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Results 451 - 500 of 1483
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Bischoff Farideh Z - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For over a decade, methods of first-trimester, noninvasive prenatal genetic diagnosis have been actively pursued by many investigators. Isolation of fetal trophoblast from endocervical specimens remains an attractive approach, given the greater numbers of fetal cells than in maternal blood and the better potential for fetal-cell identification ...
Huppertz Berthold - - 2006
During early placentation the trophoblast of the human placenta differentiates to the villous and extravillous types of trophoblast. Villous trophoblast provides the epithelial cover of the placental villous trees in direct contact to maternal blood. Extravillous trophoblast invades maternal uterine tissues thus directly contacting maternal stromal and immune cells. A ...
Michael Donna D - - 2006
Uterine-derived factors are essential for conceptus development and secretion of the maternal recognition-of-pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), in ruminant species. The objectives of this study were to determine whether fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is expressed in the bovine uterus during early pregnancy in cattle and to determine whether FGF-2 supplementation affects ...
Pongcharoen S - - 2007
Interleukin (IL)-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic activities including inducing neovascularization and production of proangiogenic molecules. As pregnancy outcome depends on the balance of Th1-like/Th2-like cytokines and an increased blood supply to the fetoplacental unit, the expression of IL-17 mRNA and protein in human placental tissues was investigated. IL-17 ...
Aikawa Elena - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The evolution of cell phenotypes and matrix architecture in cardiac valves during fetal maturation and postnatal adaptation through senescence remains unexplored. METHODS AND RESULTS: We hypothesized that valvular interstitial (VIC) and endothelial cell (VEC) phenotypes, critical for maintaining valve function, change throughout life in response to environmental stimuli. We ...
Connors Stephanie A - - 2006
In vertebrates, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway patterns all ventral cell fates along the embryonic axis. BMP activity is positively regulated by Tolloid, a metalloprotease, that can eliminate the activity of the BMP antagonist Chordin. A tolloid mutant in zebrafish, mini fin (mfn), exhibits a specific loss of ...
Prefumo Federico - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of parity on endovascular trophoblastic invasion in early pregnancy. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENT(S): Healthy women at 10-14 weeks of gestation. INTERVENTION(S): Surgical termination of pregnancy for nonmedical reasons. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Products of conception were blindly examined histologically with regard to the ...
Wang Xipeng - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of CD28 and CTLA-4, two costimulatory molecules involved in T-cell activation at the maternal-fetal interface in women with unexplained pregnancy loss. METHODS: A total of 57 women, 39 with unexplained spontaneous abortion (SA) and 18 with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), were enrolled in the ...
Parent Marianne - - 2006
Prostaglandins (PG) are primary regulators of reproductive function. In ruminants, the relative production of PGE2 and PGF2alpha determines the return to a new oestrous cycle or to the establishment of pregnancy in response to a viable embryo. PG action depends on biosynthesis, transport and interaction with their receptors, which are ...
Bakouh N - - 2006
Rh glycoproteins belong to the superfamily of ammonium transporters, but until recent functional studies their functional role was unknown. This review focuses on the functional results obtained in our laboratory after the heterologous expression of RhAG (the erythroid Rh glycoprotein) and RhCG (an epithelial Rh glycoprotein). RhAG and RhCG were ...
Morini M - - 2006
Deciduoid mesothelioma is a rare variant of epithelial mesothelioma, up to now only described in human pathology, which bears remarkable cytomorphologic resemblance to the endometrium of pregnancy, termed decidua. A case of peritoneal mesothelioma with deciduoid features in a 10-year-old, female dog is reported. Multiple whitish-gray nodules (1-5 mm in ...
Bhalla A - - 2006
Recurrent miscarriage affects 1% of all couples attempting pregnancy. Immunological factors are postulated to play a role in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriage because the fetus and placenta are immunologically different from the mother. In particular, altered expression of the, non-classical, class I histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules has been ...
