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Results 351 - 400 of 814
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Ekholm E M - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To study the physiological responses to noninvasive cardiovascular autonomic function tests in normal pregnancy. DESIGN: Cardiovascular autonomic responses in 60 women at 22 to 29 weeks gestation and 62 nonpregnant women were investigated using the Valsalva manoeuvre as well as orthostatic, quiet breathing, deep breathing, and isometric handgrip tests. ...
Stark R I - - 1993
Patterns of fetal breathing activity were examined in a longitudinal study of the fetal baboon over the latter third of gestation. More than 1400 h of recorded tracheal fluid pressure in 16 or 24 h records from seven fetuses over a range in gestation from 121 to 172 days (term, ...
Groome L J - - 1993
Habituation is a measure of the ability to inhibit responding and is a more mature form of behavior than is persistent responding. We examined the developmental trend in habituation of the fetal startle response to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation in 90 normal human fetuses between 28 and 40 weeks of gestation. ...
Ross M G - - 1993
Ovine fetal swallowing primarily occurs in bouts of activity associated with low voltage electrocorticogram activity and breathing movements. Despite similar rates of electromyographic swallowing activity, there are significant differences in the net esophageal fluid flow among fetuses. To determine if variations in the volume of fluids accessible to the fetus ...
Ribbert L S - - 1993
Fetal heart rate (FHR) variation, general movements (FGM), breathing movements (FBM) and haemodynamics were studied longitudinally in 19 intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, who eventually were delivered by caesarean section (CS) because of fetal distress, in order to determine changes occurring with time. The fetuses were studied for the last 10 ...
Geerdink J J - - 1993
It is hypothesised that individual differences in nervous system functioning, undetected by a neurological examination, are reflected in the quality of spontaneous movements of preterm newborns. Given this hypothesis it is expected that a short pregnancy duration and IUGR will be related to an abnormal movement quality. These expectations were ...
Thompson C R - - 1993
Cardiorespiratory interactions in healthy full term newborns were investigated. Spectral analysis was used on heart rate and breathing data from 22 neonates 2-5 days old to reveal coincident frequencies in the breathing and heart rate variability (HRV) spectra, thus identifying respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The spectral description of HRV in ...
Kisilevsky B S - - 1992
Maturation of human fetal response to vibroacoustic stimulation was examined in 60 fetuses from 23 to 36 weeks gestational age. Subjects received vibroacoustic or no-stimulus control trials (randomly assigned) while fetal heart rate (FHR) was recorded and movement was observed on real-time ultrasound scan. Initially, at 26-28 weeks, a small ...
Rigatto H - - 1992
In summary, although the basic mechanisms involved in the control of breathing during fetal and neonatal life are similar to those investigated more extensively in adult subjects, there are some aspects that make this control unique at this age. First, sleep seems to have a very profound effect during this ...
Sorokin Y - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prostaglandin (PG) E2, given for induction of labor at term, on fetal breathing and body movements. METHODS: Eighteen women with term pregnancies, mild gestational hypertension, intact membranes, and unripe cervices who were not in labor participated in this study. After a 60-minute baseline ultrasound ...
Sival D A - - 1992
In 17 fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), we studied the quantity of general movements and fetal breathing movements both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In IUGR fetuses, cross-sectional comparisons were made between the quantity of fetal movements and (1) the fetal clinical condition and (2) the quality of general movements. In ...
Eller D P - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the fetal response to the vibroacoustic stimulation test when applied alternately over the fetal vertex or breech. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred five patients with a nonreactive nonstress test after 10 minutes were prospectively randomized to receive the vibroacoustic stimulation test over the fetal ...
Hallak M - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The null hypothesis of this study is that maternal administration of indomethacin or terbutaline will not affect fetal breathing and body movements. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty patients with a low-risk pregnancy, gestational age 26 to 32 weeks, and no signs of preterm labor were randomly assigned to receive either terbutaline ...
Davidson S R - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: We attempted to determine the relationship between the fetal heart rate power spectrum and fetal state. STUDY DESIGN: Interbeat intervals, electrocortical activity, and fetal breathing movements were recorded from five near-term fetal lambs. Interbeat intervals were taken from epochs of low-voltage electrocortical activity with breathing, low-voltage electrocortical activity without ...
Wilailak S - - 1992
In this prospective study, comparisons were made between the results of fetal movement count as performed by either the attending staff or by the patients using the non stress test (NST). A total of 283 NSTs were performed in 200 patients who had singleton pregnancy of at least 32 weeks ...
Spencer J A - - 1992
Fetal movements with their associated FHR accelerations, as well as the cyclic alternation between episodes of low and high FHR variability, particularly in late pregnancy, give a clear indication of the fetal rest-activity cycle. FHR variability changes during labor indicate that the rest-activity cycle continues even though perceived movements may ...
Baier R J - - 1992
We tested the hypothesis that the continuous breathing response to oxygen or oxygen plus umbilical cord occlusion, in the fetal sheep, could be modified by gestational age or labour. We studied 35 chronically instrumented fetal sheep on 84 occasions during late gestation (124 to 141 days), using our window model ...
