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Results 451 - 500 of 1371
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SÅ‚awek Anna - - 2012
 Success of pregnancy depends on many factors. Three phenomena inducing immune tolerance against semi-allogeneic conceptus may play a crucial role in the pre-implantation period of pregnancy: influence of sex hormones in sex cycle, presence of oocyte or embryo and the presence of semen in the female reproductive tract. On the ...
Hayashi Masako - - 2012
Aim: Intrapartum management guidelines based on fetal heart rate classification comprising a 5-tier system (Levels 1-5) was proposed by the Perinatology Committee of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG). This study aimed to assess the reproducibility and clinical usefulness of this classification. Methods: For assessing intraobserver and interobserver ...
Lewandowska Eliza - - 2012
Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy may cause foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Our experiments of ethanol-treated female rats were based on the FAS model in humans; therefore, the results obtained may help explain the clinical mechanism of the disease development. The ultrastructural examination of the cerebellar cortex of ten-day-old rat pups ...
Ranganath Prajnya - - 2012
Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare malformation syndrome consisting of a specific combination of ventral midline defects, uncommonly found to be associated with other anomalies. We report a case of complete Pentalogy of Cantrell with craniorachischisis diagnosed in-utero at 19 weeks of gestation through antenatal ultrasonography. Fetal autopsy following termination ...
Sugimura Satoshi - - 2012
Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces ...
Pennington Kathleen A - - 2012
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and excess protein excretion in the urine. It is an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease is almost exclusive to humans and delivery of the pregnancy continues to be the only effective treatment. The disorder is ...
Mori Rintaro - - 2012
Postpartum haemorrhage is among the biggest contributor to maternal mortality worldwide. Prevention of this condition includes routine use of uterotonic in the third stage of labour, which has been recommended throughout the world. Use of umbilical route to deliver this uterotonic after delivery of the baby has been proposed. Therapeutic ...
Piao Hai-Lan - - 2012
Our previous study has demonstrated that cyclosporine A (CsA) administration in vivo induces Th2 bias at the maternal-fetal interface, leading to improved murine pregnancy outcomes. Here, we investigated how CsA treatment in vitro induced Th2 bias at the human maternal-fetal interface in early pregnancy. The cell co-culture in vitro in ...
Sugiyama Chisato - - 2012
Proglucagon, which is encoded by the glucagon gene (Gcg), is the precursor of several peptide hormones, including glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Whereas glucagon stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion to lower blood glucose and also supports ß-cell proliferation and protection from apoptotic stimuli. Pregnancy is ...
Rollins Mark - - 2012
Physiologic changes of pregnancy uniquely influence anesthesia for Cesarean delivery. Included is a review of current obstetrical anesthesia considerations for Cesarean delivery and recent changes improving maternal care and outcome. A literature review was conducted using Pubmed and the Cochrane database. Increased use of neuraxial techniques instead of general anesthesia ...
Blanks A M AM The Division of Reproductive Health, Clinical Science Research Laboratory, Warwick Medical School, Coventry CV2 2DX, United - - 2012
Progesterone is central to many reproductive processes and is critical in regulating the menstrual cycle and maintaining pregnancy. We discuss here similarities in the molecular mechanisms that regulate the process of decidualisation in endometrial stromal cells and uterine quiescence in myometrial smooth muscle cells. We discuss recent evidence that the ...
Rijken Marcus J MJ Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sot, Tak, Thailand. - - 2012
Most pregnant women at risk of for infection with Plasmodium vivax live in the Asia-Pacific region. However, malaria in pregnancy is not recognised as a priority by many governments, policy makers, and donors in this region. Robust data for the true burden of malaria throughout pregnancy are scarce. Nevertheless, when ...
Caballero Teresa - - 2011
BACKGROUND: There are a limited number of publications on the management of gynecologic/obstetric events in female patients with hereditary angioedema caused by C1 inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH). OBJECTIVE: We sought to elaborate guidelines for optimizing the management of gynecologic/obstetric events in female patients with HAE-C1-INH. METHODS: A roundtable discussion took place ...
Anderson U D - - 2011
Worldwide the prevalence of preeclampsia (PE) ranges from 3 to 8% of pregnancies. 8.5 million cases are reported yearly, but this is probably an underestimate due to the lack of proper diagnosis. PE is the most common cause of fetal and maternal death and yet no specific treatment is available. ...
Finer Sarah S Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK. - - 2012
The role of vitamin D in maintaining a healthy pregnancy has seen emerging interest among clinicians and researchers in recent years. The functions of this hormone are widespread and complex, and during pregnancy and breastfeeding it facilitates crucial transfer of calcium from mother to child for skeletal development. Aside from ...
Tournaye Herman - - 2012
For years, the management and treatment of male factor infertility has been 'experience' and not 'evidence' based. Although not evidence-based, current clinical practice involves extensive use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Where specific treatments are not indicated or have failed, ART have become popular adjunctive treatments for alleviating male factor ...
Cole Laurence A - - 2011
Abstract This review examines human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or pregnancy tests from multiple perspectives. It first investigates the molecule hCG and shows that the term represents five independent molecules differing in carbohydrate and meric structure that share a common amino acid sequence. The review goes on to show that multiple ...