Pongsritasana T - - 2006
The immunomagnetic beads method for isolation of fetal nucleated red blood cells (FNRBCs) from peripheral blood of 78 pregnant women for prenatal diagnosis was developed. The study subjects were classified into 8-10 and 11-14 weeks of gestation (n = 39 each). Peripheral blood cells were divided into two for the ...
Lu Wen-Jen - - 2006
Arsenic is an established human carcinogen. The role of aquaglyroporins (AQPs) in arsenic disposition was recently identified. In order to examine whether organic anion transporting polypeptide-C (OATP-C) also plays a role in arsenic transport, OATP-C cDNA was transfected into cells of a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293). Transfection increased ...
Anahara Reiko - - 2006
Flutamide (FLUT) has potent anti-androgenic activity and is used in the medical field and in a screening test to detect endocrinologically active compounds. Our previous study demonstrated that FLUT induced histological deformation of spermatids and ultrastructural defects of the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) in the mouse testis. The apical ES ...
Zhang Qian Q Division of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2678, - - 2006
This study was initiated to investigate the significance of uterine cell death and proliferation during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy and their correlation with sex steroids in hamsters where blastocyst implantation occurs in only progesterone-primed uteri. The results obtained in hamsters were also compared with mice where blastocyst implantation ...
Aydin Sevim - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the morphology of chorionic villi using light and electron microscopy, especially the expression of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in trophoblastic cells and the process of maturation and margination vasculogenesis proper using CD34 immunohistochemistry in tissues from the first trimester of pregnancy loss due to anembryonic pregnancy in comparison with ...
Adeyemi A B - - 2006
Although variable clinicopathological entities have been documented in sickle cell trait in pregnancy, such information is absent in this environment. This study therefore was aimed at examining the outcome of pregnancy in a population of Nigerian women with sickle cell trait. A prospective analytical study was carried at Ile-Ife, Nigeria ...
Taylor Douglas D - - 2006
Exosome release by viable cells is a feature of activated cell types, including tumors, fetal cells, and cells of the immune system. Exosomes critically regulate immune activation, by mediating activation-induced cell death. Fetal cells may mimic these events to selectively delete reactive lymphocytes. In this study the presence and composition ...
Robinson Nicola J - - 2006
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) expression, distribution and activity were examined in human placenta and derived cells. Immunochemical techniques and RT-PCR were used to demonstrate tTG protein and mRNA in stromal cells and trophoblast in first trimester and at term, with higher levels later in pregnancy. Decidual cells also produce tTG. The ...
Bosco Cleofina - - 2007
This study examined the placentation in the degu, the origin of the extrasubplacental trophoblast (EST) (extravillous trophoblast in human), and the activity of Na+/K+ ATPase in the placental barrier during different gestational ages, as part of a wider effort to understand the reproductive biology of this species. Fifteen degus at ...
Tsai Peter T - - 2006
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal growth factor regulating the production of red blood cells. Recent studies demonstrated that exogenous EPO acts as a neuroprotectant and regulates neurogenesis. Using a genetic approach, we evaluate the roles of endogenous EPO and its classical receptor (EPOR) in mammalian neurogenesis. We demonstrate severe and ...
Sindram-Trujillo, Aliana Patricia
The aim of this thesis was to gain a better understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms associated with maternal tolerance of the fetus during pregnancy. The distribution of decidual leukocytes, specifically uterine NK cells and T cells, in the decidua basalis and parietalis were studied in the setting of normal term ...
Shynlova Oksana - - 2006
In the present study, we determined the contribution of myometrial hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and apoptosis to uterine growth during pregnancy. The changes in two endogenous markers of cell replication, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, were studied. Myocyte hypertrophy was assessed by measuring the protein:DNA ratio. ...
Armant D Randall - - 2006
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), which is expressed in the placenta during normal pregnancy, is down regulated in pre-eclampsia, a human pregnancy disorder associated with poor trophoblast differentiation and survival. This growth factor protects against apoptosis during stress, suggesting a role in trophoblast survival in the relatively low O(2) ( ...
