Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 967
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De las Cuevas Carlos - - 2006
Psychiatric treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be desirable or necessary during pregnancy; however, the benefit of these treatments must balance the benefits to the mother with any risk to the developing foetus. At the present time, the role of serotonin in normal central nervous system development, as ...
McMillan Carolyn V - - 2006
Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being were evaluated for adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD): the General Well-being Index, (GWBI)--British version of the Psychological General Well-being Index, and the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ12). Reliability, structure and other aspects of validity were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 157 ...
Jones Graham P - - 2006
A number of N-methylproline analogues have been found to accumulate in different species of Tamarix. These include N-methyl-L-proline (MP), trans-4-hydroxy-N-methyl-L-proline (M4HP) and trans-3-hydroxy-N-methyl-L-proline (M3HP). The three compounds appeared in all species but their relative and absolute levels depend upon species, ecotype and level of applied salt stress. A salt-conditioned ecotype ...
Limlomwongse N - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify depressive moods as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in late pregnancy and postpartum, explore associated factors and assess changes in depressive moods. METHODS: A cohort study of 610 pregnant Thai women was conducted. The self-reporting EPDS was completed at 36-40 weeks and at 6-8 weeks ...
Briere John - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Dissociative responses that occur at the time of a trauma (peritraumatic dissociation) have been described as a major risk factor for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study evaluated peritraumatic dissociation and PTSD from a multivariate perspective, along with a less-investigated phenomenon: trauma-specific dissociation that begins during or ...
Teixeira J - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Antenatal maternal anxiety has adverse effects on the fetus and the child. In this study we determined whether a short period of directed or of passive relaxation reduced maternal self-rated anxiety, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, cortisol and uterine artery resistance index, in pregnant women. METHODS: Fifty-eight women (28-32 wks ...
Browne Joanna C - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Research to date suggests a relationship between fish consumption, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and depression. However, interpretation of this research is difficult due to methodological limitations. Postpartum women provide an excellent opportunity to examine these relationships because omega-3s are transferred from mother to fetus during pregnancy and from mother ...
Skouteris Helen - - 2005
This study examined changes in body image and predictors of body dissatisfaction during pregnancy. It was expected that higher levels of depression, social comparison tendencies, teasing, societal pressure to be thin and public self-consciousness would predict body dissatisfaction prospectively. Healthy pregnant women (n=128) completed questionnaires on three occasions during their ...
MacGregor Hayley - - 2006
In South Africa, disability grant allocation has been under review and tensions are evident in government rhetoric stressing welfare provision on the one hand, and encouraging 'rationalization' on the other. This ambiguity is traced down to the level of grant negotiations between doctors and 'clients' in a psychiatry clinic in ...
Farrow Claire V - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between maternal psychopathological symptomatology during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postnatally and maternal use of controlling and restrictive feeding practices at 1 year. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Eighty-seven women completed a measure of psychological distress during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months ...
Struijk P C - - 2005
This paper presents a methodology for estimating the wall shear stress in the fetal descending aorta from color Doppler velocity profiles obtained during the second half of pregnancy. The Womersley model was applied to determine the wall shear stress and related hemodynamic parameters. Our analysis indicates that the aortic diameter ...
Mian Ayesha I - - 2005
The author reviews the risks and benefits of untreated maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period and its effects on the well-being of the mother and infant. She then discusses the significant role psychiatrists can play in detecting and managing maternal depression as a primary measure for preventing future ...
Mooring M S - - 2006
A primary response to stress is an increase in circulating adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) such as cortisol. Two hypotheses propose differential stress responses to agonistic and aggressive interactions in social groups. If subordinate animals are subjected to social and psychological stressors leading to chronic GC elevation, the 'stress of subordination' hypothesis ...
Tsubouchi H - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of maternal ingestion of an ordinary dose of coffee on maternal stress and placental and fetal blood circulation during the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a Doppler blood flow analysis for 10 women in the third trimester of pregnancy before and after they ...
Misdrahi David - - 2005
Fluctuations in steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and estradiol) levels during pregnancy and after delivery are thought to contribute to the etiology of postpartum depression. Such changes may be exacerbated by stressful events, which constitute a predisposing factor for postpartum mood disorders. In the present study, blood hormonal variations associated with prepartum ...
Austin Marie-Paule - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Although it has long been acknowledged that chronic HPA axis dysregulation impacts on adult neural function, little attention has been paid to the impact that disturbances of the maternal HPA axis may have on the developing fetal brain. AIM: This editorial examines the associations between prenatal stress, neuroendocrine functioning, ...
Zonana Jessica - - 2005
Postpartum psychiatric changes can range from maternity blues to psychosis. Causality is still undetermined, but explanations for these disturbances often focus on hormonal changes and dysregulation. Researchers have begun the process of delineating what neurobiological factors may be associated with depressive disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum. This article reviews ...
