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Results 501 - 550 of 1106
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Ostlund E E Department of Women and Child Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2001
We have studied whether plasma fibronectin is related to a rise in blood pressure during normal pregnancy, whether it can be used for the early prediction of preeclampsia, and whether plasma fibronectin is a marker for organ involvement in preeclampsia. Two hundred twenty-eight healthy pregnant nullipara women were examined prospectively ...
Winkler K - - 2000
Pregnancy is accompanied by changes in the maternal lipoprotein metabolism that may serve to satisfy the nutritional demands of the fetus. In this study lipoprotein metabolism was investigated in 23 women during normal pregnancy in the first, second, and third trimesters and in 15 healthy nonpregnant women with regular menstrual ...
Lo Y M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Molecular analysis of plasma DNA during human pregnancy has led to the discovery that maternal plasma contains both fetal and maternal DNA. This valuable source of fetal DNA opens up new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. APPROACH: Published data from the last 3 years demonstrating the feasibility and utility ...
Napoli C - - 2000
Maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy is associated with a marked increase in aortic fatty streak formation in human fetuses and faster progression of atherosclerosis during normocholesterolemic childhood. However, the mechanisms responsible are unknown, and the contribution of genetic differences is difficult to assess in humans. The goal of this study was ...
Roseboom T J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Small body size at birth has been reported to be associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in humans, and animal experiments have shown that undernutrition during pregnancy permanently alters cholesterol metabolism in the offspring. There is no direct evidence in humans that maternal malnutrition during pregnancy affects the lipid ...
Zhong X Y - - 2000
Abnormal amniotic fluid volume can be associated with increased maternal risk as well as perinatal morbidity and mortality. Polyhydramnios is often indicative of fetal, placental or maternal problems. In a large proportion of patients the aetiology of the disorder is unclear. Here we report on a case in which numerous ...
Morishima H O - - 2000
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine the disposition of bupivacaine and its metabolites in the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments, using multiple sampling time points in chronically prepared awake pregnant rats. METHODS: All animals received an intravenous infusion of bupivacaine at a rate of 0.33 mg. kg-1. min-1 over ...
Patterson T A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The overall goal of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy during pregnancy is to maintain maternal health and reduce the probability of vertical transmission during gestation and delivery, while keeping toxicity risks low. Azidothymidine (AZT) is currently recommended for pregnant women infected with HIV; however, many pregnant women are unable ...
Bancroft K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a study of a less intensive form of management for impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy is feasible and whether women would accept randomisation. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled study. SETTING: A large district general hospital and a large teaching hospital in West Yorkshire. SAMPLE: Seventy women with ...
Gatford K L - - 2000
Circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations increase in pregnancy and administration of GH during early-mid pregnancy increases fetal growth in well-fed pigs. To determine whether increased maternal GH could promote fetal growth when feed availability is restricted, fifteen cross-bred primiparous sows (gilts) were fed at approximately 30% of ad libitum intake, ...
Shiell A W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine how diets of women in pregnancy influence the glucose-insulin metabolism of their offspring in adult life. DESIGN: A follow up study of men and women born during 1948-1954 whose mothers had taken part in a survey of diet in late pregnancy. SETTING: Aberdeen, Scotland. POPULATION: One hundred ...
Hahn S - - 2000
Fetal DNA has recently been detected in maternal plasma by PCR and has shown promise for the prenatal determination of fetal sex or rhesus D. In order to obtain the maximum amount of information from this fetal genetic material, we have devised a sensitive multiplex PCR method to permit simultaneous ...
Heimrath J - - 2000
One of the reason of PIH problems may be due to the presence of increased circulating levels of cell adhesion molecules, markers of endothelial damage and leukocyte activation. The objective was to evaluate the plasma levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule in maternal peripheral blood of patients with PIH ...
Takahashi Y - - 2000
Microangiopathic thrombosis, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), seem to occur with certain stresses, including pregnancy. This report documents the clinical outcome with or without plasma therapy and dismal outcomes of two cases with postpartum microangiopathic thrombosis. One carried a pregnancy to successful cesarean delivery and suffered ...
Wang J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To measure the blood apolipoprotein A-1 and apolipoprotein B in the fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and in pregnancy with evidence of vascular disease in the fetal umbilical placental circulation defined in the antenatal period by Doppler ultrasound study. DESIGN: An observational study to compare fetal plasma apolipoprotein levels ...
Kumar S - - 2000
The objective of this study was to examine the interrelationships between maternal and fetal plasma drug protein binding, umbilical blood flow (Q(um)), gestational age (GA), and maternal-fetal diphenhydramine (DPHM) clearances in chronically instrumented pregnant sheep. Maternal and fetal DPHM placental (CL(mf) and CL(fm), respectively) and nonplacental (CL(mo) and CL(fo), respectively) ...
