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Results 451 - 500 of 1257
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Pawluski Jodi L - - 2011
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications are the most common antidepressant treatment used during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Up to 10% of pregnant women are prescribed SSRIs. Serotonin plays an integral part in neurodevelopment, and questions have been raised about the placental transfer of SSRIs and the effects of ...
Davis Ann J - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The stubborn epidemic of teen pregnancy remains a major public health problem in the United States. This review discusses the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in United States teens as a potential strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. Traditionally, the IUD was not thought of as an appropriate ...
Faúndes Anibal - - 2011
The combination of 200mg of mifepristone followed by 25μg to 800μg (depending on gestational age) of misoprostol has been shown to be effective for the termination of pregnancy throughout gestation. The dose of misoprostol should be reduced as gestational age increases. Mifepristone is not indicated for induction of labor with ...
Said Tamer M - - 2011
Current routine semen preparation techniques do not inclusively target all intrinsic sperm characteristics that may impact the fertilization potential. In order to address these characteristics, several methods have been recently developed and applied to sperm selection. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature describing these advanced ...
Specker Bonny L - - 2012
During pregnancy, maternal and fetal Ca demands are met through increased intestinal Ca absorption. Increased Ca absorption may be more dependent on oestrogen's up-regulation of Ca transport genes than on vitamin D status. Numerous studies, however, have found that severe vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy leads to ...
Vatti Rani Reddy - - 2011
Asthma is probably the most common serious medical disorder that may complicate pregnancy. A third of pregnant women with asthma will experience worsening of their symptoms, a third will see improvement of their symptoms and a third will see no change. The primary goal is to maintain optimal control of ...
Denison Fiona C FC MRC/University of Edinburgh Centre for Reproductive Health, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK. - - 2011
The global pandemic of maternal obesity presents a major challenge for healthcare providers, and has significant short- and long-term implications for both maternal and fetal health. Currently, the evidence-base underpinning many of the interventions either currently in use or recommended to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women is limited. The ...
Taft Angela J - - 2011
Emergency contraception and medical abortion are options, but education about them is vital.
Xu Hongmei - - 2011
INTRODUCTION:: Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are extremely rare tumors and are divided into 2 types: adult (AGCT) and juvenile (JGCT). The JGCTs represent only 5% of all cases. The incidence of ovarian carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy varies about 0.0179 to 0.11 per 1000 pregnancies. CASE:: A 24-year-old woman at 12 ...
Stotland Nada L - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Induced abortion is widely believed - by the public, healthcare professionals, and policy-makers - to lead to adverse mental health sequelae. This belief is false, as it applies both to adult women and adolescents. However, it has been used to rationalize, and been quoted in, restrictive and ...
Dickens Bernard M - - 2011
Recent research in the USA has shown the advantages for children's welfare of open fetal surgery over postnatal treatment for myelomeningocele. However, a balance must be struck between complications of premature birth risked by prenatal surgery and the long-term advantages for affected children's health, including mobility and neurologic capacity. Risks ...
Kaplan Peter W - - 2011
Treating coma in the mother also means treating the fetus. Pregnant women are subject to causes of coma that may also arise from the effects of pregnancy on organ systems: vascular, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, endocrine, and others. With coma, no investigations are categorically excluded when the mother's health and life ...
McPherson Tess - - 2011
Autoimmune blistering disease (AIBD) in pregnancy raises several complex management issues associated with underlying pathogenesis and treatment options. This article considers the effects of the disease as well as its treatment for both mother and fetus. All AIBDs can occur in pregnancy but are relatively rare. Pemphigoid gestationis is a ...
Ortega C - - 2011
Complete asthenozoospermia, i.e. 100% immotile spermatozoa in the ejaculate, is reported at a frequency of 1 of 5000 men. Its diagnosis implies a poor fertility prognosis even with ICSI. It is extremely important to distinguish between two different groups of patients with complete asthenozoospermia, i.e. virtual or absolute asthenozoospermia. With ...
Scott James R - - 2011
Once a woman is delivered by cesarean, her options in a subsequent pregnancy are either a planned trial of labor or a planned elective repeat cesarean. There are no randomized trials comparing these two choices to definitively guide patients and physicians. The primary cesarean rate is increasing and vaginal birth ...
Moslem B - - 2011
Frequency-related parameters derived from the uterine electromyogram (EMG) signals are widely used in many pregnancy monitoring and preterm delivery prediction studies. Although they are classical parameters, they are well suited for quantifying uterine EMG signals and have many advantages over amplitude-related parameters. The present work aims to compare various frequency-related ...
Robinson Gail Erlick - - 2011
Women who lose desired pregnancies by miscarriage, stillbirth, genetic termination, or unsuccessful in vitro fertilization are at risk of suffering from grief, anxiety, guilt, and self-blame that may even present in subsequent pregnancies. A review of the literature reveals the dilemmas about effective means of helping women deal with these ...
