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Results 401 - 450 of 814
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Carr S R - - 1991
Maternal myasthenia gravis has been associated with the presence of neonatal myasthenia and sometimes fatal congenital anomalies. As a result, antenatal therapy directed at fetal sequelae may be indicated. We present the case of a pregnant myasthenic woman whose two previous pregnancies had ended in neonatal deaths from fetal deformations ...
Schreyer P - - 1991
Fetal breathing movements were recorded before elective labor induction in 65 patients with uncomplicated prolonged pregnancies. Breathing activity was observed in 41 patients and was absent in 24. Comparison of these two groups indicated that the induction period was significantly shorter and the oxytocin requirement significantly lower in the group ...
Charbonneau M - - 1991
A 32 yr-old woman in her last trimester of pregnancy was found to have severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The overnight polysomnogram demonstrated an apnea plus hypopnea index of 159 events per hour. Apneas were associated with severe oxygen desaturation to 40% during rapid eye movement sleep, maternal bradycardia, and ...
Ohlsson A - - 1991
Twenty-three pregnancies with fetuses at risk for pulmonary hypoplasia were studied weekly until delivery. The amount of time spent in fetal breathing activity was recorded under controlled conditions during 1 h using real-time ultrasound. An amniotic fluid index was determined. The clinicians and the pathologist were unaware of the ultrasound ...
Goovaerts H G - - 1991
A new transducer has been developed, based on an inductive principle, for recording fetal movements and sounds. The compliance of this transducer, the INductive PHOno-sensor (INPHO), can be matched to that of the maternal abdomen to provide an optimal transfer of displacement between maternal abdomen and transducer. In this manner, ...
Kanaan C M - - 1991
Induced maternal hypercapnia is a potent stimulus to fetal breathing movements in nonlaboring pregnant women. To determine the effect of maternal CO2 administration on fetal breathing movements during spontaneous labor, 14 healthy pregnant volunteers at term and 34 in preterm labor were recruited. If fetal breathing movements were markedly decreased ...
Kisilevsky B S - - 1991
Two methods of evaluating fetal movement responses elicited by vibroacoustic stimulation--maternal perceptions and ultrasound scan observations--were compared in 58 low-risk and 35 high-risk pregnancies from 23-36 weeks' gestation. Maternal perception of vibrator-elicited fetal movement was poor compared with ultrasound scan observation. Regardless of gestational age or risk status, the mothers ...
Nocon J J - - 1991
Section 2.01 of the Fetal Protection Act of 1999 defines "qualified patient" as one who registers a pregnancy by six weeks of gestational age. Section 2.02 requires that a patient be "qualified" before receiving financial aid. Similarly, all private third party payers require "registration" of the pregnancy by six weeks. ...
Tuffnell D J - - 1991
We prospectively recorded placental site, maternal weight and parity in 182 patients reporting decreased fetal movements and compared these with controls. Reports of decreased fetal movements were 2.10 times (95% CI 1.51-2.92) as likely in association with an anterior placenta and 1.81 times (95% CI 1.20-2.93) and 2.61 times (95% ...
Chutiwongse S - - 1991
Maternal perception of sound-provoked fetal movement test was studied on 506 occasions in 443 women with obstetric or medical antenatal risk factors after 26 weeks gestation. The response was compared with a nonstress test (NST) performed immediately after a three-second vibroacoustic stimulation with an electronic artificial larynx. A positive response ...
Mulder E J - - 1991
In 20 women with type-1 diabetes, the emergence of fetal movement patterns was studied using real-time ultrasound. One-hour recordings were made once a week between the 7th and 17th week of gestation. Data were compared to those obtained in uncomplicated pregnancy. The diabetic women were being treated with continuous subcutaneous ...
Parkes M J - - 1991
We measured the effects of 2 minutes of vibroacoustic stimulation on the activity of unanesthetized fetal sheep in utero. We were unable to detect any changes in activity after stimulation with a model 5C electrolarynx. With more powerful stimulation using a mechanical oscillator, fetal electrocortical activity desynchronized. Fetal breathing and ...
