Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1561
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
De Falco M - - 2007
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by invertebrates and vertebrates to control cell fates through close-range cell interactions. Four Notch receptors have been identified in vertebrates and different ligands, divided into Delta-like and Serrate-like (Jagged). Several studies have demonstrated that Notch signaling is involved in different branches of ...
Nguyen Huu Sau - - 2007
Fetal progenitor cells enter the maternal circulation during pregnancy and can persist for decades. We aimed to determine the role of these cells in tissue inflammation during pregnancy. WT female mice were mated to males transgenic for the EGFP (ubiquitous) or the luciferase gene controlled by the VEGF receptor 2 ...
Herse Florian - - 2007
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) participates in preeclampsia; however, the relative contributions from the circulating RAS and the tissue-based, uteroplacental RAS are unknown. We hypothesized that the tissue-based uteroplacental RAS is dysregulated in preeclampsia. We performed microarray and gene expression studies and confirmed the findings on the protein level by immunohistochemistry ...
Donadio S - - 2007
Copper is an essential trace element for successful pregnancy. However, the mechanisms by which copper is transported from maternal circulation to the fetus have not been clearly elucidated. Two proteins, cellular prion (PrP(C)) and COMMD1, are known to be responsible for prion diseases and canine copper toxicosis, respectively, and are ...
Ge Ren-Shan - - 2007
Humans have significant exposures to phthalates, as these chemical plasticizers are ubiquitously present in flexible plastics. Recent epidemiological evidence indicates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of congenital genital malformations and spermatogenic dysfunction, signs of a condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis ...
Mojtaba Goli Torbehbar
The changes in the kinds and percentages of the epithelial and inflammatory cells of the external os region of the uterine cervices of the river buffaloes during three different stages of pregnancy were studied by microscopic evaluation of mucus smears which had been prepared by wet swab sampling of mucus ...
Stevens Anne M - - 2007
The placental barrier is not the impenetrable wall that it was once presumed to be. During pregnancy, fetal cells pass into the mother, where they persist for decades after the pregnancy, leading to fetal microchimerism (FMc). Maternal cells also pass into the fetus, where they can persist long after birth ...
Kilani R T - - 2007
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) has been implicated in the abnormally high levels of trophoblast apoptosis seen in placentae from pregnancies complicated by small births. We examined the hypothesis that at physiological (35-50 mmHg) oxygen tensions, the production of TNFalpha stimulates the apoptosis of placental trophoblasts associated with infants that ...
Mangale Sachin S - - 2007
The role of integrins, the cell-surface glycoproteins involved in various cellular functions, is well documented. However, information about their role and expression profile during pregnancy is still scant. In the present study, the expression of the integrin subunits beta(3), alpha(6) and alpha(5), along with their ligands vitronectin, osteopontin, laminin and ...
Crettol Séverine - - 2007
Methadone and L-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) are used as treatment for opiate addiction. Using a cellular model, we aimed to determine if methadone, LAAM and their main metabolites are substrates of the human P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp), which is encoded by the ABCB1 gene, and whether methadone transport exhibits stereoselectivity. Pig kidney epithelial ...
Piccinni Marie-Pierre - - 2007
This review focuses on the possible role of T cells in successful pregnancy and in unexplained recurrent abortion. The functions exhibited by Th1 and Th2 cells have suggested, perhaps in a simplistic way, that Th1-type cytokines, which promote allograft rejection, may compromise pregnancy, whereas the Th2-type cytokines, by inhibiting Th1 ...
Nakamura Hiroshi - - 2007
PURPOSE: To examine the temporal and spatial expression of Sp1 and Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) in the cornea in fetal and adult human eyes. METHODS: Eyes from human fetus (F) of 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, and 27 weeks (w) of gestation, as well as corneas from 11 and 56-day ...
