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Results 601 - 650 of 1523
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van den Brûle Frédéric - - 2005
Trophoblast invasion is a key process during human placentation. This event constitutes the basis of the conversion of the uterine spiral arteries, a process which allows an adequate vascular connection between the intervillous space and the maternal blood flow. Trophoblast invasion is transient, with stringent spatial and temporal control. Preeclampsia, ...
Bai S X - - 2005
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are responsible for extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, and their functions are regulated by tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The evidence for the roles of MMPs and TIMPs in implantation and placentation has remained insufficient in humans, especially during the early stages. Tubal pregnancy has some similarities to ...
Shooner Carl - - 2005
BACKGROUND: During early rat pregnancy, trophoblast of the tiny embryo joins with the endometrium and epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Near the end of pregnancy, regression of the decidua basalis (DB) is also observed (from day 14 to 20). However, little is known about the intra-cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in ...
Wagner Kay-Uwe - - 2005
The identification of cancer-initiating epithelial subtypes (i.e. cancer stem cells) is important for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of the process of neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis. Since reproductive history has a major impact on breast tumorigenesis, it is reasonable to assume that pregnancy and lactation have enduring effects on the ...
Bulla Roberta - - 2005
The placenta has a unique structural organization that allows fetal cells expressing paternal alloantigens to establish a peaceful cohabitation with the maternal immune system. The fetal cells are continuously exposed to the humoral and cellular components of the maternal immune system present in the maternal blood that circulates in the ...
Matthiesen Leif - - 2005
Preeclampsia is a placenta-dependent disorder with both local and systemic anomalies with neonatal and maternal morbidity. It is manifested late in pregnancy, but the onset is during early stages of gestation. The current hypothesis regarding the aetiology of preeclampsia is focused on maladaptation of immune responses and defective trophoblast invasion. ...
Abban G - - 2005
Implantation presents the remarkable synchronisation between the development of embryo and differentiation of endometrium. Cell-cell adhesion is an important phenomenon taking place during blastocyst implantation in uterine membrane. We think that the investigation of existence and the level of integrins in women can be a guide for treatment of infertility. ...
Varla-Leftherioti M - - 2005
Previous studies have revealed that women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions have a limited repertoire of inhibitory KI receptors (inhKIRs) and that the inhKIRs they possess do not have specificity for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw molecules that would be expressed on trophoblast. We sought to confirm these findings by ...
Wei Peng - - 2005
To study the apoptosis and its mechanism at the fetal-maternal interface of early gestation, localization of apoptotic cells in the implantation sites of the rhesus monkey on day 17, 19, 28 and 34 of pregnancy were first examine by using the TUNEL technique. The expression of Ki67, a molecular marker ...
Nielsen Jeppe Lund - - 2005
Microautoradiography (MAR) is an efficient method to obtain reliable information about the ecophysiology of microorganisms at the single cell level in mixed communities. Data obtained by the traditional MAR method can now be improved significantly when MAR is combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with oligonucleotide probes for the ...
Dubernard G - - 2005
Trophoblast invasion in uterine pregnancy is fine-tuned for the remodelling of the uterine wall and its vascularization. Tubal pregnancy, which occurs in a limited number of patients, involves a dramatic trophoblast invasion in a context of a poor decidualization. By studying the histology of the extravillous trophoblast (EVC) in the ...
Yu X W - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To compare tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) protein expression in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion (UESA) and normal pregnancy. METHODS: In a prospective study, 62 women with UESA and 60 with normal pregnancy were studied. Decidual membrane TNFR1 was detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, and serum ...
Wooding F B P - - 2005
Pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) comprise a large group of placental antigens of the aspartic proteinase family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the PAGs form two distinct groups, one of ancient origin and one produced by a more recent series of gene duplications. This paper summarises the molecular biological and biochemical studies ...