Mulder E J - - 1991
Delayed emergence of movement patterns and disturbances in the development of behavioural states are often observed in the fetuses of diabetic women. The developmental course of specific fetal movement patterns was studied in 20 women with type-1 diabetes during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim was to investigate whether ...
Harding R - - 1991
The aim of this study was to characterize the pre-natal activity of the respiratory muscles in a non-ruminant, the pig. Tracheal pressure was recorded from 11 unanaesthetized fetal pigs in utero during late gestation in 9 sows. Two types of inspiratory effort occurred episodically in each fetus during each recording ...
Levine S - - 1991
We describe a triaxial magnetometer (Tri-mag) system, which consists of a transmitter, four sensors, a processing unit, and a personal computer (PC). The Tri-mag processing unit outputs the position of each sensor relative to the transmitter in three orthogonal coordinates, and this information is communicated to the PC. First, we ...
Visser G H - - 1991
This review presents a possible rank order in which changes occur in blood flow velocity waveforms, fetal movements, and heart rate patterns in growth-retarded fetuses with progressive deterioration of the fetal condition. With antenatal fetal monitoring, hypoxemia can be diagnosed accurately. The impact of monitoring on (neurologic) morbidity is, however, ...
Jansen A H - - 1991
Technical advances during the last several decades have greatly facilitated research into fetal physiology and behavior, specifically fetal breathing (FB). Breathing movements have been demonstrated in the fetuses of every mammalian species investigated and appear to be part of normal fetal development. In this review we focus on the methods ...
Gallego J - - 1991
The reaction time (RT) to an auditory stimulus was measured in 27 subjects during spontaneous breathing and during controlled breathing, which consisted of maintaining a set inspiratory duration. During spontaneous breathing, reaction times were unrelated to the time the stimulus was delivered during the breathing cycle. During controlled breathing, reaction ...
Roberts A B - - 1991
Forty-three patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes were studied between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation. Intraamniotic infection was excluded by amniocentesis. There were significantly fewer fetal breathing movements for the first 2 weeks of membrane rupture, compared with controls, with a return to near normal by the third week. ...
Rolider A - - 1991
The effect of a brief movement restriction (BMR) procedure on the maladaptive behavior of two severely mentally retarded persons was evaluated using a multiple baseline research design. Following a functional analysis of the maladaptive behaviors, baseline data were collected on the frequency of smearing in a six year old boy ...
Goldkrand J W - - 1991
Habituation is the decremental response to repetitive stimulation and is a learned response. One hundred five fetuses from 26 normal and 79 high-risk pregnancies were evaluated from 28 to 43 weeks' gestation and in labor as to the fetal heart rate response from repetitive vibroacoustic stimulation. Four patterns were observed: ...
Bocking A D - - 1991
The assessment of behavioural activity of the fetus is widely used to assess fetal health in clinical practice as part of the biophysical profile as well as the nonstress test. Considerable information regarding normal activity patterns of healthy human fetuses have been obtained from 24 to 40 weeks gestation. It ...
Pillai M - - 1991
In late pregnancy, when fetal behavioural states are well developed, human fetuses spend about one third of their time in a quiescent state, 1F. In healthy fetuses biophysical tests often appear suboptimal if recording happens to occur in this state, and as a result prolonged recording may be necessary. We ...
Brien J F - - 1991
Alcohol (ethanol) use during pregnancy can produce a wide spectrum of effects in the developing embryo/fetus that are dependent on the maternal drinking pattern. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on the developing conceptus are reviewed with primary focus on ethanol teratogenesis, manifesting in the human as the fetal alcohol ...
Higuchi M - - 1991
In 15 pregnant women with normal pregnancy at 25-32 weeks of gestation, fetal breathing movements (FBM), fetal body movements and fetal heart rate were continuously and simultaneously recorded over a total period of 180 min. The frequency of successive FBM with a duration less than 10 s (apnea period greater ...