Hashizume Kazuyoshi - - 2007
Cell to cell interaction plays a pivotal role in the regulation of placentogenesis and exchange of stage-specific developmental signals between the fetal and maternal units. Specifically, these interactions are paramount for programmed fetal growth, maternal adaptation to pregnancy and coordination of parturition. However, little is known about the precise regulation ...
Cartwright Judith E - - 2007
In the first trimester of pregnancy fetal trophoblast cells invade the maternal uterine spiral arteries leading to loss of the vascular cells from the vessel wall and remodelling of the extracellular matrix. This is crucial to ensure that sufficient blood can reach the developing fetus. Impaired arterial remodelling is a ...
Zarnani Amir-Hassan - - 2007
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APC) capable of induction of primary immune responses as well as immunologic tolerance. Myeloid and lymphoid subsets of murine DCs are able to shift cytokine responses of T cells toward Th2 and Th1 profiles respectively. Thus, DCs would be suitable candidates to ...
Kaloglu Celal - - 2007
Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are pregnancy-specific cells that may have many functions in successful placentation and pregnancy. In the present study, changes in the rat GMG cell structure, distribution and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression during early pregnancy were evaluated by light microscopy. Implantation sites taken from females ...
Chavatte-Palmer P - - 2007
Abnormally increased placental expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules at the trophoblastic surface has been suggested previously to be the cause of early fetal loss in nuclear transfer (NT) bovine pregnancies. Here, we report the lack of expression of MHC-I at the trophoblastic surface at D30 and ...
Zhong Jiang F - - 2007
Microchimerism refers to the status of harboring cells from another individual at low levels. It is well known that cells traffic bidirectionally between fetus and mother during pregnancy. This situation resembles a naturally occurring long lasting fetal stem cell transplantation. The fetus acts as the donor and the mother acts ...
Corthorn Jenny - - 2007
In humans trophoblast invasion and vascular remodeling are critical to determine the fate of pregnancy. Since guinea-pigs share with women an extensive migration of the trophoblasts through the decidua and uterine arteries, and a haemomonochorial placenta, this species was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal expression of three enzymes that have ...
Sale Alessandro - - 2007
The influence of maternal environment on fetal development is largely unexplored, the available evidence concerns only the deleterious effects elicited by prenatal stress. Here we investigated the influence of prenatal enrichment on the early development of the visual system in the fetus. We studied the anatomical development of the rat ...
Lunghi Laura - - 2007
The trophoblast, i.e. the peripheral part of the human conceptus, exerts a crucial role in implantation and placentation. Both processes properly occur as a consequence of an intimate dialogue between fetal and maternal tissues, fulfilled by membrane ligands and receptors, as well as by hormone and local factor release. During ...
Spencer T E TE Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Departments of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA. - - 2007
This review integrates established information with new insights into molecular and physiological mechanisms responsible for events leading to pregnancy recognition, endometrial receptivity, and implantation with emphasis on sheep. After formation of the corpus luteum, progesterone acts on the endometrium and stimulates blastocyst growth and elongation to form a filamentous conceptus ...
Eide Irina P - - 2007
The Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) system contributes to immune tolerance at the feto-maternal site and has been ascribed a role in implantation and placental development by regulating trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling. In the present study, we have examined FasL expression in decidual tissue from pregnancies with impaired placental development. ...
Yang Qing - - 2007
Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in the Smad-mediated TGF-beta signaling. TGF-beta has been shown to play an important role during normal embryo implantation, but whether Smurf2 is involved in this process has not been reported. This study was first conducted to ...
Alam S M Khorshed - - 2007
In the mouse, decidual cells differentiate from uterine stromal cells in response to steroid hormones and signals arising from the embryo. Decidual cells are crucially involved in creating the intrauterine environment conducive to embryonic development. Among their many functions is the production of cytokines related to prolactin (PRL), including decidual ...
Thorn Eric M - - 2007
Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), originally discovered as a glycoprotein found in the serum of pregnant women, is emerging as a potential biomarker of plaque instability. It is produced by the syncytiotrophoblasts of the placenta and circulates in the form of an approximately 500 kDa heterotetramer. In addition, PAPP-A is ...
