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Results 451 - 500 of 1351
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Ostensen Monika - - 2011
During pregnancy, the fetus represents a natural allograft that is not normally rejected. While the maternal immune system retains the ability to respond to foreign antigens, tolerance mechanisms are up-regulated to protect the fetus from immunologic attacks by the mother. The profound immunologic adaptations during and after pregnancy do influence ...
Goonewardene Malik - - 2011
Anaemia in pregnancy, defined as a haemoglobin concentration (Hb) < 110 g/L, affects more than 56 million women globally, two thirds of them being from Asia. Multiple factors lead to anaemia in pregnancy, nutritional iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) being the commonest. Underlying inflammatory conditions, physiological haemodilution and several factors affecting Hb ...
Sapountzi-Krepia Despina - - 2011
Sapountzi-Krepia D, Tsaloglidou A, Psychogiou M, Lazaridou C, Vehvilainen Julkunen K. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2011; 17: 583-590 Mothers' experiences of pregnancy, labour and childbirth: A qualitative study in Northern Greece This qualitative study aims at describing the mothers' most positive and negative experiences during pregnancy, labour and childbirth, ...
- - 2011
Chlamydia trachomatis infection seems to have little impact on the outcome of pregnancy. If transmitted to the newborn during delivery, this pathogen can cause conjunctivitis or, occasionally, neonatal pneumonia. Amoxicillin (a 7-day course) is the antibiotic of choice for pregnant women with C. trachomatis cervicitis or urethritis. There is no ...
Gutierrez Peter S - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Cornual pregnancies are a rare form of ectopic pregnancy that can be misdiagnosed as an intrauterine pregnancy via ultrasound. We report a 16-year-old adolescent girl with a cornual ectopic pregnancy and subsequent rupture in the emergency department.
Hasler J F - - 2011
Annually, more than 400000 in vivo-recovered bovine embryos are officially reported by members of the Canadian and American Embryo Transfer Associations. Between 65 and 70% of these embryos are cryopreserved and more than 95% are frozen in ethylene glycol (EG). Statistics on factors affecting embryo freezing are difficult to obtain ...
Solomon Caren G - - 2011
Hypertension is a common complication of pregnancy. Preeclampsia, in particular, is associated with substantial risk to both the mother and the fetus. Several risk factors have been recognized to predict risk for preeclampsia. However, at present no biomarkers have sufficient discriminatory ability to be useful in clinical practice, and no ...
Karaca Zuleyha - - 2011
The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs with altered anatomy and physiology during pregnancy. Acromegaly is the second most common pituitary adenoma seen in relation to gestation after prolactinomas. Acromegaly should be treated before conception to prevent potential tumor growth in patients who desire fertility. Medical therapy ...
Kobayashi Hideyuki - - 2012
Male infertility problems can occur when sperms are limited in number or function. In this paper, we describe the clinical evaluation of male infertility. A detailed history, physical examination, and basic semen analysis are required. In addition, ultrasound, karyotyping, and hormonal studies are needed to determine specific causes of infertility. ...
Burns G - - 2011
Embryo transfer is a tool that enables progressive cattle producers to reach their reproductive, genetic and financial goals. The complexity of pregnancy establishment increases with any reproductive technology, especially with one with many variables. This clinical analysis employed a statistical model capable of explaining factors that affect pregnancy probability resulting ...
Le Gloan Laurianne - - 2011
Advances in the care of patients with a univentricular heart have enabled the majority to survive well into adulthood. Consequently, an increasing number of women with Fontan palliation are contemplating pregnancy. This review summarizes physiologic modifications related to pregnancy in the setting of single-ventricle physiology, discusses potential maternal cardiovascular concerns ...
Negro Roberto - - 2011
Thyroid diseases are common in women of childbearing age and it is well known that untreated thyroid disturbances result in an increased rate of adverse events, particularly miscarriage, preterm birth and gestational hypertension. Furthermore, thyroid autoimmunity per se seems to be associated with complications such as miscarriage and preterm delivery. ...
Kizer Nora T - - 2011
The key pregnancy-related physiological maternal and fetal changes that occur and the modifications to standard surgical approaches that can impact surgical outcomes are important to recognize. Surgery during pregnancy can be safe and effective. Laparoscopy has become an acceptable alternative to the standard laparotomy and should be considered when surgeons ...
Gilbert Robert O - - 2011
Endometritis is common in post partum dairy cows and is associated with impaired reproductive performance reflected in reduced first service conception, reduced hazard of pregnancy over the breeding period and increased risk of reproductive culling. The observed effects may be mediated directly by bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin), ...
Horowitz Neil S - - 2011
The identification of a pelvic mass during pregnancy can often change a time of happiness and exciting anticipation to 1 of anxiety and fearful unknown. Although diagnosed more commonly with the implementation of ultrasonography as part of routine prenatal care, discovering an adnexal mass during pregnancy remains a rare event. ...