Robbins Jennifer R JR Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, - - 2012
Placental infections are major causes of maternal and fetal disease. This review introduces a new paradigm for placental infections based on current knowledge of placental defenses and how this barrier can be breached. Transmission of pathogens from mother to fetus can occur at two sites of direct contact between maternal ...
Amann R P - - 2011
Breeding of dairy cattle is undergoing a paradigm shift to genomic selection of potential sires and dams. This undoubtedly will affect how bulls are managed in an artificial insemination (AI) center and impact methods to estimate their 'fertility'. Our goal is to help decision-makers understand the contents of a straw ...
Gatto Mariele - - 2011
Primary systemic vasculitis are uncommon diseases that may affect young women in their childbearing age. To date, patients affected with primary systemic vasculitis are often diagnosed and treated earlier than in the past, due to improvement in diagnostic skills and a larger availability of effective drugs. The progressive achievement of ...
Ostensen Monika - - 2011
During pregnancy, the fetus represents a natural allograft that is not normally rejected. While the maternal immune system retains the ability to respond to foreign antigens, tolerance mechanisms are up-regulated to protect the fetus from immunologic attacks by the mother. The profound immunologic adaptations during and after pregnancy do influence ...
Goonewardene Malik - - 2011
Anaemia in pregnancy, defined as a haemoglobin concentration (Hb) < 110 g/L, affects more than 56 million women globally, two thirds of them being from Asia. Multiple factors lead to anaemia in pregnancy, nutritional iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) being the commonest. Underlying inflammatory conditions, physiological haemodilution and several factors affecting Hb ...
Sapountzi-Krepia Despina - - 2011
Sapountzi-Krepia D, Tsaloglidou A, Psychogiou M, Lazaridou C, Vehvilainen Julkunen K. International Journal of Nursing Practice 2011; 17: 583-590 Mothers' experiences of pregnancy, labour and childbirth: A qualitative study in Northern Greece This qualitative study aims at describing the mothers' most positive and negative experiences during pregnancy, labour and childbirth, ...
- - 2011
Chlamydia trachomatis infection seems to have little impact on the outcome of pregnancy. If transmitted to the newborn during delivery, this pathogen can cause conjunctivitis or, occasionally, neonatal pneumonia. Amoxicillin (a 7-day course) is the antibiotic of choice for pregnant women with C. trachomatis cervicitis or urethritis. There is no ...
Gutierrez Peter S - - 2011
ABSTRACT: Cornual pregnancies are a rare form of ectopic pregnancy that can be misdiagnosed as an intrauterine pregnancy via ultrasound. We report a 16-year-old adolescent girl with a cornual ectopic pregnancy and subsequent rupture in the emergency department.
Hasler J F - - 2011
Annually, more than 400000 in vivo-recovered bovine embryos are officially reported by members of the Canadian and American Embryo Transfer Associations. Between 65 and 70% of these embryos are cryopreserved and more than 95% are frozen in ethylene glycol (EG). Statistics on factors affecting embryo freezing are difficult to obtain ...
Solomon Caren G - - 2011
Hypertension is a common complication of pregnancy. Preeclampsia, in particular, is associated with substantial risk to both the mother and the fetus. Several risk factors have been recognized to predict risk for preeclampsia. However, at present no biomarkers have sufficient discriminatory ability to be useful in clinical practice, and no ...
Karaca Zuleyha - - 2011
The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs with altered anatomy and physiology during pregnancy. Acromegaly is the second most common pituitary adenoma seen in relation to gestation after prolactinomas. Acromegaly should be treated before conception to prevent potential tumor growth in patients who desire fertility. Medical therapy ...
Kobayashi Hideyuki - - 2012
Male infertility problems can occur when sperms are limited in number or function. In this paper, we describe the clinical evaluation of male infertility. A detailed history, physical examination, and basic semen analysis are required. In addition, ultrasound, karyotyping, and hormonal studies are needed to determine specific causes of infertility. ...
Burns G - - 2011
Embryo transfer is a tool that enables progressive cattle producers to reach their reproductive, genetic and financial goals. The complexity of pregnancy establishment increases with any reproductive technology, especially with one with many variables. This clinical analysis employed a statistical model capable of explaining factors that affect pregnancy probability resulting ...
Le Gloan Laurianne - - 2011
Advances in the care of patients with a univentricular heart have enabled the majority to survive well into adulthood. Consequently, an increasing number of women with Fontan palliation are contemplating pregnancy. This review summarizes physiologic modifications related to pregnancy in the setting of single-ventricle physiology, discusses potential maternal cardiovascular concerns ...
Negro Roberto - - 2011
Thyroid diseases are common in women of childbearing age and it is well known that untreated thyroid disturbances result in an increased rate of adverse events, particularly miscarriage, preterm birth and gestational hypertension. Furthermore, thyroid autoimmunity per se seems to be associated with complications such as miscarriage and preterm delivery. ...