Zhou Cissy Chenyi CC Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin, MSB 6.200 Houston, TX 77030, - - 2007
Maternal endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia is associated with increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), a circulating antagonist of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a potent vasoconstrictor that increases concomitant with sFlt-1 during pregnancy. Therefore, we speculated that Ang II may promote the ...
Croy B Anne - - 2006
In adult females of many species, a transient population of natural killer (NK) cells appears in cycles within the uterine endometrium (lining). Appearance of these lymphocytes coincides with specific phases of the ovarian hormone cycle and/or early pregnancy. Studies in rodents, women, and pigs dominate the literature and suggest the ...
White Frankie J - - 2006
Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) is the most highly upregulated extracellular matrix/adhesion molecule/cytokine in the receptive phase human uterus, and Spp1 null mice manifest decreased pregnancy rates during mid-gestation as compared with wild-type counterparts. We hypothesize that Spp1 is required for proliferation, migration, survival, adhesion, and remodeling of cells at ...
Hicks Stuart W - - 2006
Golgin-160 is a ubiquitously expressed peripheral Golgi membrane protein that is important for transduction of certain pro-apoptotic signals at the Golgi complex. However, the role of golgin-160 in normal Golgi structure and function is unknown. Here, we show that depletion of golgin-160 using RNA interference (RNAi) does not affect Golgi ...
Mun Kein-Seong - - 2006
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the ten most common cancers in Malaysian males. As cellular proliferation is an important feature of malignant transformation, we studied the proliferation pattern of normal and benign perineoplastic liver versus hepatocellular carcinoma in an attempt to further understand the tumour transformation process. 39 HCC (21 ...
Piccinni Marie-Pierre - - 2006
This review focuses on the possible role of T cells in successful pregnancy and in unexplained recurrent abortion. The functions exhibited by Th1 and Th2 cells have suggested, perhaps in a simplistic way, that Th1-type cytokines, which promote allograft rejection, may compromise pregnancy, whereas the Th2-type cytokines, by inhibiting Th1 ...
Nan Chang-Long - - 2007
Somatic cell nuclei can be dedifferentiated in ooplasm from another species, and interspecies cloned embryos can be implanted into the uteri of surrogates. However, no full pregnancies have been achieved through interspecific mammalian cloning. Rat blastocysts transferred into mouse uteri provide a unique model for studying the causes of interspecific ...
Jones Rebecca L - - 2006
Maternal-fetal communications are critical for the establishment of pregnancy. Embryonic growth and differentiation factors produced by the oviduct and uterus play essential roles during the pre- and early post-implantation phases. Although several studies indicate roles for activin in embryonic development, gene-knockout studies have failed to identify a critical role in ...
Majewska Marta - - 2006
The objective of this study was to localize the immuno-positive porcine PAG (pPAG) proteins within chorionic cells throughout the intensive placenta development as pregnancy advances (16-61 days post coitum - dpc). Placental sections were used for double fluorescent histochemistry with selected primary rabbit anti-pPAG sera. The polyclonals were created against ...
Harris Lynda K - - 2006
During pregnancy, trophoblasts migrate from the placenta into uterine spiral arteries, transforming them into wide channels that lack vasoconstrictive properties. In pathological pregnancies, this process is incomplete. To define the fundamental events involved in spiral artery remodeling, we have studied the effect of trophoblasts on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). ...
Miranda S - - 2006
The fetal-placental unit is a semi-allograft and immunological recognition of pregnancy, together with the subsequent response of the maternal immune system, is necessary for a successful pregnancy. Dendritic cells (DC) show a biological plasticity that confers them special characteristics regulating both immunity and tolerance. Therapy employing DC proved to diminish ...