Torres C A A - - 2011
Embryo transfer (ET) in cattle speeds up genetic gains, but its use is limited by cost-benefit analysis. In addition other techniques can be developed, such as sexing and bipartition of embryos. An alternative to improve the economic viability of ET in cattle would be to bipartition embryos in order to ...
Cooper Mark S - - 2011
Pregnancy and lactation are associated with profound changes in calcium physiology. This can make interpretation of biochemical tests difficult during these times. Diseases of bone and calcium metabolism are uncommon during pregnancy but can be severe when they occur. These conditions are complicated by the need for dual consideration for ...
Goyal Vinita - - 2012
The number of women of childbearing age who are active-duty service members or veterans of the US military is increasing. These women may seek reproductive health care at medical facilities operated by the military, in the civilian sector, or through the Department of Veterans Affairs. This article reviews the current ...
Kominiarek Michelle A - - 2011
The number of bariatric surgeries performed in the United States has increased exponentially. Given that most patients are female and of reproductive age, it is important for clinicians who manage women's health issues to be aware of the surgery, its long-term goals, and the potential effect on future pregnancies. Most ...
Leung Angela M - - 2011
Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, ...
Natekar Aniket - - 2011
Quite a few of my female patients with rheumatic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease are using azathioprine. They are afraid to take a "cancer drug" during pregnancy. What is known about the risks? An increasing body of evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests that azathioprine is safe for the fetus ...
Banerjee Prajna - - 2011
The primary embryonic signal in primates is chorionic gonadotropin (CG, designated hCG in humans), that is classically associated with corpus luteum rescue and progesterone production. However, research over the past decade has revealed the presence of the hCG receptor in a variety of extragonadal tissues. Additionally, discoveries of the multiple ...
Sriskandan S S National Centre for Infection Prevention and Management, Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK. - - 2011
Despite global efforts to reduce maternal mortality, maternal deaths from bacterial sepsis have actually risen in the UK. The group A streptococcus, also known as Streptococcus pyogenes, is the leading cause of infection-related death in pregnancy and the puerperium. Many clinicians remain unaware of the risks posed to this particular ...
Stanger James - - 2011
Occasionally, clinical scenarios arise where embryos, previously cryostored and warmed, need to be recryopreserved. The outcome of 30 such transfer cycles from 25 women where embryos were recryopreserved is detailed. In 16 cases, embryos were initially cryopreserved by slow freezing and in 14 cases by vitrification. The cryopreservation stages were ...
van der Sijpt Erica - - 2011
In the East Province of Cameroon, respectable womanhood has long been intrinsically related to ethics of production and reproduction: women attain social standing through productive work in the fields and through the reproduction of children - preferably within a marital setting. Yet, in the face of current alternative 'horizons of ...
Clifton V L - - 2011
Pregnancy induces a number of alterations to maternal physiology to accommodate the increased demands made by the developing fetus and placenta. These alterations appear at least in part to be driven by products derived from the feto-placental unit, including microchimeric cells, as well as placental exosomes and microparticles, inducing changes ...
Egbor Michael - - 2011
The management of red-cell alloimmunisation has been revolutionised by the widespread use of anti-D administration for mothers who are rhesus negative, and the availability of non-invasive, ultrasound-based techniques for reliable detection of moderate-to-severe fetal anaemia. With reduced frequency of alloimmunisation to the D antigen, antibodies to c and Kell antigen ...
Clark Shannon M - - 2012
NVP occurs in 50-90% of pregnancies, making it a common medical condition in pregnancy. Women present differently with any combination of signs and symptoms. It is appropriate to take the pregnancy-related versus nonpregnancy-related approach when determining the cause of nausea and vomiting but other causes should be considered. The most ...
Memtsa Maria - - 2012
Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is a relative newcomer to the mainstream treatment modalities available for fibroid-related problems. The efficacy of UAE is indisputable and has been shown to be comparable to hysterectomy in the short term in large-scale trials. Moreover, compared with hysterectomy, UAE is less invasive, carries a superior ...
Dahl Mette - - 2012
BACKGROUND The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecules, HLA-E, -F and -G, are expressed at the materno-fetal interface. Because of the apparent immunoregulatory functions of these proteins, they may be involved in successful acceptance of the semi-allogenic fetus during pregnancy. METHODS The literature on polymorphisms of the three genes, ...
Buhimschi Irina A - - 2012
Proteomics, a relatively young science, originally emerged as a complement to genomics research. By definition, the goal of proteomics is to provide a snapshot of all the proteins within an organism, tissue or biological sample at a given moment. Proteomics has the ability to single out one or more proteins ...
Gauster M - - 2011
By its location between maternal and fetal bloodstreams the human placenta not only handles the materno-fetal transport of nutrients and gases, but may also be exposed to intrauterine conditions adversely affecting placental and fetal development. Such adverse conditions exist in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and have been ...
Leung Tak Yeung - - 2011
Thalassaemia is the most common monogenetic disease worldwide. Antenatal screening is effective and simple, and accurate genetic prenatal diagnosis can be achieved in early gestation. Less invasive methods are feasible with ultrasound fetal assessment for alpha-thalassaemia, analysis of circulating fetal nucleic acid in maternal plasma, and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Women ...