Hahn S - - 2005
The analysis of fetal cells, and more recently cell free fetal nucleic acids, in maternal blood has to date largely been concerned with the development of risk free methods for prenatal diagnosis. Although elevated feto-maternal cell trafficking has long been associated with preeclampsia, it has only recently been shown that ...
Wang Yu - - 2004
Fetal microchimerism indicates a mixture of cells of maternal and fetal origin seen in maternal tissues during and after pregnancy. Controversy exists about whether persistent fetal microchimerism is related with some autoimmune disorders occurring during and after pregnancy. In the current experiment, an animal model in which EGFP positive cells ...
Steel J H JH Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, UK. - - 2005
The aim of this study was to determine the maternal or fetal origin of inflammatory leukocytes in fetal membranes from cases of chorioamnionitis. Fetal membranes were collected from male preterm infants and chorioamnionitis was diagnosed histologically. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation for X and Y chromosomes was used to determine the ...
Hannan Natalie J - - 2004
Leukocytes are critical mediators of endometrial remodeling, but the mechanisms by which leukocyte subpopulations enter the uterus are currently unknown. Endometrial leukocytes have no genomic progesterone receptors; thus, we hypothesized that leukocyte migration is induced indirectly by progesterone-regulated chemokines. Fractalkine (CX3CL1), a chemotactic membrane-bound adhesion factor, and its receptor (CX3CR1) ...
Schofield Gemma - - 2005
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is transiently expressed on Day (D) 1 of pregnancy by the uterine epithelium and on D4 specifically by the glandular epithelium. The Lif knockout female mice are infertile because of uterine defects that affect embryo implantation, but pregnancy can be rescued in these mice by injections ...
McAleer Mary Frances - - 2004
Normal trophoblast function, including implantation, hormone production, and formation of the selectively permeable maternofetal barrier, is essential for the establishment and maintenance of the fetoplacental unit and proper fetal development. Maternal cytotoxicant exposure causes the destruction of these cells, especially the terminally differentiated syncytiotrophoblasts, and results in a myriad of ...
Falcidia E - - 2004
Fetal nucleated red blood cells (FNRBCs) circulate in the maternal blood throughout pregnancy. Even if the frequency of fetal cells in the maternal circulation remains to be ascertained, complications of pregnancy such as fetal cells aneuploidies, preeclampsia, abnormal Doppler of the uterine artery without symptoms of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction ...
Kobayashi Ayako - - 2004
Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-like (TAPL, ABCB9) is a half-type ATP binding cassette (ABC) protein belonging to subfamily B highly homologous to the TAP, a hetero-dimeric complex consisting of a TAP1 and a TAP2 subunit. Human TAPL, to which was tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP) at its carboxyl ...
Faber-Swensson Anders Per AP School of Medical Practice and Population Health, The University of Newcastle, New South Wales, - - 2004
To assess endothelial cell function throughout normal human pregnancy. Longitudinal observational study. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and female nursing staff. Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured by high resolution ultrasound and used as a surrogate measure for endothelial cell function and measured in pregnant women and in non-pregnant female ...
Mao Tin K TK Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, - - 2004
The E2 component of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2) is the immunodominant autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis. Whereas lipoylation of PDC-E2 is essential for enzymatic activity and predominates under normal conditions, other biochemical systems exist that also target the lysine residue, including acylation of fatty acids or xenobiotics and ubiquitinylation. ...
Caucheteux Stéphane M - - 2005
In the present work, we have analyzed the roles of two molecules involved in the regulation of cell survival, Bcl2 and Fas, in the pregnancy-induced down-regulation of B lymphopoiesis in mice. Our results show that the overexpression of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl2 in Bcl2-transgenic (Tg) B cells is able to ...
Barrett A W - - 2005
The aim of this study was to analyse the immunohistochemical differentiation profile of the stratified squamous epithelium of the adult human lip. Full-thickness lower lips taken from 31 cadavers were analysed. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), cytokeratins (CK), loricrin, involucrin, profilaggrin and filaggrin. The stratified ...