Mori Miki - - 2007
Chorionic villi in the human placenta serve as essential structures in fetomaternal exchanges. According to the embryology and placentology literature, during the first trimester, the cytotrophoblast (CTB) layer that is subjacent to the syncytiotrophoblast (STB) and supported by a basal lamina is nearly complete, but later, it becomes discontinuous. In ...
Manivasager Vanaja - - 2006
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and its esters have been under intense investigation to enhance the endogenous production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumour cells for the purpose of photodynamic diagnosis. In this study we have investigated the use of exogenous PpIX and its dimethyl ester (PME) and compared the results with ...
Di Cosmo C - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Iodide (I(-)) is crucial for foetal thyroid function. Foetal iodide results from maternal circulating iodide and from deiodination of iodothyronines within the placenta. The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) localized in placental cells appears to be involved in iodide exchange. Low NIS expression has been reported in trophoblast cells from the ...
Gotkin Jennifer L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize effect of progesterone (P4) on interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by fetoplacental artery explants, fetal granulocytes, and fetal and maternal mononuclear cells. STUDY DESIGN: Arteries and cord blood were obtained from 5 term pregnancies undergoing repeat cesarean section. Maternal blood was obtained from ...
Dong Yulan - - 2007
To determine the role of sympathetic nerves in the early embryonic development and the immune modulation of maternal uterus during pregnancy, a model of chemical sympathectomy in mice was established by intraperitoneal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The embryonic development and the distribution of maternal uterine immunocytes were investigated during early ...
Abumaree M H - - 2006
Deportation of trophoblast shed from the placenta into the maternal circulation was first described over 100 years ago. Despite this, little is known about the quantity or nature of the shed and deported trophoblasts. Neither do we have a clear understanding of the fate of deported trophoblasts nor do we ...
Piper Karen P - - 2007
Recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells can be detected in the maternal circulation during virtually all human pregnancies. These fetal cells can engraft and may be isolated for many decades after pregnancy, leading to a state that may be maintained by the passage of pregnancy-associated progenitor cells. The clinical ...
Kramerova Irina - - 2006
The cysteine protease calpain 3 (CAPN3) is essential for normal muscle function, since mutations in CAPN3 cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. Previously, we showed that myoblasts isolated from CAPN3 knockout (C3KO) mice were able to fuse to myotubes; however, sarcomere formation was disrupted. In this study we further ...
Siu Shing-Shun Nelson - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Alpha-2 Macroglobulin (A2M) is a protease inhibitor that is present in both human and rat decidual tissue. In mice, decidual A2M prevents excessive trophoblastic invasion; however, its role in human decidual tissue is unknown. It is possible that A2M may also influence trophoblast invasion in human pregnancy, which would ...
Li Manyu M Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, - - 2006
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional peptide vasodilator that is essential for life. Plasma AM expression dramatically increases during pregnancy, and alterations in its levels are associated with complications of pregnancy including fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia. Using AM+/- female mice with genetically reduced AM expression, we demonstrate that fetal ...
Mirouse Vincent - - 2006
Meiosis is a specialized cell cycle limited to the gametes in Metazoa. In Drosophila, oocyte determination and meiosis control are interdependent processes, and BicD appears to play a key role in both. However, the exact mechanism of how BicD-dependent polarized transport could influence meiosis and vice versa remains an open ...
Friedrichs Birte - - 2006
A 35-year old woman developed Burkitt's lymphoma and was treated with rituximab and CHOP therapy early during pregnancy. Monitoring of rituximab concentrations and B-cell counts in the child revealed a transient complete B-cell depletion associated with high rituximab cord blood concentrations. B-cell recovery was fast, showing a regular immunophenotype without ...
Dokras Anuja - - 2006
Preeclampsia is a prevalent and potentially devastating disorder of pregnancy. Characterized by a sudden spike in blood pressure and urinary protein levels, it is associated with significant obstetric complications. BPH/5 is an inbred mouse model of preeclampsia with borderline hypertension before pregnancy. BPH/5 mice develop hypertension, proteinuria, and endothelial dysfunction ...
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >