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Results 401 - 450 of 1255
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Taylor Diana - - 2011
Despite the frequency of and significant costs related to unintended pregnancy, it has received less attention in research and prevention guidelines development than other important health threats. This lack of attention has resulted in a system-wide failure to provide care to reproductive aged women who are at risk of unintended ...
Norris Shane A SA MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. - - 2011
In low-resource settings there is a need for effective interventions targeting women before and during pregnancy to improve their health outcomes and provide the best start to life for their infants. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview for designing, implementing, and evaluating such interventions. Drawing upon ...
Pettit Franziska - - 2011
The focus of this article is to review and challenge some current concepts surrounding the diagnosis and management of pre-eclampsia as well as considering where our management might head in the future. Pre-eclampsia is a syndrome defined by the new onset of hypertension in the 2nd half of pregnancy that ...
Stewart Donna E - - 2011
Evaluation and treatment (with psychotherapy, antidepressant therapy, or both) of women with depression during pregnancy are described. Data on potential benefits and risks to mothers and offspring are reviewed; overall, they suggest that absolute risks are small.
Than Nandor Gabor - - 2012
Galectins are multifunctional regulators of fundamental cellular processes. They are also involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, and play a functional role in immune-endocrine crosstalk. Some galectins have attracted attention in the reproductive sciences because they are highly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, their functional significance in eutherian pregnancies ...
Makol Ashima - - 2011
Pregnancy can pose a challenge to the physician caring for women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While many women with RA experience a spontaneous improvement in joint pain and inflammation during pregnancy, in others it remains active and they continue to need ongoing therapy. It is important to tailor the treatment ...
Fylstra Donald L - - 2011
Ectopic pregnancy is a very common diagnosis (2% of pregnancies), and implantation location varies. Although 97% of ectopics are implanted within the fallopian tube, associated with commonly recognized risk factors, ectopic implantation can occur in other pelvic and abdominal locations that may not have such predisposing risk factors. After an ...
Zaima Ahmed - - 2011
Fibroid in pregnancy is common in clinical obstetric practice. The topic is becoming more relevant in contemporary obstetrics due to the demographic shift towards delayed childbearing, the rising rate of obesity, and many pregnancies occurring after the treatment of fibroids. However, there are conflicting reports in the literature on many ...
Beard M P - - 2011
During pregnancy, the mother undergoes changes to sustain and enable normal growth and development of the fetus. Common physiological changes include linea nigra, fibroepithelial polyps, striae, spider angioma, palmar erythema and pruritis gravidarum. However, there are some changes that are purely pathological, and these are termed the pregnancy-specific dermatoses (PSDs). ...
Munoz-Suano Alba A Medical Research Council, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United - - 2012
Pregnancy frequently has a beneficial effect on the autoimmune disease Rheumatoid Arthritis, ranging from improvement in clinical symptoms to complete remission. Despite decades of study, a mechanistic explanation remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that an analogous pregnancy-induced remission can be observed in a mouse model of arthritis. We demonstrate that ...
Chavatte-Palmer P - - 2011
Since the first success in cloning sheep, the production of viable animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has developed significantly. Cattle are by far the most successfully cloned species but, despite this, the technique is still associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure and accompanying placental and fetal ...
McLintock Claire - - 2011
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy and the postpartum is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality; yet, there are few robust data from clinical trials to inform an approach to diagnosis and management. Failure to investigate symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism (PE) is a consistent finding in maternal death ...
Andersson Ida-Maria - - 2011
Scand J Caring Sci; 2011 How women who have experienced one or more miscarriages manage their feelings and emotions when they become pregnant again - a qualitative interview study Aim:  The aim of this study was to investigate how women who have experienced one or more miscarriages manage their feelings ...
Workman Joanna L - - 2011
Pregnancy and motherhood constitute periods of tremendous hormonal variation that orchestrate parturition, lactation, maternal care, maternal aggression, and recognition of offspring, among other functions. Cognitive processing also varies during pregnancy and motherhood and may serve an adaptive function in preparation for parturition and rearing. Additionally, maternal experience may have enduring ...
Silver Robert M - - 2011
Subsequent pregnancies are emotionally traumatic for families with previous stillbirths. Such pregnancies have a 2- to 10-fold increase in the risk for stillbirth as well as an increased probability of other adverse obstetrical outcomes. These medical risks as well as anxiety on the part of families and care providers contribute ...
Sobaleva S - - 2011
Obesity contributes to worse outcomes following treatment using assisted reproductive technology (ART), including lower pregnancy and live birth rates and a higher miscarriage rate. This could be mediated through a detrimental effect on oocyte and embryo quality. Oocyte donation studies have suggested that endometrial changes also play a significant role. ...
Phillips Frankie - - 2011
Routine visits to primary care settings give health professionals a valuable opportunity to discuss sexual health with women, but may also be a first step in discussing a pregnancy; planned or otherwise. Since nutrition plays a vital role in any healthy pregnancy, it's a golden opportunity to give advice about ...