Higuchi M - - 1991
Fetal breathing patterns in 102 patients delivering before 37 weeks of gestation were divided into three types by the duration of successive respiratory activity using an ultrasonic scanner. Approximately 80% of the fetuses with fetal breathing absent or less than 9 s developed neonatal respiratory complications, including 11 cases of ...
Spencer J A - - 1991
Umbilical artery continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound waveforms were obtained from three groups of fetuses in late gestation: during quiescence, fetal breathing movements, and fetal body movements. The coefficients of variation, calculated from three values for each Doppler index, which were derived from one, two, four, six and eight waveforms, decreased as ...
Maeda K - - 1991
Actocardiogram is the simultaneous recording of fetal movement (FM) and fetal heart rate (FHR) with the use of a single transducer by weak ultrasound. Fetal behavioral states, fetal hiccups, nonpathologic sinusoidal FHR pattern induced by cyclic FM were reported in the use of this technique. Computer processing of FM signals ...
Arduini D - - 1991
A longitudinal study was performed on 35 healthy fetuses in order to evaluate the developmental course of behavioural transitions during the last trimester of pregnancy. A progressive decrease in the duration of transitions as a function of gestational age was evidenced for both transitions from 1F to 2F and transitions ...
Samueloff A - - 1991
Fetal movements (FM) may be spontaneous, originating in the fetus itself, or evoked, caused by external stimuli. The FM in 21 normal twin pregnancies at 10 and 21 weeks of gestation were studied. The percentage rate of evoked FM which occur simultaneously in both twins was 4.96% of all observed ...
Koren G - - 1991
We report the results of the first prospective, multicenter study of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in pregnancy. We collected and followed cases of CO poisoning occurring during pregnancy between December 1985 and March 1989. The sources of CO were malfunctioning furnaces (n = 16), hot water heaters (n = ...
Kozuma S - - 1991
The inspiratory times of fetal breathing movements were measured in REM and NREM periods, respectively, and their changes with advancing gestational age were investigated. Ten women without complications in their 20th to 40th week of pregnancy were examined. Fetal breathing movements and REM were observed simultaneously using ultrasonography. REM and ...
Maeda K - - 1990
Important biological signals from the fetus, including fetal heart rate and fetal movement, were obtained electronically by recent medical engineering techniques and processed (usually) via analogue-to-digital converter followed by analysis on a personal computer. The knowledge of obstetrical experts was analysed and used in computer processing. Fetal heart rate changes ...
Gagnon R - - 1990
Thirteen pregnant women who subsequently were delivered of infants with birth weights less than the 3rd percentile were studied for examination of fetal heart rate and fetal activity patients during maternal administration of oxygen at a concentration of 50% or room air for 2 hours. None of the fetuses was ...
Akagi K - - 1990
We examined whether there was a minimal change in fetal arterial Po2 necessary to elicit alterations in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, arginine vasopressin, or cortisol or to affect the incidence of breathing movements or eye movements in fetal sheep at 106-117 days of gestation. Fetal sheep were exposed to two levels ...
Miller J M JM - - 1990
A modified biophysical profile was assessed serially in 47 patients with premature rupture of membranes who were not in labor. This profile included fetal movement, fetal tone, fetal breathing, amniotic fluid volume, and placental grade. The most recent study, obtained within 2 days of delivery, was compared with pregnancy outcome ...
Pillai M - - 1990
Serial recording in 45 low risk fetuses throughout the second and third trimesters showed that hiccups were the predominant diaphragmatic movement before 26 weeks' gestational age and that there was a significant negative correlation with gestational age. There was a pronounced reduction between 24 and 26 weeks, which was the ...
