is concerned, it has ...
Reed Ann M - - 2003
Bidirectional cell trafficking occurs between a mother and fetus during pregnancy. This trafficking is associated with the persistence of non-self cells and is termed chimerism or, because of the low levels of non-self cells, microchimerism. Persistence of these cells has been demonstrated for many years after birth in the child ...
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