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Shynlova Oksana - - 2006
In the present study, we determined the contribution of myometrial hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and apoptosis to uterine growth during pregnancy. The changes in two endogenous markers of cell replication, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, were studied. Myocyte hypertrophy was assessed by measuring the protein:DNA ratio. ...
Armant D Randall DR Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, C. S. Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA. - - 2006
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), which is expressed in the placenta during normal pregnancy, is down regulated in pre-eclampsia, a human pregnancy disorder associated with poor trophoblast differentiation and survival. This growth factor protects against apoptosis during stress, suggesting a role in trophoblast survival in the relatively low O(2) ( ...
Juliano P B - - 2006
Although an in vitro study has hypothesized that expression of ICAM-1 by villous trophoblasts could be important for the influx of maternal immune cells in villitis, it remains to be shown whether the same phenomenon occurs in human villitis. To investigate the expression of ICAM-1 by villous trophoblasts, its relationship ...
Handschuh K - - 2006
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metzincin metalloproteinase that cleaves the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent binding protein-4 and increases in maternal serum during pregnancy. In human placenta PAPP-A is expressed both in villous cytotrophoblasts (VCT) that cover the chorionic villi and in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVCT) of the anchoring villi. Due ...
Nguyen Huu Sau - - 2006
The embryonic and fetal development in the maternal uterine environment implies that different population of fetal progenitors must be in close contact to the maternal tissues. Accordingly, fetal mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells have been described in the placenta and the fetal blood. Seeding in the maternal circulation, ...
Bernsen R M - - 2006
Childhood allergy constitutes a significant burden of disease in the Western world. The prevalence of this condition is highest in first born children, an as yet unresolved phenomenon called the "birth order effect". The hygiene hypothesis attempted to explain this differential risk by stating that less exposure to microbial agents ...
Xia Hong-Fei - - 2006
Interleukin-1 (IL-1beta) beta and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play an important role during pregnancy. Expression of non-classical class MHC II RT1-DM antigen and classical class MHC I RT1-A antigen induced by IL-1beta was examined by Northern blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. IL-1beta treatment significantly increased the expression of RT1-A and ...
Enders Allen C - - 2006
The hyena placenta is unique among carnivores in being hemochorial. It also has areas of erythrocyte uptake that differ from those seen in more commonly studied carnivores. The availability of timed midterm pregnancies made it possible to examine the organization of the placenta, the distribution of regions of columnar trophoblast ...
Rockwell L Christie - - 2006
The pregnancy-related size enlargement of the guinea pig uterine artery is partially accomplished by hyperplasia in all layers of the vessel wall. We sought to determine the separate and combined effects of chronic hypoxia and pregnancy on the proliferative capacity of uterine artery vascular smooth muscle cells (UA VSMCs). We ...
Kondo Akira - - 2006
We studied the quorum sensing (QS) system and the related homoserine lactones (HSLs) observing Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion using the epithelial cell monolayer penetration assay model. Compared to the PAO1 wild-type, the QS mutants, DeltalasI and DeltarhlI, were compromised in their capacity to invade. The decreased invasiveness of DeltarhlI was restored ...
Zenclussen Ana Claudia - - 2006
Immunological imbalances have been hypothesized as a cause for the onset of preeclampsia, which is a very severe, pregnancy-related disease. We recently described a novel preeclampsia mouse model by adoptively transferring activated BALB/c Th1-like splenocytes into allogeneically pregnant BALB/c female mice during late gestation. This cell transfer provoked preeclampsia symptoms ...
Strelchenko Nick - - 2006
It has been shown that it is possible to establish human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines from morula. Details of the aforementioned injection method of morula under blastocyst are described in this chapter. This chapter also discloses the application of simultaneous staining for two markers, TRA-2-39 and Oct-4, for characteristics ...
Green Jonathan A - - 2006
The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are a large gene family expressed in trophoblast cells of ruminant ungulates. The detection of PAGs in maternal serum has served as the basis for pregnancy detection in ruminant ungulates and also for use as markers of trophoblast development and placental viability. The methods described provide ...