Juliano P B - - 2006
Although an in vitro study has hypothesized that expression of ICAM-1 by villous trophoblasts could be important for the influx of maternal immune cells in villitis, it remains to be shown whether the same phenomenon occurs in human villitis. To investigate the expression of ICAM-1 by villous trophoblasts, its relationship ...
Handschuh K - - 2006
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metzincin metalloproteinase that cleaves the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent binding protein-4 and increases in maternal serum during pregnancy. In human placenta PAPP-A is expressed both in villous cytotrophoblasts (VCT) that cover the chorionic villi and in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVCT) of the anchoring villi. Due ...
Nguyen Huu Sau - - 2006
The embryonic and fetal development in the maternal uterine environment implies that different population of fetal progenitors must be in close contact to the maternal tissues. Accordingly, fetal mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells have been described in the placenta and the fetal blood. Seeding in the maternal circulation, ...
Bernsen R M - - 2006
Childhood allergy constitutes a significant burden of disease in the Western world. The prevalence of this condition is highest in first born children, an as yet unresolved phenomenon called the "birth order effect". The hygiene hypothesis attempted to explain this differential risk by stating that less exposure to microbial agents ...
Xia Hong-Fei - - 2006
Interleukin-1 (IL-1beta) beta and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play an important role during pregnancy. Expression of non-classical class MHC II RT1-DM antigen and classical class MHC I RT1-A antigen induced by IL-1beta was examined by Northern blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. IL-1beta treatment significantly increased the expression of RT1-A and ...
Enders Allen C - - 2006
The hyena placenta is unique among carnivores in being hemochorial. It also has areas of erythrocyte uptake that differ from those seen in more commonly studied carnivores. The availability of timed midterm pregnancies made it possible to examine the organization of the placenta, the distribution of regions of columnar trophoblast ...
Rockwell L Christie - - 2006
The pregnancy-related size enlargement of the guinea pig uterine artery is partially accomplished by hyperplasia in all layers of the vessel wall. We sought to determine the separate and combined effects of chronic hypoxia and pregnancy on the proliferative capacity of uterine artery vascular smooth muscle cells (UA VSMCs). We ...
Kondo Akira - - 2006
We studied the quorum sensing (QS) system and the related homoserine lactones (HSLs) observing Pseudomonas aeruginosa invasion using the epithelial cell monolayer penetration assay model. Compared to the PAO1 wild-type, the QS mutants, DeltalasI and DeltarhlI, were compromised in their capacity to invade. The decreased invasiveness of DeltarhlI was restored ...
Zenclussen Ana Claudia - - 2006
Immunological imbalances have been hypothesized as a cause for the onset of preeclampsia, which is a very severe, pregnancy-related disease. We recently described a novel preeclampsia mouse model by adoptively transferring activated BALB/c Th1-like splenocytes into allogeneically pregnant BALB/c female mice during late gestation. This cell transfer provoked preeclampsia symptoms ...
Strelchenko Nick - - 2006
It has been shown that it is possible to establish human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines from morula. Details of the aforementioned injection method of morula under blastocyst are described in this chapter. This chapter also discloses the application of simultaneous staining for two markers, TRA-2-39 and Oct-4, for characteristics ...
Green Jonathan A - - 2006
The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are a large gene family expressed in trophoblast cells of ruminant ungulates. The detection of PAGs in maternal serum has served as the basis for pregnancy detection in ruminant ungulates and also for use as markers of trophoblast development and placental viability. The methods described provide ...
Pijnenborg Robert - - 2006
In vivo analysis of trophoblast cell invasion is highly dependent on histological techniques, which are amply described in standard textbooks. The emphasis of this chapter therefore lies on material collection and interpretation of tissue sections, rather than on histological techniques per se. Proper identification of vascular structures on placental bed ...