Ericsson A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Placental glucose transport mechanisms in early pregnancy are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) isoforms 1, 3 and 4 in first trimester villous tissue, to assess the effects of insulin on glucose uptake and compare them with term. METHODS: ...
Wright Alexi - - 2004
Aneuploid cells in the placenta are associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we examined the cytotrophoblast (CTB) differentiation pathway that leads to uterine invasion in pregnancies complicated by trisomy 21 (T21) as compared with their normal counterparts. Surprisingly, we observed a wide spectrum of T21 ...
Okuda Tomohiro - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Fetal cells cross the feto-maternal barrier and circulate in maternal peripheral blood; thus, this study aimed to show the relationship between clinical evidence in pregnancy and qualitative feto-maternal barrier changes. METHODS: The expression of fetal hemoglobin gamma chain messenger RNA (HbF-gamma mRNA) was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain ...
Niitsu Nozomi - - 2004
Lymphomas rarely develop during pregnancy, but hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma (HSgammadeltaTCL) is extremely rare. We encountered a case of T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) positive and granzyme B-positive HSgammadeltaTCL that developed early during the course of pregnancy. The patient was a 31-yr-old female who was referred to our hospital because of ...
Lee Hyung-Yul - - 2005
Relaxin promotes marked growth of the cervix during the second half of rat pregnancy, and this growth is accompanied by an increase in both epithelial and stromal cells. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the extent to which relaxin promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of ...
Hiby Susan E SE Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, England, - - 2004
Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy in which the fetus receives an inadequate supply of blood due to failure of trophoblast invasion. There is evidence that the condition has an immunological basis. The only known polymorphic histocompatibility antigens on the fetal trophoblast are HLA-C molecules. We tested the idea ...
von Rango U - - 2004
Embryo implantation and subsequent decidualization, trophoblast invasion and formation of a functional placenta are crucial for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin-11 signalling has been shown to be obligatory for adequate decidualization and trophoblast invasion in mice. Defects in IL-11 signalling in mice result in trophoblast over-invasion and fetal loss. ...
Rieger L - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Human endometrium and early pregnancy decidua harbor a considerable and diverse population of antigen-presenting cells (APC). Changes in the number and distribution of macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) could point to a possible role of these immunocompetent cells in implantation and success of early pregnancy. METHODS: Uterine tissue was ...
Choy Mei Yee - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from human first-trimester implantation-site decidua (decidua basalis) and nonimplantation site decidua (decidua parietalis), and hence to determine whether human trophoblast invasion in vivo is associated with increased decidual HGF production. DESIGN: Controlled prospective study. SETTING: University hospital-based study. PATIENT(S): ...
Taylor Douglas D - - 2004
Clinical evidence suggests that cell-mediated immunity is altered during pregnancy and that failure to suppress the maternal immune response can lead to placentation failure, resulting in partial or total rejection of the fetus. In contrast to women experiencing recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA), normal uncomplicated pregnancies are associated decreased T-cell proliferation ...
Gilmore Wendy - - 2004
Multiple sclerosis has a tendency to remit during pregnancy, followed by an increase in the risk for disease relapses in the postpartum period. In this communication, preliminary data are presented to indicate that activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the postpartum period secrete elevated levels of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) relative ...
Burton Graham J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To review the role of oxidative stress in two common placental-related disorders of pregnancy, miscarriage and preeclampsia. METHODS: Review of published literature. RESULTS: Miscarriage and preeclampsia manifest at contrasting stages of pregnancy, yet both have their roots in deficient trophoblast invasion during early gestation. Early after implantation, endovascular trophoblast ...
Crocker Ian P - - 2004
Placentae in pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are characterized by morphological variations, apoptosis, and syncytial shedding, features that are linked to inappropriate oxygen and inflammatory cytokines. Cell turnover within the placenta is dynamic. In this study, these cellular events have been investigated longitudinally using a placental explant model. ...