Mishra M - - 2011
This is a retrospective analysis of vaginal breech delivery from January 2006 to December 2008 at a maternity hospital in New Delhi. The hospital has approximately 6,000 deliveries per year, and serves a low income population. Most patients are unbooked, have had no antenatal care and attend in an advanced ...
Ekambaram Padmini - - 2011
Preeclampsia, a hypertensive pregnancy-specific disorder, has long been analyzed for its association with cellular stress. It still remains one of the most serious complications of pregnancy. It is a multi-system disorder that affects maternal vascular function and fetal growth. The physiopathology of preeclampsia is still unclear, but an imbalance between ...
Ambros-Rudolph Christina M - - 2011
The specific dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of pruritic skin diseases that have been recently reclassified and include pemphigoid (herpes) gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (syn. pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. They are associated with severe pruritus ...
Sie S D - - 2011
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are increasingly used during pregnancy and lactation, with 1.8-2.8% exposed pregnancies. Given the risks of untreated maternal depression for both mother and child, adequate treatment is essential. If pharmacological treatment with SSRIs is indicated, the fetal and neonatal effects of SSRIs have to be considered, ...
Roseboom Tessa J - - 2011
An increasing body of evidence suggests that poor nutrition at the very beginning of life - even before birth - leads to large and long term negative consequences for both mental and physical health. This paper reviews the evidence from studies on the Dutch famine, which investigated the effects of ...
Cheng Vicky - - 2011
To review the literature regarding the diagnosis and management of acromegaly during pregnancy. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE including hand-searching reference lists from original articles. The diagnosis of acromegaly during pregnancy is made difficult due to the physiologic changes in pituitary GH secretion and IGF-1 production resulting ...
Abou-Ghannam Gael - - 2011
Preterm labor (PTL) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among the available tocolytics, indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, has been in use since the 1970s. Recent studies have suggested that prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors are superior to other tocolytics in delaying delivery for 48 hours and 7 ...
Napoli Claudio - - 2011
Several studies indicate that impaired fetal growth, and in utero exposure to risk factors, especially maternal hypercholesterolemia, may be relevant for the early onset of cardiovascular damage. The exact molecular mechanisms of such fetal programming are still unclear. Epigenetics may represent one of the possible scientific explanations of the impact ...
Običan Sarah - - 2011
A consideration of teratogenic exposures includes not only an agent (chemical, radiation, biologic) but an exposure level and timing of exposure. There are criteria by which exposures are evaluated for a causal connection with an abnormal outcome. We here review some teratogenic exposures and discuss how they were initially described ...
Howard Tammie B - - 2011
Pregnant women should have access to medications that have been adequately studied for use to facilitate evidence-based risk-benefit discussions with their health care providers. Pregnant women experience acute medical emergencies, have existing conditions that require continued medical treatment or may develop pregnancy-induced conditions, making drug use during pregnancy unavoidable. Drug ...
Chambers Christina - - 2011
Teratology Information Services (TIS) located throughout the world have long played a key role in screening for potential new human teratogens. Using a basic prospective cohort study design, TIS recruit pregnant women from among callers to the Services who have had an exposure of interest and at the same time ...
Celik Ozlem - - 2011
Urea cycle enzymes deficiencies are rare metabolic disorders. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common type. The syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme OTC which catalyses the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrulline. It shows X-linked inheritance and typically remains asymptomatic until late infancy ...
Voulgaris E - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy complicated by cancer is relatively rare but, as women in western societies tend to delay childbearing to the third and fourth decade of life, this phenomenon is going to be encountered more often in the future. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of the literature and description of the different ...
Cloke Brianna - - 2011
Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) are not only required for male reproductive function, they are also essential for female reproductive physiology. Widely expressed in female reproductive tissues, AR levels fluctuate in a regulated manner in the cycling endometrium. Female androgen production depends on the adrenal glands and expression of ...
Greer I A - - 2011
Summary.  Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a major issue for women's health. Acquired and heritable thrombophilias are associated with RPL, this association could reflect a general prothrombotic phenotype rather than a specific thrombophilia. Antithrombotic intervention has therefore been assessed for RPL. Results: Two large randomised trials with untreated control groups showed ...
Prine Linda W - - 2011
The management of early pregnancy loss used to be based largely in the hospital setting, but it has shifted to the outpatient setting, allowing women to remain under the care of their family physician throughout the miscarriage process. Up to 15 percent of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage, and as ...
Lamarca Babbette - - 2011
Pre-eclampsia is defined as new onset hypertension with proteinuria during pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia is also characterized by endothelial cell activation and dysfunction and intrauterine growth restriction. Preeclamptic women display a chronic inflammatory response characterized by elevated inflammatory cytokines, circulating monocytes, neutrophils, and T and B lymphocytes secreting autoantibodies that activate the ...