Kirchheiner J - - 2000
Our report focuses on the case of a pregnant women with recurrent, paranoid schizophrenia. The patient was treated with Olanzapine from the 18th gestational week until delivery and during breast-feeding. No adverse events occurred during pregnancy, and the outcome was healthy. After delivery, the plasma level of olanzapine in the ...
Sanderson T C - - 2000
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is released from the human placenta in high concentrations towards the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, but relative concentrations of other cleavage products derived from the CRH prohormone are unknown. We have measured CRH and N-terminal (1-100) and (1-127) proCRH peptides in maternal plasma in ...
Ahmed I - - 2000
This study examined the different molecular forms of CRH in normal and preeclampsia maternal plasma and protease-blocked placental extracts using antibodies to different regions of the CRH precursor, pro-CRH. In the absence of protease inhibitors, chromatographed normal placental extracts contained four peaks of immunoreactivity corresponding to unprocessed approximately 19-kDa pro-CRH, ...
Pribush A - - 2000
Erythrocyte aggregation was determined by a novel method enabling the quantification of the aggregation process in whole blood. Blood samples of 47 healthy pregnant women and 39 preeclamptic patients were examined. Subjects within each group were matched for the gestational age. It was found that RBC aggregation increases with the ...
Tamura T - - 2000
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus in the literature as to whether maternal zinc nutriture is associated with pregnancy outcome or fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the associations between plasma zinc concentrations during pregnancy and various measures of pregnancy outcome and neonatal conditions at birth. DESIGN: We measured zinc concentrations in ...
Murphy C R - - 2000
This review discusses the diversity of placentation mechanisms and examines the extensive alterations that occur in the plasma membrane of uterine epithelial cells during early pregnancy in many species. Ultrastructural, biochemical and morphological studies reveal that similar membrane alterations occur in many species, despite the diversity in the type of ...
Olusi S O - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology. Recently, endothelial damage has been implicated in its cause. The objective of this study was to determine the role of interleukins in the etiology of preeclampsia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-two primigravidas with preeclampsia but without any clinical evidence of infection and ...
Forsum E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The nutritional situation of the fetus and pregnant woman is important for human health, but knowledge of how nutrition affects maternal metabolism and physiology during pregnancy is limited. Such knowledge is important, for example in body composition studies, when information about lean tissue composition is needed. Muscle, a main ...
Fiet J - - 2000
Plasma 21-deoxycortisol (21DF) is an excellent marker of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Currently, it is the only marker able to detect heterozygous carriers with 21-hydroxylase deficiency after ACTH stimulation. We have already developed radioimmunoassays for 21DF using first tritiated, then 125I-21DF which had a ten-fold higher sensitivity. However, because the lifespan of ...
Raffin-Sanson M L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The human placenta normally expresses the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. The pattern and secretory kinetics of POMC and/or POMC-derived peptides by the placenta during gestation is still debated. We recently demonstrated that full length POMC was a normal product of the human placenta. The aim of our study was to ...
Al M D - - 2000
During pregnancy, essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) play important roles as precursors of prostaglandins and as structural elements of cell membranes. Throughout gestation, accretion of maternal, placental, and fetal tissue occurs and consequently the LCPUFA requirements of pregnant women and their developing fetuses are high. This is particularly true ...
Jenkins C - - 2000
The aim of this study was to examine the role of antioxidants within the normal menstrual cycle, in healthy pregnancy, and in women suffering first-trimester miscarriage. The antioxidants chosen comprised of two from peripheral blood-plasma thiol and ceruloplasmin-and two extracellular parameters-superoxide dismustase (SOD) and red cell lysate thiol. We found ...
Gülmezoglu A M - - 2000
Failure of the normal expansion of plasma volume in the mother is associated with impaired fetal growth and pre-eclampsia. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of plasma volume expansion for suspected impaired fetal growth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the ...
Casele H L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered enoxaparin sodium during and after pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Daily subcutaneous injections of enoxaparin sodium (40 mg) were administered to 13 pregnant women. On 3 separate occasions, once early in pregnancy (12-15 weeks), once late in pregnancy (30-33 weeks), and once ...
Zafirovska K G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between endothelin-1 (ET-1), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP), plasma-renin activity (PRA) and 24-h urinary excretion of aldosterone (U-Ald) in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma hANP (pg/ml), ET-1 (pg/ml), PRA (ng/ml per h) and U-Ald (microg/24 h) were measured and 24 h ambulatory mean ...
Qureshi I A - - 1999
During pregnancy, changes in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol have been described, but in the existing literature these effects remain controversial because of inconsistencies. Moreover, the degree of change varies from study to study. Therefore, the present study completely investigated changes in ...
González F - - 1999
Different RIA systems available for measuring the concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in dairy goats were compared in order to evaluate their accuracy in early pregnancy diagnosis. Plasma concentrations of PAGs were determined by 3 heterologous RIA systems with a bovine PAG standard and tracer in combination with antisera anti-ovine ...
Smith R - - 1999
In humans, the length of gestation and the onset of parturition have been linked to the exponential production of placental CRH and a late gestational decline in maternal plasma CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). CRH has been shown to have direct effects on the myometrium and on the fetal adrenal, where it ...