Richardson B S - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the effect of a prolonged and graded reduction in fetal arterial oxygen saturation on electrocortical activity and associated biophysical variables. STUDY DESIGN: Fourteen unanesthetized fetal sheep were studied between 126 and 135 days' gestation with continuous monitoring of electrocortical and electroocular activity and breathing ...
Szeto H H - - 1992
The dynamic pattern of fetal breathing was studied in 17 fetal lambs with chronically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the diaphragm. The instantaneous breathing rate time series appeared similar on different time scales, with clusters of faster breathing rates interspersed with periods of relative quiescience, suggesting self-similarity. Distribution histograms of the ...
Baser I - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical value of identified coupling of fetal heart rate (FHR) accelerations (more than five beats per minute for any duration) with objectively detected fetal movements. METHODS: One hundred sixty-six patients underwent routine fetal testing using a Doppler device that recognized ...
Del Valle G O - - 1992
Sixty-eight women admitted with the diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and a latency period of at least 48 hours were followed expectantly. Fetal surveillance consisted of daily kick counts, daily nonstress test (NST), and fetal biophysical profile every 48-72 hours. Patients were delivered as a result of ...
Pillai M - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the normal sequence of neurobehavioral development in the human fetus between 14 weeks' gestation and delivery. STUDY DESIGN: The study was performed by longitudinal ultrasonographic observation of 45 low-risk singleton fetuses. RESULTS: During the first half of the midtrimester there was a high rate ...
Swartjes J M - - 1992
The potential influence of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on fetal CNS function was studied with respect to motility patterns. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of spontaneous fetal activity were investigated for chronic AED-exposed fetuses and controls at three intervals during pregnancy: i.e. 20, 32 and 38 weeks. Movements were observed applying real-time ...
Wenstrom K D - - 1992
In summary, fetal pulmonary development occurs in three phases. Hypoplasia results when an interruption occurs in or before the canalicular stage. Factors necessary for normal lung growth include sustained adequate amniotic fluid volume and normal fetal breathing movements. Pulmonary hypoplasia is most likely to occur with a very early rupture ...
Marnoch A - - 1992
Maternal perception of fetal movements has, over the years, become recognised as a valuable tool for early detection of fetal compromise. Several studies published in the mid-1970s have demonstrated that a reduction or cessation in maternally perceived fetal movements may precede antepartum late fetal death by a day or longer. ...
Kuipers I M - - 1992
We investigated the role of cord occlusion in the initiation of breathing at birth using an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator system to control fetal blood gases independently of the placenta in 12 chronically instrumented fetal lambs. In group IA (n = 9; exp = 12) PaCO2 was kept constant (5.62 +/- ...
Makanjuola D - - 1992
A prospective study of 109 high risk pregnancies on whom 279 fetal biophysical (FBP) examinations were performed showed positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 71.4%, respectively in the last FBP examination prior to delivery. The study confirmed other reports in the literature of a high correlation between normal ...
Chew F T - - 1992
Over a 9-year period, 2,601 women had antenatal cardiotocography (CTG) performed after reporting diminished fetal movements. This series represented 5.6% of the total hospital population and 16.1% of those having antenatal CTG performed. The perinatal mortality rate (0.8%) and major fetal malformation rate (2.2%) were lower than in the hospital ...
Szeto H H - - 1992
Developmental changes in the continuity and stability of fetal breathing patterns were studied in 27 fetal lambs with chronically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the diaphragm throughout the third trimester (102-140 days). The results showed that there was a progressive decrease in the incidence of fetal breathing movements throughout the third ...
Lundström F - - 1992
In a sample of orthodontic patients (27 boys and 25 girls, 10 to 14 years old), natural head position (NHP) was photographically recorded. A vertical axis was recorded on the photographs with a plumb line and transferred to the lateral head radiographs of the patients. Three cephalometric reference lines (sella-nasion, ...
Sival D A - - 1992
The effect of severe intrauterine growth retardation on the quality of general movements was studied longitudinally in 17 human fetuses. During the prenatal and postnatal periods, fetal movements were recorded by means of weekly 1 h ultrasound and video registrations. Neurological examinations were performed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 ...
Fowden A L - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of fetal plasma glucose and prostaglandin E in controlling fetal breathing movements. STUDY DESIGN: Five late pregnant ewes with catheterized twin fetuses were fasted for 48 hours; one fetus was kept normoglycemic (by glucose infusion) and the other allowed ...
Visser G H - - 1992
The development of the motor component of the embryonic and fetal central nervous system can be studied by observation of fetal movements, using real-time ultrasound. In this paper data on emergence and development of fetal movement patterns and behavioural states are reviewed in the light of the normal development of ...
Walkinshaw S - - 1992
In a prospective blind study, 133 fetuses suspected of being small for gestational age (SGA), defined as an estimated fetal weight less than the 10th centile for gestation, were monitored by weekly biophysical profile assessment. Perinatal outcome was assessed by umbilical venous blood pH estimation and compared with the profile ...