Robertson Sarah A - - 2011
Citation Robertson SA, Chin PY, Glynn DJ, Thompson JG. Peri-Conceptual Cytokines - Setting the Trajectory for Embryo Implantation, Pregnancy and Beyond. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 66 (Suppl. 1): 2-10 Problem  The peri-conceptual environment influences the early embryo to impart long-term consequences for the fetus and neonate; however, the underlying ...
D'Ippolito Silvia - - 2011
Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are widely used during pregnancy since several randomized controlled trials have demonstrated their important role in preventing not only thromboembolic disease but also pregnancy complications associated with thrombophilia: recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), fetal growth restriction (FGR), preeclampsia (PE), abruptio placentae and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). ...
Koren Gideon - - 2011
With 80% of pregnant women suffering from some degree of "morning sickness," or nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), symptom management is a major challenge. A recent Cochrane systematic review of randomized controlled trials concluded that, to date, there is no strong evidence of effectiveness for practically any therapeutic agent ...
Jenkins Angela - - 2011
Denial of pregnancy is an important condition that is more common than expected, with an incidence at 20 weeks gestation of approximately 1 in 475. The proportion of cases persisting until delivery is about 1 in 2500, a rate similar to that of eclampsia. Denial of pregnancy poses adverse consequences ...
Tamrakar S R - - 2011
Gestational trophoblastic disease encompasses a diverse group of lesion. If molar changes in the placenta are known along with an alive fetus then the situation is difficult to manage. We present successfully managed case of partial degeneration of placenta in molar pregnancy with an alive fetus at second stage of ...
Giglio James A - - 2011
Pregnancy is a unique time in a woman's life, accompanied by a variety of physiologic, anatomic and hormonal changes that can affect how oral health care is provided. However, these patients are not medically compromised and should not be denied dental treatment simply because they are pregnant. This article discusses ...
Ernerudh Jan - - 2011
Citation Ernerudh J, Berg G, Mjösberg J. Regulatory T Helper Cells in Pregnancy and their Roles in Systemic versus Local Immune Tolerance. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011; 66 (Suppl. 1): 31-43 Problem  During pregnancy, the maternal immune system needs to adapt in order not to reject the semi-allogenic fetus. Method  ...
Townsend Nancy S - - 2011
Nurses are increasingly encountering pregnant/postpartum women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, of which preeclampsia is one of the most common. The Joint Commission published a Sentinel Event Alert in 2010 on prevention of maternal death. This report notes that one of the 5 leading causes of pregnancy-related mortality between 1991 ...
Njiru Haron - - 2011
Geophagy is a form of pica characterized by craving and eating of soil. The main materials ingested include anthill soils and soft stone. In this review, our objectives were to study the prevalence of geophagy in pregnancy (GiP), establish the risk factors for GiP, assess the effects of GiP on ...
McNeilly Alan S AS MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Inhibin and activins play major roles as paracrine and autocrine signaling molecules in reproduction and development where the main emphasis has been placed in developing potential diagnostic applications. While a role for activin assays in diagnostics has so far been unfounded, ELISAs specific for the biologically active inhibin A and ...
Coleman-Cowger Victoria H - - 2011
The association between smoking during pregnancy and adverse maternal/neonatal health outcomes is widely acknowledged, and recent health care reform has filled a much-needed gap by extending prenatal smoking cessation intervention coverage to all pregnant women on Medicaid. While more extensive coverage will improve quit rates during pregnancy, there continues to ...
Lombardo Francesco - - 2011
In recent years, many studies have focused on the effect of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants on the male eproductive system. Under physiological conditions, sperm produces small amounts of ROS, which are needed for fertilisation, acrosome reaction and capacitation. However, if an increased production of ROS is ...
Lozza V - - 2011
The presence of uterine myomas during pregnancy is considered a risk factor for gestation and delivery. In literature, myomas are related to spontaneous abortion, bleeding, PPROM, preterm delivery, placenta previa, placental abruption, fetal malpresentations, mechanical dystocia and high incidence of cesarean section. Laparotomic myomectomy done during pregnancy is indicated when ...
George Eric M - - 2011
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder characterized by proteinuria and widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. It remains one of the most common disorders in pregnancy and remains one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity. Recent research has revealed that placental insufficiency, resulting in hypoxia and ischemia, is a ...
Lappas M - - 2011
Normal human pregnancy is considered a state of enhanced oxidative stress. In pregnancy, it plays important roles in embryo development, implantation, placental development and function, foetal development, and labour. However, pathologic pregnancies including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are associated with a heightened level of oxidative stress, owing to both over ...
Beaulieu Dawn B - - 2011
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis affect women in their child-bearing years. Family planning has come to be a common discussion between the gastroenterologist and the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient. Disease control prior to desired conception and throughout pregnancy is the most important thing to keep in mind when caring ...
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