Saunders Natasha Ruth - - 2011
Assisted reproductive technologies have been widely used over the past 30 years, and 1% to 4% of births worldwide are products of these technologies. However, adverse health outcomes related to assisted reproductive technologies, including cerebral palsy, have been reported. We extracted and reviewed all relevant studies cited by Medline from ...
Walfisch A - - 2011
Preconception counseling (PCC) is aimed at identifying and modifying risks related to maternal health and pregnancy outcome, prior to pregnancy. The main components of PCC include: maternal risk assessment, maternal education, and initiation of interventions. It is an opportunity to provide essential information regarding pregnancy, possible risks and available management ...
Zargari Maryam - - 2011
In previous years, identification of fetal cells in maternal blood circulation has caused a new revolution in non-invasive method of prenatal diagnosis. Low number of fetal cells in maternal blood and long-term survival after pregnancy limited the use of fetal cells in diagnostic and clinical applications. With the discovery of ...
Lachat Maryanne F - - 2011
This article reviews the current research on periodontal disease and treatment and its potential impact on maternal and newborn outcomes and provides recommendations for care management and prevention. These guidelines will be helpful for nurse professionals who are in a unique position to counsel pregnant women to improve the oral ...
Landau J L - - 2011
Pregnancy is characterized by multiple physiologic changes. During the entire gestational period, both mother and infant are vulnerable to a variety of external and internal factors. Maternal disease, use of certain medications, drugs, alcohol, smoking, and radiation exposure can have devastating effects on the fetus. Pregnancy-related complications in women with ...
Kadasne Anjali R - - 2011
Pregnant women are at an increased risk of a number of conditions that are associated with bleeding. Conditions such as ectopic pregnancy, retained products of conception, placenta previa, abruptio placentae, morbid adhesion of the placenta, and postpartum hemorrhage can be associated with massive bleeding that endangers the maternal life and ...
Hall Michael E ME Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, - - 2011
During pregnancy, there are a number of important changes to cardiovascular function which are necessary for progression of a successful pregnancy. Additionally, preexisting cardiovascular conditions can be exacerbated by the adaptations that occur during gestation. These can present serious therapeutic challenges in the management of the cardiology patient during pregnancy. ...
Kalra Seema S Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, IGESI Hospital, Jhilmil, Delhi, - - 2011
Arrhythmias in pregnancy are common and may cause concern for the well-being of both mother and fetus. Generally, no previous history of heart disease is elicited and majority of the arrhythmias are benign. Bradycardia is commonly seen following subarachnoid block for cesarean section. However, the incidence of subsequent heart block ...
Benson Michael D - - 2012
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Current thinking about pathophysiology has shifted away from embolism toward a maternal immune response to the fetus. Two immunologic mechanisms have been studied to date. Anaphylaxis appears to be doubtful while the ...
Sepúlveda Soledad J - - 2011
The aim of this study was to review the experience and outcomes of assisted reproduction cycles with embryos grown up to day 5 of development, comparing different parameters according to the ages of the patients. We retrospectively studied 1,874 assisted reproduction cycles where embryo culture was extended up to the ...
Middeldorp Saskia - - 2011
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) complicates approximately 1 to 2 of 1,000 pregnancies, with pulmonary embolism (PE) being a leading cause of maternal mortality and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) an important cause of maternal morbidity, also on the long term. However, a strong evidence base for the management of pregnancy-related VTE is ...
Mandala Maurizio - - 2011
Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire maternal uterine vasculature. The main focus of this MiniReview is to provide information on upstream (pre-placental) maternal uterine vascular remodeling that facilitates gestational increases in uterine blood flow. ...
Veljkovic Vujaklija Danijela - - 2012
During mammal pregnancy, a sensitive balance between hormones, cytokines, humoral factors, and local cellular interactions must be established. Cytotoxic cells infiltrating the decidua are heavily equipped with cytolytic molecules, in particular perforin and granulysin. Granulysin is especially abundant in NK cells which are able to spontaneously secrete high quantities of ...
Díaz-García C - - 2011
The aim of this review is to summarize the state-of the-art methods that are used in clinical organ transplantation today, as well as the major findings of recent experimental UTx research regarding organ donation/retrieval, ischemic preservation, surgical techniques for anastomosis, immunosuppression and pregnancy. Absolute uterine factor infertility lacks treatment despite ...
Galbally Megan - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing awareness within obstetric services of the importance of treating maternal mental illness due to the association with increased maternal mortality, morbidity and poorer child outcomes. However, there is limited research on the risks and benefits of pharmacological treatment of women in pregnancy. This review ...
Lenders Jwm - - 2011
A phaeochromocytoma in a pregnant patient is one of the most threatening medical conditions for both mother, fetus and physician. Although extraordinarily rare with a frequency of 0.002% of all pregnancies, this tumour is notorious for its devastating consequences. As in non-pregnant patients, signs and symptoms are quite variable but ...
Ziecik Aj - - 2011
Establishment of pregnancy in pigs requires continuous function of corpora lutea and endometrial preparation for embryo implantation. Progesterone regulates expression of many proteins necessary for endometrial remodelling and embryo-maternal communications. Attaining the uterine receptivity involves progesterone priming and loss of progesterone receptors in the uterine epithelium before days 10-12 after ...
Kellow Zina S - - 2011
The placenta and umbilical cord play important roles in the development of the growing fetus. The placenta can be clearly identified by the 14th gestational week and should be evaluated during each obstetric ultrasound examination.This article reviews the formation of the placenta and its expected sonographic appearance throughout gestation along ...
Aziz Saima - - 2011
Morbidly adherent placenta is a grave complication of pregnancy referring to a pathological adherence of placenta to uterine wall with a reported incidence of 1:2500 deliveries. Women with previous two caesarean sections and placenta previa are at greater risk and also those with previous damage to uterine wall. This commentary ...
Yarrington Christina D - - 2011
Dietary iodine intake is required for thyroid hormone production. The impact of pregnancy on iodine metabolism and homeostasis and the impact of maternal dietary iodine status and supplementation on maternal thyroid volume and function are reviewed. The effects of iodine status on fetal and neonatal neurodevelopment during pregnancy and lactation ...
Klein Joshua P - - 2011
Pregnancy can be associated with a wide variety of neurologic problems, resulting from alterations in physiology of the pregnant state. The pregnant patient presenting with neurologic symptoms poses both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The physician will often require some form of neuroimaging as part of their ongoing evaluation. This review ...
Basraon Sanmaan - - 2011
Both mood disorders and thyroid dysfunction are common in pregnancy and the postpartum period and have significant short and long-term implications to the mothers and their infants. Thyroid hormones have a multitude of effects on the central nervous system, undergo significant changes during pregnancy, and it is now widely recognized ...
Holt Kelsey - - 2011
U.S. servicewomen's ability to plan pregnancies is of concern to the military in terms of troop readiness and cost and is an important public health issue. Contraception access and use are crucial, particularly given the high prevalence of sexual assault in the military and the benefits of menstrual suppression for ...
Markert Udo R - - 2011
Cytokines are involved in almost all processes during the menstrual cycle, the fertilization period and pregnancy. They are expressed in numerous reproduction-related body fluids and tissues. Disorders of cytokine expression patterns may cause pregnancy pathologies. Therefore, cytokines have the potential as new biomarkers in different body compartments for a variety ...
Iuliano Sherry - - 2011
Successful pregnancy and delivery is dependent upon normal function of the pituitary gland. Benign tumors of the pituitary are relatively common and may interfere with normal pregnancy in a variety of ways. Symptoms related to pituitary tumors can include headache, fatigue, and visual loss. Some may present dramatically with pituitary ...
Miller Emily S - - 2011
Overt thyroid disease is a well-established risk factor for adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. Whether or not subclinical thyroid dysfunction carries these same risks has been a matter of controversy. There is inconsistent evidence on the association of subclinical thyroid dysfunction (ie, subclinical hypothyroidism or isolated hypothyroxinemia) with a woman's ...
Kadir Rezan A - - 2011
Pregnancy is associated with physiological and pathological changes in platelet numbers and function, which can be of clinical concern because of risks for maternal and fetal or neonatal bleeding. Thrombocytopenia in pregnancy is frequently encountered and may be due to increased platelet turnover and plasma dilution, immune-mediated mechanisms, or a ...
Baud D - - 2011
Clin Microbiol Infect 2011; 17: 1312-1322 ABSTRACT: This review considers the role of intracellular bacteria in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as miscarriage, stillbirths, and preterm labour. The cause of miscarriage, stillbirth and preterm labour often remains unexplained. Intracellular bacteria that grow either poorly or not at all on media used ...
Borg-Stein Joanne P - - 2011
The benefits of rigorous physical activity have long been proclaimed by the medical community. However, consensus regarding exercise duration and intensity in pregnancy has been more difficult to achieve. Conservative exercise guidelines for pregnant women were issued broadly in the 1980s due to limited evidence regarding safety. More recent evidence ...
Roeder Hilary A - - 2011
Valvular heart disease is common in pregnancy. Maternal physiology changes significantly during gestation with substantial increases in cardiac output and blood volume; this can cause unmasking or worsening of cardiac disease. Acquired valvular lesions most frequently arise from rheumatic fever, especially in patients who have emigrated from developing nations. Congenital ...
Bajwa Sukhwinder Kaur - - 2011
Management of prolactinoma in pregnancy is a big challenge for the treating obstetrician as prolactin levels are normally raised in pregnancy and this creates a possibility of missing the diagnosis of prolactinoma. Women with micro adenomas and intrasellar macro adenomas do not require serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or visual ...
Pawluski Jodi L - - 2011
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications are the most common antidepressant treatment used during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Up to 10% of pregnant women are prescribed SSRIs. Serotonin plays an integral part in neurodevelopment, and questions have been raised about the placental transfer of SSRIs and the effects of ...
Davis Ann J - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The stubborn epidemic of teen pregnancy remains a major public health problem in the United States. This review discusses the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in United States teens as a potential strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. Traditionally, the IUD was not thought of as an appropriate ...
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