Pijnenborg Robert - - 2006
In vivo analysis of trophoblast cell invasion is highly dependent on histological techniques, which are amply described in standard textbooks. The emphasis of this chapter therefore lies on material collection and interpretation of tissue sections, rather than on histological techniques per se. Proper identification of vascular structures on placental bed ...
Di Simone Nicoletta - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: A non-invasive prenatal determination of the fetal RhD status might be useful for the management of pregnancies in RhD-negative women whose partners are RhD positive. METHODS: Maternal peripheral blood of 32 RhD-negative women (17-24 weeks of gestation) was collected, and circulating fetal cells were enriched by CD71 mini-magnetic activated ...
Yang Yun - - 2006
In this study, we investigated the expression of CXCL12 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 in trophoblasts and the role they play in the gestation. Immunochemistry was used to detect the expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in human villi and placenta. Highly purified extra-villous trophoblasts (EVTs) ere detected for CXCR4 and CXCL12 in vitro by ...
Guo Junhong - - 2006
To study the role of the reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) gene and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the regulation of trophoblast invasion of early pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and gelatin zymography were used to detect the RECK protein expression localization, expression level and MMP-2 activation level in the placental ...
Gu Yang Y Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana 71130, - - 2006
Endothelial dysfunction is associated with increased oxidative stress in the vascular system in women with preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder occurring during human pregnancy. However, due to the nature of the disease, direct evidence of increased endothelial oxidative stress in the maternal vascular system at an in vivo situation is ...
Hung T-H - - 2006
Chorioamnionitis increases the risk of preterm labour and is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including cerebral palsy. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) derived from the gestational tissues (placenta, fetal membranes and maternal decidua) is thought to play a pivotal role in the induction of cytokine response in chorioamnionitis. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha ...
Taylor Douglas D - - 2006
Evidence suggests that maternal cell-mediated immunity is suppressed during pregnancy and that failure to suppress immune responses can result in partial or total rejection of the fetus. The molecular events associated with suppression of maternal T-cell activation mediated by circulating pregnancy-associated 14 kDa zeta inhibitor protein (ZIP) were defined in ...
Spadacci-Morena Diva Denelle - - 2006
The injury caused by the intramuscular injection of a single dose of Bothrops jararaca venom (0.24 mg/kg body weight) to mice on day 8 of pregnancy and examined on day 9 was investigated. Macroscopic and histological examination showed that the bothropic venom caused an increase in the incidence of fetal ...
McCord Nicola - - 2006
Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress are features of normal pregnancy and, in excess, contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Inflammatory cell activation stimulates uptake of arginine (the precursor for nitric oxide) by transport system y+, expression of one of its genes (CAT-2) together with inducible nitric oxide synthase, leading to ...
Bassien-Capsa V - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy is an important physiological condition associated with hemodynamic and endocrine changes that affect the heart. Nevertheless, very little is known about cardiomyocyte remodeling in this condition. Here, we studied the morphological, functional and metabolic remodeling of rat left ventricular myocytes that occurs in late stages of normal pregnancy ...
Balgir R S - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: i) To determine the pattern of spectrum of hemoglobinopathies in the state of Orissa, ii) To find the ethnic groups at high risk of hemoglobinopathies, iii) Geographical distribution of hemoglobinopathies, and iv). To know epidemiological aspects of hemoglobinopathy cases in Orissa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One thousand fifteen cases of ...
Fang Chun-Neng - - 2005
AIM: The presence of fetal cells in the endocervical mucus of pregnant women was first reported in 1971. The uterine cavity is patent during the first trimester prior to fusion of amnion and chorion. Fetal cells from degenerating chorion frondosum are theoretically shed into the uterine cavity between seven and ...
Tayade Chandrakant - - 2005
The alpha 2 macroglobulins (A2M) are a family of abundant plasma proteins produced predominantly by the mammalian liver. Pregnancy zone proteins (PZP) of humans and rats are A2M family members that bind a wide variety of macromolecules including the important pregnancy-associated molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor, placenta growth ...