Halbreich Uriel - - 2005
Pregnancy and peripartum/perinatal periods are characterized by significant biologic as well as psychosocial processes and changes that influence the 2 individuals at focus (mother and fetus), as well as their interactions with the immediate environment. Multiple intertwined pathologic pregnancy processes (hormonal, biologic, stress and other mental occurrences) may lead to ...
de Weerth Carolina - - 2005
In this study, basal saliva cortisol was determined in women at 32 weeks of pregnancy and again at 9 months post-partum. During pregnancy, the cortisol levels of the 119 subjects were found to be elevated, with noon and evening levels more than twice as high as during the non-pregnant state. ...
Tsai Yung-Pin - - 2006
Eleven test runs (including two replicates) were carried out to explore the interaction of shear stress and chlorine concentration on the growth of heterotrophic microorganisms. Experimental results revealed that influent chlorine concentration and shear stress had no interaction on biofilm formation. Biofilm bacterial numbers decreased with the increase of influent ...
Luo Z C - - 2006
Too small size at birth (due to poor fetal growth and/or preterm delivery) has been associated with substantially elevated risks of the metabolic syndrome (dislipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension), type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The mechanisms of such "fetal origins" or "programming" of disease phenomenon remain unresolved. Too ...
Felice E - - 2006
This paper reports the validation of the Maltese translated Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale against Diagnostic Criteria for Research (DCR-10) diagnosis for severe, moderate and mild depression during pregnancy (antenatally) and at 8 weeks postnatally. A random sample of 239 pregnant women were interviewed at booking and at 8 weeks postnatally ...
Husain Mustafa M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Depression during pregnancy can have significant health consequences for the mother and her infant. Antidepressant medications, which pass through the placenta, may increase the risk of low birth weight and preterm delivery. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy may induce serotonergic symptoms in the infant ...
Virgolini M B - - 2006
Elevated lead (Pb) exposures preferentially impact low socioeconomic status (SES) populations, the same groups thought to sustain the highest levels of environmental stress. As co-occurring risk factors, therefore, Pb and stress could interact, a possibility further supported by the fact that both act on mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems of the brain. ...
Welberg Leonie A M - - 2005
This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic restraint stress during the third week of pregnancy on placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) activity in rats. Acute exposure to stress on gestational day 20 immediately up-regulated placental 11beta-HSD2 activity by 160%, while chronic stress from day 14 to day ...
Ayers Susan - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to establish the acceptability of a Latest Date of Delivery (LDD) system of managing pregnancy. An LDD is the date at 42 weeks on which labour will be induced if a woman has not delivered by then. This study examined whether women under conventional expected date ...
Engel Stephanie Mulherin - - 2005
The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 was a source of enormous psychological trauma that may have consequences for the health of pregnant women and their fetuses. In this report, we describe the impact of extreme trauma on the birth outcomes of women highly exposed ...
Neumann Inga D - - 2005
The neuroendocrine consequences of repeated exposure of the pregnant mother to relevant stressors have been studied in the offspring, but not in the mothers. As these stress effects might depend on the genetically determined stress susceptibility of the dams, here, we investigated the effects of daily exposure to psycho-social stressors ...
van Brummen H Jorien - - 2006
A prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of pregnancy and the first delivery on the defecatory symptoms and to identify associated factors. Included were 487 nulliparous pregnant women who completed four questionnaires. Flatus and fecal incontinence, constipation, and painful defecation are already present in early pregnancy and ...
Obel C - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to stressful life events was associated with changes in levels of circulating cortisol during pregnancy in a population of 603 pregnant women. The participating pregnant women filled out a questionnaire and collected a morning and evening sample of saliva in ...
Knackstedt Maike Katharina - - 2005
No memories exist on one's time before birth. However, this does not imply that the developing fetus is not susceptible to external impulses. On the contrary, the fetus is extremely vulnerable e.g. to environmental challenges, and a wealth of data reveals that conditions in utero affect the health of the ...
Koubovec D - - 2005
Data from animal studies show that maternal stress is associated with disturbances in pregnancy outcomes and offspring development and behavior, possibly as a result of permanent structural and functional changes termed "early-life programming." There is growing interest in whether similar relationships are present in humans. Here we review recent significant ...
Kalra S - - 2005
In light of recent negative media attention to antidepressant use during late pregnancy, several of my patients have either discontinued or are considering discontinuing their antidepressant medications. How can I best counsel these patients on taking antidepressants during late pregnancy? Antidepressant use during the third trimester has been associated occasionally ...
Cumberbatch Carla-Joy - - 2005
The psychological adjustments of "normal" pregnancy are complex, and those of high-risk pregnancy are even more pronounced and severe. A pregnancy may be determined to be at high risk because of obstetric factors in previous pregnancies or the present one; more general medical factors, such as preexisting or emergent disease ...