Nyman M - - 1992
Maternal perception of fetal movement in response to vibro-acoustic stimulation was compared with antenatal fetal heart rate monitoring as a test of fetal well-being in a population of gravidae with high-risk pregnancies (n = 517), admitted to the high-risk ward at Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet; a total of 2,015 tests ...
Thompson P J - - 1992
We have previously demonstrated that maternal and fetal prostaglandin levels may be elevated in patients with pregnancies complicated by premature and prolonged rupture of the membranes (PPROM) compared to patients with intact membranes. In the fetal lamb, infusion of prostaglandin abolishes fetal breathing movements and in human pregnancies with PPROM ...
Pillai M - - 1992
A case is described where prolonged serial observations were carried out on a fetus, between 26 and 3.5 weeks' gestation, the membranes having been ruptured from 23 weeks. No fetal breathing or cyclical activity was observed, and there was no evidence of development of linkage between the fetal behavioral state ...
Sherer D M - - 1992
We present a case that describes a partial fetal response to external vibratory acoustic stimulation in that, although no fetal movements were elicited, a blunted, brief positive cardioacceleratory response was noted. This fetus exhibited features of the Pena-Shokeir syndrome, characterized by skeletal neurogenic atrophy, yet with a normal auditory system ...
Prete F R - - 1992
Tethered, adult female Sphodromantis lineola (Burr.) were presented with two groups of two-dimensional stimuli (i.e., 2-D lures) against various backgrounds. Lure Group 1 comprised various black rectangles in three different size arrays: each size array included a 2, 6, or 12 mm square, respectively, several 'worm' lures of a constant ...
Bekedam D J - - 1991
In hypoxemic intrauterine growth-retarded fetuses (IUGR) there is a reduction in the incidence of fetal movements and in fetal heart rate variation. A causal relationship with the impairment of fetal oxygenation has been suggested. In 16 IUGR fetuses and in 13 normally grown fetuses maternal hyperoxygenation was applied for 40 ...
Goldkrand J W - - 1991
Hiccoughs are a physiological phenomenon, beginning in the second trimester of pregnancy, increasing in frequency throughout gestation, and continuing into the neonatal period. There is concern about the safety of the use of vibroacoustic stimulation of the third-trimester fetus as part of the evaluation of fetal well-being. This study was ...
Manning F A - - 1991
The practice of medicine is undergoing marked changes fueled by the infusion of vast amounts of new information concerning the etiology, the progressive pathophysiology, and the complexity of host response to disease states. It is only recently that we have begun to examine the present extent of fetal disease and ...
Carroll M W - - 1991
To determine the energy cost of low impact aerobic dance while varying arm movement height and the use of hand weights, 10 adults volunteered to participate in four choreographed trials. All trials consisted of identical leg movements. Arm movements, however, were performed above shoulder level both with and without 0.9-kg ...
Goovaerts H G - - 1991
A recently developed transducer based on an inductive principle allows recording of fetal displacement signals on the maternal abdominal wall. The transducer is a relatively passive device, in contrast to commonly applied ultrasound transducers. This permits long-term observation of fetal movements and sounds. The bandwidth of the system is DC-200 ...
Goovaerts H G - - 1991
In a European collaboration, a joint project to conduct an experimental and clinical investigation of recently developed sensors from three centres (Amsterdam, Cambridge and Edinburgh) has been carried out. The Amsterdam sensor was based on an inductive principle whereas the Cambridge and Edinburgh transducers used a piezo-electric material (PVDF) as ...
Sherman D J - - 1991
A computer-based system, incorporating electromyography (EMG) and esophageal fluid flow measurement, was used to determine fetal breathing and swallowing responses to graded maternal hypoxemia. Five chronically prepared ewes with singleton fetuses at a gestational age of 130 +/- 2 (SE) days were subjected to successive 30-min periods of mild and ...
Hui C S - - 1991
1. The effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) on various steps in the excitation-contraction coupling sequence, including action potential, charge movement and twitch tension, were studied in twitch fibres of Rana temporaria. 2. The resting potential of intact fibres in whole muscle bathed in 20 mM-BDM was the same as control. ...
Mikhail M S - - 1991
The effect of fetal movement counting on maternal attachment to fetus was investigated in 213 women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at 28 to 32 weeks' gestation. Women were randomized into those who counted fetal movements using the Sadovsky (n = 63) or Cardiff (n = 62) charts and controls (n ...
Reddy U M - - 1991
The prognostic significance of antepartum fetal movement is well known; therefore it may be a variable in intrapartum fetal well-being. We report the simultaneous observation of fetal movement with fetal heart rate and uterine contractions by processed Doppler actograph signals during spontaneous labor of 22 normal women with normal fetal ...
Swartjes J M - - 1991
Rest-activity patterns were studied in fetuses exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and in control fetuses at three intervals during pregnancy: 20, 32, and 38 weeks. At 20 weeks, periods of rest and activity were distinguished on the basis of fetal motility. Trunk, head, and arm movements were totaled. Periods of ...
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