Bose P - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The epithelium of the human placenta comprises an inner cytotrophoblast (CT) which proliferates and fuses with the outer differentiated syncytiotrophoblast (ST). Turnover has been studied focussing on second and third trimester placentas but with a paucity of data describing the normal first trimester trophoblast. The aim of this study ...
Jones Rebecca L - - 2006
Embryo implantation and trophoblast invasion are tightly regulated processes, involving sophisticated communication between maternal decidual and fetal trophoblast cells. Decidualization is a prerequisite for successful implantation and is promoted by a number of paracrine agents, including activin A. To understand the downstream mechanisms of activin-promoted decidualization, the effects of activin ...
Kloor Doris - - 2006
Recently, a proven case of human S-adenosylhomocysteine-hydrolase (SAHH) deficiency was reported in a Croatian boy. As molecular analysis of the SAHH gene in this case revealed two different mutant alleles, we investigated the polymorphism of human SAHH in a total of 237 red blood samples from unrelated Croats using starch ...
Bogovic Crncic Tatjana - - 2005
The immunogenetic enigma of maternal acceptance of the fetal semiallograft has been termed an immunological paradox. The first trimester decidua is heavily infiltrated with CD56(bright) CD16- uterine natural killer (uNK) cells which must be prepared to respond to potential pathogen challenges and still be able to control immune responses that ...
Correia-da-Silva G - - 2005
The uterine endometrium responds to blastocyst implantation with extensive proliferation and differentiation of stromal cells into decidual cells, forming the antimesometrial and mesometrial decidua. These undergo regression by apoptosis but as this process occurs at different time periods suggest that there is spatially dependent temporal control of apoptosis in these ...
Allen W R - - 2005
The gonads, both ovaries and testes, of 44 elephant fetuses weighing 0.09-112 kg (6.1-21.3 months gestation) were examined grossly and histologically. As in equids, elephant fetal gonads undergo a phase of marked growth and enlargement during the second half of gestation, which is more pronounced in ovaries than testes due ...
Kiselyov Kirill - - 2005
Mutations in the gene MCOLN1 coding for the TRP (transient receptor potential) family ion channel TRP-ML1 lead to the lipid storage disorder mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). The function and role of TRP-ML1 are not well understood. We report here that TRP-ML1 is a lysosomal monovalent cation channel. Both native and ...
Holets Lesya M - - 2006
Modulation of the maternal immune system by the placenta is a mechanism by which the fetus ensures its own survival in a genetically foreign environment. The immunoinhibitor CD274 (also called B7-H1 or PD-L1) is highly expressed in the placenta, positioned to interact with maternal leukocytes. Further, immunoblot analysis of first- ...
Kim Kwanghee - - 2005
TIMAP is a prenylated endothelial cell protein with a domain structure that predicts it to be a protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) regulatory subunit. We found that TIMAP interacts with the 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR1) in yeast two-hybrid assays. In endothelial cells, endogenous TIMAP and LAMR1 co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized at the ...
James J L - - 2006
In the first trimester of human pregnancy villous cytotrophoblasts are able to differentiate to form either the overlying syncytiotrophoblast layer or, in anchoring villi, extravillous trophoblasts which grow out from the villi and invade into the maternal decidua, acting to both physically attach the placenta to the decidua, and modify ...
Sollwedel Andre - - 2005
Tolerance mechanisms allowing pregnancy success resemble those involved in allograft acceptance. Heme oxygenase (HO) is a tissue-protective molecule, which allows graft acceptance and is known to have antiapoptotic effects on several cell types. We previously reported down-regulated levels of HO-1 and HO-2 in placenta from allopregnant mice undergoing abortion. In ...
Tanaka Shinji - - 2005
Amygdala kindling is regarded as a model of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans because of many points of similarity. In amygdala kindling, bilateralization of epileptic seizures follows from the accumulation of stimulation and commissural fibers may play a role in this process. However, new progenies of cells following amygdala kindling ...