Sarno A P AP - - 1990
Unfavorable fetal position during diagnostic obstetric ultrasound can interfere with visualization of certain structures, leading to prolonged or repeated examination. Fetal acoustic stimulation induces a fetal startle reflex and an increase in fetal movements. This report describes our experience with fetal acoustic stimulation to prompt fetal movement in an effort ...
Blanco C E - - 1990
Hypoxia inhibits fetal breathing movements but after birth it stimulates breathing. These differences have long been thought to involve central nervous inhibitory mechanisms. Such mechanisms might exert a tonic inhibition of fetal breathing movements at normal fetal PaO2 and the rise in PaO2 at birth might lift this inhibitory effect. ...
Johnston B M - - 1990
Almitrine bimesylate is a potent and long-lasting respiratory stimulant in adult species. It acts by stimulating the peripheral chemoreceptors, where it has been shown to accumulate specifically, although its exact mechanism of action is uncertain. In the fetal lamb, however, it produces a profound inhibition of breathing even after denervation ...
Swartjes J M - - 1990
The fetal behavioural state concept was used to study fetal rest-activity cycles in normal pregnancies at gestational ages of 32 and 38 weeks. In addition, it was investigated if clustering of fetal movements was already present in recordings obtained at 20 weeks. At 20 weeks, 17 periods lasting longer than ...
Bamford O S - - 1990
Clonidine is a recommended antihypertensive for use during pregnancy, although little is known of its fetal effects. This study examines the effects of clonidine on breathing and sleep-state cycling in fetal lambs. Clonidine was infused into a fetal lateral ventricle for up to 24 hours at 128 to 135 days' ...
Wolfson V P - - 1990
Although the human upper respiratory-upper digestive tract is an area of vital importance, relatively little is known about either the structural or functional changes that occur in the region during the fetal period. While investigations in our laboratory have begun to chart these changes through the use of postmortem materials, ...
Mills M S - - 1990
The biophysical profile score is widely accepted as a superior predictor of acute-on-chronic fetal asphyxia over the nonstress test. Nevertheless, in the United Kingdom facilities for assessment of high-risk pregnancies by nonstress test are more widely available than with the biophysical profile score. After a retrospective review of 2038 biophysical ...
Van den Veyver I - - 1990
A documented case of beginning aseptic necrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy together with a review of the literature about this rare complication of pregnancy is presented. The patient complained of increasing pain in the right hip and limitation of movement of the affected joint. After delivery, the ...
Koos B J - - 1990
Graded methemoglobinemia (MetHb) was produced in unanesthetized fetal sheep to determine the effects on brain oxygenation. MetHb was induced by infusing methemoglobin-containing erythrocytes in exchange for fetal blood. During the hour after MetHb was established, fetal methemoglobin concentrations averaged 1.23 +/- 0.12 (mild MetHb), 1.71 +/- 0.13 (moderate MetHb), and ...
Myers M M - - 1990
Coordination between breathing and heart rate (HR) is known to occur in many species and is commonly called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). In this report, we provide evidence that a homologous phenomenon can be demonstrated in the fetuses of nonhuman primates. In chronically instrumented fetal baboons we found cyclical variations ...
Akagi K - - 1990
We examined whether there was a threshold for change in fetal arterial PO2 to elicit alterations in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, arginine vasopressin, or cortisol, or to affect the incidence of fetal breathing movements or eye movements and we determined whether such a threshold changed with gestational age. Fetal sheep were ...
Manning F A - - 1990
The relationship between last abnormal biophysical profile score, in total and by variable composition, and a spectra of abnormal perinatal outcome end points was examined in 525 fetuses. Highly significant inverse relationships between last test score and outcome were observed; relationships were linear for most end points and exponential for ...
Zimmer E Z - - 1990
Fetal response to vibratory acoustic stimulation (VAS) was studied in 12 healthy parturients in the active phase of labor. All fetuses were evaluated in both spontaneous and analgesia-induced states of low activity and low cardiac beat-to-beat variability. Analgesia was induced with intravenous maternal administration of meperidine, 0.8 mg/kg, plus a ...
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