Di Simone Nicoletta - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: A non-invasive prenatal determination of the fetal RhD status might be useful for the management of pregnancies in RhD-negative women whose partners are RhD positive. METHODS: Maternal peripheral blood of 32 RhD-negative women (17-24 weeks of gestation) was collected, and circulating fetal cells were enriched by CD71 mini-magnetic activated ...
Yang Yun - - 2006
In this study, we investigated the expression of CXCL12 (SDF-1)/CXCR4 in trophoblasts and the role they play in the gestation. Immunochemistry was used to detect the expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in human villi and placenta. Highly purified extra-villous trophoblasts (EVTs) ere detected for CXCR4 and CXCL12 in vitro by ...
Guo Junhong - - 2006
To study the role of the reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) gene and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the regulation of trophoblast invasion of early pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and gelatin zymography were used to detect the RECK protein expression localization, expression level and MMP-2 activation level in the placental ...
Gu Yang - - 2006
Endothelial dysfunction is associated with increased oxidative stress in the vascular system in women with preeclampsia (PE), a hypertensive disorder occurring during human pregnancy. However, due to the nature of the disease, direct evidence of increased endothelial oxidative stress in the maternal vascular system at an in vivo situation is ...
Hung T-H - - 2006
Chorioamnionitis increases the risk of preterm labour and is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including cerebral palsy. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) derived from the gestational tissues (placenta, fetal membranes and maternal decidua) is thought to play a pivotal role in the induction of cytokine response in chorioamnionitis. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha ...
Taylor Douglas D - - 2006
Evidence suggests that maternal cell-mediated immunity is suppressed during pregnancy and that failure to suppress immune responses can result in partial or total rejection of the fetus. The molecular events associated with suppression of maternal T-cell activation mediated by circulating pregnancy-associated 14 kDa zeta inhibitor protein (ZIP) were defined in ...
Spadacci-Morena Diva Denelle - - 2006
The injury caused by the intramuscular injection of a single dose of Bothrops jararaca venom (0.24 mg/kg body weight) to mice on day 8 of pregnancy and examined on day 9 was investigated. Macroscopic and histological examination showed that the bothropic venom caused an increase in the incidence of fetal ...
McCord Nicola - - 2006
Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress are features of normal pregnancy and, in excess, contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Inflammatory cell activation stimulates uptake of arginine (the precursor for nitric oxide) by transport system y+, expression of one of its genes (CAT-2) together with inducible nitric oxide synthase, leading to ...
Bassien-Capsa V - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy is an important physiological condition associated with hemodynamic and endocrine changes that affect the heart. Nevertheless, very little is known about cardiomyocyte remodeling in this condition. Here, we studied the morphological, functional and metabolic remodeling of rat left ventricular myocytes that occurs in late stages of normal pregnancy ...
Balgir R S - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: i) To determine the pattern of spectrum of hemoglobinopathies in the state of Orissa, ii) To find the ethnic groups at high risk of hemoglobinopathies, iii) Geographical distribution of hemoglobinopathies, and iv). To know epidemiological aspects of hemoglobinopathy cases in Orissa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One thousand fifteen cases of ...
Fang Chun-Neng - - 2005
AIM: The presence of fetal cells in the endocervical mucus of pregnant women was first reported in 1971. The uterine cavity is patent during the first trimester prior to fusion of amnion and chorion. Fetal cells from degenerating chorion frondosum are theoretically shed into the uterine cavity between seven and ...
Tayade Chandrakant - - 2005
The alpha 2 macroglobulins (A2M) are a family of abundant plasma proteins produced predominantly by the mammalian liver. Pregnancy zone proteins (PZP) of humans and rats are A2M family members that bind a wide variety of macromolecules including the important pregnancy-associated molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor, placenta growth ...
Bose P - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The epithelium of the human placenta comprises an inner cytotrophoblast (CT) which proliferates and fuses with the outer differentiated syncytiotrophoblast (ST). Turnover has been studied focussing on second and third trimester placentas but with a paucity of data describing the normal first trimester trophoblast. The aim of this study ...
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