Kizer Nora T - - 2011
The key pregnancy-related physiological maternal and fetal changes that occur and the modifications to standard surgical approaches that can impact surgical outcomes are important to recognize. Surgery during pregnancy can be safe and effective. Laparoscopy has become an acceptable alternative to the standard laparotomy and should be considered when surgeons ...
Gilbert Robert O - - 2011
Endometritis is common in post partum dairy cows and is associated with impaired reproductive performance reflected in reduced first service conception, reduced hazard of pregnancy over the breeding period and increased risk of reproductive culling. The observed effects may be mediated directly by bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin), ...
Horowitz Neil S - - 2011
The identification of a pelvic mass during pregnancy can often change a time of happiness and exciting anticipation to 1 of anxiety and fearful unknown. Although diagnosed more commonly with the implementation of ultrasonography as part of routine prenatal care, discovering an adnexal mass during pregnancy remains a rare event. ...
Torres C A A - - 2011
Embryo transfer (ET) in cattle speeds up genetic gains, but its use is limited by cost-benefit analysis. In addition other techniques can be developed, such as sexing and bipartition of embryos. An alternative to improve the economic viability of ET in cattle would be to bipartition embryos in order to ...
Cooper Mark S - - 2011
Pregnancy and lactation are associated with profound changes in calcium physiology. This can make interpretation of biochemical tests difficult during these times. Diseases of bone and calcium metabolism are uncommon during pregnancy but can be severe when they occur. These conditions are complicated by the need for dual consideration for ...
Goyal Vinita - - 2012
The number of women of childbearing age who are active-duty service members or veterans of the US military is increasing. These women may seek reproductive health care at medical facilities operated by the military, in the civilian sector, or through the Department of Veterans Affairs. This article reviews the current ...
Kominiarek Michelle A - - 2011
The number of bariatric surgeries performed in the United States has increased exponentially. Given that most patients are female and of reproductive age, it is important for clinicians who manage women's health issues to be aware of the surgery, its long-term goals, and the potential effect on future pregnancies. Most ...
Natekar Aniket - - 2011
Quite a few of my female patients with rheumatic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease are using azathioprine. They are afraid to take a "cancer drug" during pregnancy. What is known about the risks? An increasing body of evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests that azathioprine is safe for the fetus ...
Banerjee Prajna - - 2011
The primary embryonic signal in primates is chorionic gonadotropin (CG, designated hCG in humans), that is classically associated with corpus luteum rescue and progesterone production. However, research over the past decade has revealed the presence of the hCG receptor in a variety of extragonadal tissues. Additionally, discoveries of the multiple ...
Sriskandan S S National Centre for Infection Prevention and Management, Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK. - - 2011
Despite global efforts to reduce maternal mortality, maternal deaths from bacterial sepsis have actually risen in the UK. The group A streptococcus, also known as Streptococcus pyogenes, is the leading cause of infection-related death in pregnancy and the puerperium. Many clinicians remain unaware of the risks posed to this particular ...
Leung Angela M AM Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Boston University School of Medicine, MA, - - 2011
Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, ...
Stanger James - - 2011
Occasionally, clinical scenarios arise where embryos, previously cryostored and warmed, need to be recryopreserved. The outcome of 30 such transfer cycles from 25 women where embryos were recryopreserved is detailed. In 16 cases, embryos were initially cryopreserved by slow freezing and in 14 cases by vitrification. The cryopreservation stages were ...
van der Sijpt Erica - - 2011
In the East Province of Cameroon, respectable womanhood has long been intrinsically related to ethics of production and reproduction: women attain social standing through productive work in the fields and through the reproduction of children - preferably within a marital setting. Yet, in the face of current alternative 'horizons of ...
Clifton V L - - 2011
Pregnancy induces a number of alterations to maternal physiology to accommodate the increased demands made by the developing fetus and placenta. These alterations appear at least in part to be driven by products derived from the feto-placental unit, including microchimeric cells, as well as placental exosomes and microparticles, inducing changes ...
Egbor Michael - - 2011
The management of red-cell alloimmunisation has been revolutionised by the widespread use of anti-D administration for mothers who are rhesus negative, and the availability of non-invasive, ultrasound-based techniques for reliable detection of moderate-to-severe fetal anaemia. With reduced frequency of alloimmunisation to the D antigen, antibodies to c and Kell antigen ...
Clark Shannon M - - 2012
NVP occurs in 50-90% of pregnancies, making it a common medical condition in pregnancy. Women present differently with any combination of signs and symptoms. It is appropriate to take the pregnancy-related versus nonpregnancy-related approach when determining the cause of nausea and vomiting but other causes should be considered. The most ...
Memtsa Maria - - 2012
Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) is a relative newcomer to the mainstream treatment modalities available for fibroid-related problems. The efficacy of UAE is indisputable and has been shown to be comparable to hysterectomy in the short term in large-scale trials. Moreover, compared with hysterectomy, UAE is less invasive, carries a superior ...
Dahl Mette - - 2012
BACKGROUND The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecules, HLA-E, -F and -G, are expressed at the materno-fetal interface. Because of the apparent immunoregulatory functions of these proteins, they may be involved in successful acceptance of the semi-allogenic fetus during pregnancy. METHODS The literature on polymorphisms of the three genes, ...
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