Pieper P G - - 2011
Women with heart disease are at risk of cardiac complications during pregnancy and delivery. Risk assessment should be performed in these women, and the management of pregnancy and delivery should be planned accordingly. Depending on the risk, women should be cared for in specialised centres, regional centres or a combination ...
Gunel T - - 2011
Preeclampsia continues to be a mortal disease of pregnant women throughout the world. Recently, geneticists, allied with obstetricians, have opened new frontiers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are members of a class of small, noncoding RNA molecules. They are critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. We extracted circulating miRNA from maternal plasma and ...
Borrow Amanda P - - 2011
The hormone oxytocin (OT) is released both centrally and peripherally during and after mating. Although research in humans suggests a central role in sexuality, the most reliable findings to date involve peripheral activation. This review will discuss these results and will particularly focus on understanding the most recent findings from ...
De Giovanni Nadia - - 2011
It is clear that cocaine and cocaine metabolites are present in the placenta and may harm the fetus. The results of the experimental manipulation of cocaine exposure are not reported in the literature in a consistent manner. We conducted a systematic review of selected articles that demonstrated the analytical detection ...
Bryant Allison - - 2011
To explore attitudes about birth spacing among low-income, recently postpartum women, using qualitative methods, seven focus groups among postpartum women were conducted, probing knowledge and attitudes related to desired birth spacing. Transcripts of the discussions were reviewed and coded for salient themes using a Grounded Theory approach. In regards to ...
Simmonds Katherine - - 2011
Unintended pregnancy is a common reproductive health event. Professional responsibilities for nurses providing care to women with unintended pregnancies include appropriate assessment, options counseling, provision of or referral for desired services, care coordination, and prevention efforts aimed at decreasing future unintended pregnancies. Nurses' awareness of available services and their involvement ...
McIntyre H David - - 2011
The International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups' (IADPSG) criteria for the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy are described and application of these in differing healthcare contexts on a worldwide basis is reported. Existing local protocols and known epidemiologic and clinical data regarding the detection and ...
Africa Charlene W J - - 2011
Background: Preterm birth significantly impacts on neonatal morbidity and mortality and is apparently increasing world-wide. Several studies have attempted to define a causative role for periodontal disease in adverse pregnancy outcomes but few have focused on the microbiology of periodontal disease in relation to these outcomes. Results: The evidence for ...
Saravelos Sotirios H - - 2011
Preconception counseling plays a key role in preparing for a pregnancy. In couples with a history of recurrent early pregnancy loss, counseling is of particular importance because women are invariably more distressed and require reassurance that everything possible is being done to avoid future pregnancy losses. Because their subsequent pregnancies ...
Tamay A G - - 2011
An advanced state of nausea and vomiting, which are common symptoms of early pregnancy, is known as hyperemesis gravidarum and may result in dehydration, ketonuria, catabolism and require hospitalisation. Aetiological factors include increased hCG and steroids, multiple pregnancy and vitamin deficiency. Differential diagnosis of nausea and vomiting should be made ...
Viteri Fernando E - - 2011
The iron endowment at birth depends, in large part, on the newborn's birth weight and gestational age. These are determined by many factors, some of which are maternal characteristics, including the following: maternal iron stores at her own birth and during her own early life, maternal growth and development, maternal ...
Wilby Kyle J - - 2011
Malaria is a serious parasitic infection, which affects millions of people worldwide. As pregnancy has been shown to alter the pharmacokinetics of many medications, the efficacy and safety of antimalarial drug regimens may be compromised in pregnant women. The objective of this review is to systematically review published literature on ...
Irvine Marie-Hélène - - 2011
Some of my pregnant patients wish to travel to malaria-endemic regions. Are there medications that can be used safely during pregnancy for malaria prophylaxis? Pregnant women should avoid travel to malaria-endemic areas if possible. However, if travel cannot be avoided, measures to prevent mosquito bites, along with an effective chemoprophylaxis ...
Taylor Diana - - 2011
Despite the frequency of and significant costs related to unintended pregnancy, it has received less attention in research and prevention guidelines development than other important health threats. This lack of attention has resulted in a system-wide failure to provide care to reproductive aged women who are at risk of unintended ...
Norris Shane A SA MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. - - 2011
In low-resource settings there is a need for effective interventions targeting women before and during pregnancy to improve their health outcomes and provide the best start to life for their infants. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview for designing, implementing, and evaluating such interventions. Drawing upon ...
Pettit Franziska - - 2011
The focus of this article is to review and challenge some current concepts surrounding the diagnosis and management of pre-eclampsia as well as considering where our management might head in the future. Pre-eclampsia is a syndrome defined by the new onset of hypertension in the 2nd half of pregnancy that ...
Stewart Donna E - - 2011
Evaluation and treatment (with psychotherapy, antidepressant therapy, or both) of women with depression during pregnancy are described. Data on potential benefits and risks to mothers and offspring are reviewed; overall, they suggest that absolute risks are small.
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