Cui Yongzhi - - 2004
This study explored the functions of the signal transducers and activators of transcription 5a and 5b (referred to as Stat5 here) during different stages of mouse mammary gland development by using conditional gene inactivation. Mammary gland morphogenesis includes cell specification, proliferation and differentiation during pregnancy, cell survival and maintenance of ...
Red-Horse Kristy - - 2004
Trophoblasts, the specialized cells of the placenta, play a major role in implantation and formation of the maternal-fetal interface. Through an unusual differentiation process examined in this review, these fetal cells acquire properties of leukocytes and endothelial cells that enable many of their specialized functions. In recent years a great ...
Anin Sheba Anin - - 2004
Trophoblast invasion can be seen as a tightly regulated battle between the competing interests of the survival of the fetus and those of the mother. Successful pregnancy is dependent on the trophoblast invading the mother, attaching the pregnancy to the uterus and securing an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrient ...
Fisher Susan J - - 2004
The placenta is a remarkable organ. In normal pregnancy its specialized cells (termed cytotrophoblasts) differentiate into various specialized subpopulations that play pivotal roles in governing fetal growth and development. One cytotrophoblast subset acquires tumor-like properties that allow the cells to invade the decidua and myometrium, a process that attaches the ...
Kuroda N - - 2004
In order to elucidate the change in alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA)-positive and CD34-positive stromal cells associated with pregnancy, we examined endometrial and Fallopian tube tissues from 40 patients including normal endometrium (n=10), intra-uterine pregnancy (n=10), normal Fallopian tube (n=10), and tubal pregnancy (n=10), using immunohistochemistry. In normal endometrium, only a ...
Davies C J - - 2004
In viviparous animals, regulation of expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens by the trophoblast cells, which constitute the outermost layer of the placenta, seems to be critical for maternal immunological acceptance of an allogeneic fetus. Cattle are unusual in this regard, since the bovine trophoblast cells, in ...
Rowe Amanda J - - 2004
The aim of the study was to describe and quantify the changes in the maternal vasculature and angiogenesis during early pregnancy in the marmoset endometrium using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to identify proliferating cells, CD31 to label endothelial cells and dual staining to identify proliferating endothelial cells. Non-pregnant animals from mid- and ...
Wang Hong-Xing - - 2004
Previous studies have demonstrated that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important role in embryo implantation. Low molecular mass polypeptide (LMP) 2 and LMP7 are the two subunits of 20S proteasome, which are critical for proteasome activity. To further elucidate the roles of LMP2 and LMP7 in embryo implantation during early ...
Maheshwari Akhil - - 2004
IL-8/CXC ligand (CXCL) 8 is ingested in high concentrations by the human fetus/neonate with amniotic fluid and human milk, and is also produced constitutively by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). We have shown that recombinant human IL-8/CXCL8 (rhIL-8/CXCL8) protects cultured IEC against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cycloheximide-induced cytotoxicity. In view ...
Kolialexi Aggeliki - - 2004
We previously reported increased apoptosis in the maternal circulation during pregnancy, partly accounting for the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. In the current study, apoptosis was quantitated in 60 peripheral blood samples obtained from 15 women sequentially tested postpartum using the binding of annexin V. FISH with ...
Varla-Leftherioti M - - 2004
Decidual natural killer (NK) cells are thought to play a significant role in the allorecognition mechanisms during pregnancy. Through their activating and inhibitory receptors they may recognize selectively class I HLA alleles expressed on invading trophoblast and provide self-signals to control NK responses, thus regulating the maternal immune response at ...
Poole Jill A - - 2004
Pregnancy is a unique event in which a genetically and immunologically foreign fetus usually survives to full term without apparent rejection by the mother's immune system. Over the past decade, more information has been gathered to provide insight into the complex immunological mechanisms that allow the fetus to grow and ...
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