Conrad K P - - 1999
We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis increases during normal human pregnancy and decreases in preeclampsia. The major metabolites of NO, nitrate and nitrite (NO(x)), were measured in both the plasma and 24-h urine of women subjected to a reduced NO(x) diet. In this way, the plasma and ...
Norris L A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Altered production of nitric oxide by the vascular endothelium may influence the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to measure circulating levels of nitric oxide metabolites (nitrites) in the uteroplacental, fetoplacental, and peripheral circulation of preeclamptic pregnancies compared with normotensive controls. METHODS: Fifteen women with preeclampsia ...
Iwahashi K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Human seminal plasma allergy is an anaphylaxis caused by immediate hypersensitivity to human seminal plasma. The utilization of a condom is usually recommended as the primary means of preventing an allergic reaction. Infertility resulting from condom use, however, is an undesirable complication in many cases. Here we report on ...
Sangild P T - - 1999
The ability of the fetal pig intestine to absorb large proteins was investigated in utero. Six pregnant sows were anesthetized (Na pentobarbital) at 99-102 d of gestation (term = 115 +/- 2 d), and a catheter was inserted into the esophagus of two to three fetuses per sow. Via these ...
Sandman C A - - 1999
Elevated concentrations of maternal corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) during the 2nd and early 3rd trimester of human pregnancy are associated with spontaneous preterm birth, but the effects of maternal CRH on the fetus are unknown. Maternal plasma was collected for analysis of CRH concentration, m = 156.24 +/- 130.91 pg/ml, from ...
Lawrence J B - - 1999
Proteolytic cleavage of the six known insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) is a powerful means of rapid structure and function modification of these important growth-regulatory proteins. Intact IGFBP-4 is a potent inhibitor of IGF action in vitro, and cleavage of IGFBP-4 has been shown to abolish its ability to ...
Qureshi I A - - 1999
Excessive accumulation of one or more of the major lipids in plasma can produce a marked increase in the risk of coronary heart diseases and other vascular complications. During and after pregnancy, changes in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol have been described, ...
Sattar N - - 1999
Increased activation of both blood coagulation and fibrinolysis occurs during normal pregnancy. The responsible mechanisms are unclear, but may include increases in both oestradiol and blood lipids. We, therefore, studied the associations between fasting serum oestradiol, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride, and Factor VII activity, PAI activity, t-PA antigen, fibrin D-dimer, ...
Lewis R M - - 1999
In the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) fetal growth and metabolism are abnormal. It has been speculated that maternal hypertension may be the cause of these abnormalities. Captopril treatment, which reduces maternal blood pressure, during pregnancy and lactation, is reported to have a beneficial effect postnatally, normalizing the blood pressure of ...
Montoudis A - - 1999
Pregnancy is associated with a hypercholesterolemic and a hyperlipidemic state. The totality of the essential fatty acids and 50% of the lipids needed by the fetus are transferred by the placenta from the maternal circulation. The hypothesis of this study is that an augmentation of the maternal plasmatic cholesterol is ...
Zusterzeel P L - - 1999
We studied plasma GSTA1-1 concentrations in preconceptionally recruited epileptic women who received antiepileptic drugs (n = 99) and a control group of healthy women (n = 106). Mean plasma GSTA1-1 concentrations in the control group did not show significant changes preconceptionally and throughout pregnancy. Six weeks postpartum, however, a significant ...
Okumura K K - - 1999
It is reported that plasma platelet-activating-factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is elevated in patients with essential hypertension. In this study, plasma PAF-AH activity was measured during pregnancy and after delivery to examine the relationship between plasma PAF-AH activity and the development of transient hypertension (TH) during pregnancy. Moreover, in order to examine the ...
Sattar N - - 1999
Previous studies have shown that in preeclampsia, plasma lipids climb substantially above levels seen in normal pregnancies. Such lipid changes may play a role in the endothelial damage characteristic of preeclampsia. Pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), without preeclampsia, have similar placental pathology to preeclampsia despite the absence of ...
Hata T - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether maternal nitric oxide synthesis in pregnancies with preeclampsia is different from that in normal normotensive pregnancies. MATERIALS: Maternal circulating combined nitrate and nitrite levels or nitrite level were compared between 10 normotensive nonpregnant women, 30 normotensive pregnant women (10 first-trimester, 10 second-trimester, and 10 third-trimester pregnancies), ...
Lo Y M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The ability to determine fetal RhD Status noninvasively is useful in the treatment of RhD-sensitized pregnant women whose partners are heterozygous for the RhD gene. The recent demonstration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma raises the possibility that fetal RhD genotyping may be possible with the use of maternal ...
Gallaher B W - - 1998
It has been demonstrated in several animal models that undernutrition in utero has significant long lasting effects on subsequent fetal and postnatal development. To address the hypothesis that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may mediate such effects, our study examined whether a period of periconceptual maternal undernutrition could have a ...
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