Clark David A - - 2005
PROBLEM: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression in fetal trophoblast and decidual antigen-presenting cells has been proposed to inactivate maternal T cells and thereby prevent rejection of the "fetal allograft" in early pregnancy. Psychic stress has been proposed to cause miscarriages as well as infertility, at the same time in pregnancy when ...
Hassell Kathryn - - 2005
With advances in management, men and women with sickle cell disease are enjoying an improved quality of life well into adulthood, when they may elect to plan a family. Pregnancy has been associated with exacerbation of sickle cell disease and may place women, especially those with sickle cell anemia (HbSS), ...
Murphy Shaun P - - 2005
Specialized NK cells are recruited in high numbers to the mammalian embryo implantation sites, yet remain pregnancy compatible. It is not well understood whether uterine NK (uNK) cells become adversely activated and mediate fetal demise, a common complication of early pregnancy. In this study we show that mating of IL-10(-/-) ...
Levario-Carrillo M - - 2005
The human fetus is exposed to a variety of environmental agents and drugs which cross the placenta and can induce DNA damage. Micronucleus (MN) determination is a suitable and sensitive method for measuring DNA damage and since umbilical cord blood is obtained without any risk for the newborn, we measured ...
Hnat Michael D - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of heat shock protein-70 (hsp70), a marker for oxidative stress, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts (HNE), a marker for lipid peroxidation, in placental villous tissue of normotensive, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: Placentas were collected and flash ...
Sengupta Jayasree - - 2005
Successful blastocyst implantation depends on the interaction between cells of maternal endometrium and conceptus, as well as adequate blood supply to the site of blastocyst implantation. Nitric oxide (NO) generally plays a significant role in the local regulation of vascular physiology in a variety of mammalian tissue systems, however, its ...
Kimatrai Maria - - 2005
CONTEXT: Human decidual stromal cells (DSC) are myofibroblast-like cells that express alpha-smooth muscle (alpha-SM) actin, a protein associated with cell contractility. Several lines of experimental evidence in humans and mice show that antiinflammatory cytokines favor normal pregnancy, whereas Th1 and inflammatory cytokines play a role in abortion. We previously demonstrated ...
Caluwaerts S - - 2005
The involvement of endovascular trophoblast in fibrinoid deposition, replacement of the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle breakdown is studied in spiral arteries of the mesometrial triangle from day 15 to day 21 of rat pregnancy, by examining arterial cross sections after staining for cytokeratin, PAS, CD31 and alpha-actin. From day ...
Nomura Seiji - - 2005
Human pregnancy serum and placenta have the ability to degrade uterotonic peptide oxytocin (OT). Placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), which is also called cystine aminopeptidase, is the only membrane aminopeptidase known to functionally degrade OT as oxytocinase (OTase). P-LAP/OTase hydrolyzes several peptides other than OT including vasopressin and angiotensin III. P-LAP/OTase ...
Gray C Allison - - 2005
Galectin-15 is the newest member of a secreted beta-galactoside-binding lectin family. The galectin-15 gene is expressed specifically by the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE) of the ovine uterus. The proposed extracellular role of secreted galec7tin-15 is to regulate implantation and placentation by functioning as a ...
Kayisli U A - - 2006
Vasculogenesis in the human placenta comprises differentiation and growth of newly forming blood vessels derived from hemangiogenic stem cells within the mesenchymal core of villi. In a second stage, angiogenesis leads to the expansion and remodeling of the already existing vessels. At present, relatively little is known about the regulatory ...
Sum Eleanor Y M - - 2005
LMO4, a member of the LIM-only family of zinc-finger proteins, is overexpressed in a significant proportion of breast carcinomas and acts as a negative regulator of mammary epithelial differentiation. To delineate cell types within the developing mouse mammary gland that express Lmo4, we analysed different stages of mammopoiesis by immunohistochemistry. ...
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