Wüst Stefan - - 2005
Fetal programming of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was proposed as one mechanism underlying the link between prenatal stress, adverse birth outcomes (particularly low birth weight) and an enhanced vulnerability for several diseases later in life. In recent studies, birth weight was significantly related to basal cortisol levels as well as ...
Coussons-Read Mary E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Recent data suggest that prenatal stress negatively affects pregnancy and infant outcome. Existing studies implicate dysregulation of the immune and endocrine systems in stress-related increases in premature labor and poor birth outcome, but no published studies have directly addressed the relationships among these variables during pregnancy. We sought to ...
Börjesson K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) and elucidate the importance of PDs, sociodemographics and health-related factors for the development of psychiatric symptoms in primiparous women. METHOD: 625 primiparous women were assessed during pregnancy, three and 18 months following delivery. The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the modified SCID-screen questionnaire ...
Berle J Ø JØ Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, - - 2005
The presence of mental disorder during pregnancy could affect the offspring. To examine the effects of anxiety disorder and depression in pregnant women on neonatal outcomes, and to compare neonatal outcomes between offspring of attendees and non-attendees in a general population-based health survey. Pregnant women (n = 680) were identified ...
Jarvis Susan S Animal Behaviour and Welfare, Sustainable Livestock Systems, Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh, UK. - - 2006
This study provides evidence in the pig that stress experienced during gestation has long-lasting effects on offspring daughters, including their maternal behaviour. Thirty-six primiparous sows were divided into control and two groups that were stressed (by social mixing) during either the second (Mix 2) or third (Mix 3) trimester of ...
Rubertsson C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Depression and other psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and postpartum is an important health problem, especially if the symptoms are recurrent or sustained. METHODS: All Swedish speaking women attending their first antenatal care visit during three predestined weeks were invited to participate. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Edinburgh Postnatal ...
Petersen Rodney W - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Molar pregnancy is an unusual complication of pregnancy whereby abnormal placental tissue proliferates in the absence of a fetus. There is usually a protracted follow-up period where pregnancy is contra-indicated. Whilst the medical outcomes of the disease have been well explored, limited data have evaluated the impact on psychological ...
Stefanski Volker - - 2005
The consequences of pregnancy and social stress on blood immune cells and on plasma corticosterone concentrations were assessed in Long Evans rats. Normal pregnancy in control females was characterized by a progressive increase in corticosterone concentration and increasing numbers of granulocytes. In contrast, CD4 T, CD8 T, and B cell ...
Wadhwa Pathik D - - 2005
Individual differences in psychoneuroendocrine function play an important role in health and disease. Developmental models postulate that these individual differences evolve through a progressive series of dynamic time-, place- and context-dependent interactions between genes and environments in fetal, infant and adult life. The effects of early experience have longer-lasting and ...
Turner A I - - 2005
It is generally agreed that stress can impair reproduction. Furthermore, it is often thought that cortisol, which is secreted during stress as a result of activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis, is associated with this stress-induced impairment of reproduction. It has been hypothesized that reproduction in females is particularly susceptible ...
Van den Bergh Bea R H - - 2005
A direct link between antenatal maternal mood and fetal behaviour, as observed by ultrasound from 27 to 28 weeks of gestation onwards, is well established. Moreover, 14 independent prospective studies have shown a link between antenatal maternal anxiety/stress and cognitive, behavioural, and emotional problems in the child. This link generally ...
de Weerth Carolina - - 2005
Prenatal maternal stress has been found to have long-lasting effects on the behavioral and physiological development of the offspring. These programming effects on the fetus would be physiologically mediated through heightened and/or abnormal activity of the maternal sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system (SAM) and especially of her hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA-axis). The abnormalities in ...
Rai Sushma - - 2005
PURPOSE: To evaluate the agreement of intraocular pressure (IOP) readings obtained with the Proview phosphene tonometer and those obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry as well as the effect of regular use of the Proview on patients' anxiety about their glaucoma. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five consecutive patients with glaucoma, 35 designated ...
Bethus Ingrid - - 2005
The present experiment was designed to examine the effects of prenatal stress and gender in latent inhibition. Prenatal stress has been proposed as a risk factor both for depression and for schizophrenia, and both of these syndromes are associated with alterations in the functional state of the dopamine system. There ...
Hemels Michiel E H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Due to the high prevalence of depression in women of childbearing age and coupled with the fact that approximately 50% of the pregnancies are unplanned, there is a high chance that these women have been exposed to antidepressants in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To determine baseline rates of spontaneous abortions ...
Tu Mai Thanh - - 2005
Reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stress during the last week of pregnancy and lactation have been consistently observed in rat studies. Several contributing factors have been proposed for this phenomenon in lactation, including the suckling stimulus from the pups, hormones (oxytocin and prolactin) and opioids, a decrease in the ability ...
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